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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Electricity Restructuring Background: Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (PUHCA)

Electricity Restructuring Background: Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (PUHCA)

Date: January 7, 1999
Creator: Abel, Amy
Description: This report provides background information on PUHCA, including its history and impact. It also discusses how PUHCA reform fits into the current electric utility industry restructuring debate. This report will be updated as events warrant. For related information on electricity restructuring, see the CRS Electronic Briefing Book.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Electricity Restructuring Background: The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and the Energy Policy Act of 1992

Electricity Restructuring Background: The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and the Energy Policy Act of 1992

Date: May 4, 1998
Creator: Abel, Amy
Description: The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) increased competition in the electric generating sector by creating new entities that can generate and sell electricity at wholesale without being regulated as utilities under PUHCA. PURPA began to shift more regulatory responsibilities to the federal government, and EPACT continued that shift away from the states by creating new options for utilities and regulators to meet electricity demand.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legislative Prayer and School Prayer: The Constitutional Difference

Legislative Prayer and School Prayer: The Constitutional Difference

Date: October 26, 1994
Creator: Ackerman, David A.
Description: The Supreme Court's decisions holding government-sponsored prayer in the public schools to violate the First Amendment's establishment clause but prayer in legislative assemblies to be constitutional are sometimes lifted up as contradictory. This report summarizes the relevant decisions and identifies the distinctions the Court has drawn between the two situations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Education Vouchers: The Constitutional Standards

Education Vouchers: The Constitutional Standards

Date: June 11, 1998
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: The Court’s decisions permit a limited degree of public aid to be provided directly and a broader range of assistance indirectly. This report sketches the constitutional standards that apply to public aid to sectarian schools and especially to programs of indirect assistance such as education vouchers. It also summarizes recent significant state court decisions involving vouchers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: Selected Legal Questions About the Kyoto Protocol

Global Climate Change: Selected Legal Questions About the Kyoto Protocol

Date: April 10, 1998
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: This report discusses the Kyoto Protocol and whether the United States is now legally bound by the Protocol, the legal implications of signing it, whether it could be implemented as an executive agreement without submission to the Senate, and whether the Protocol could be used as the legal basis for regulation of emissions even prior to ratification.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Kosovo and NATO: Selected Issues of International Law

Kosovo and NATO: Selected Issues of International Law

Date: April 28, 1999
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Law of Church and State: The Proposed Religious Freedom Amendment, H.J. Res. 78

The Law of Church and State: The Proposed Religious Freedom Amendment, H.J. Res. 78

Date: April 20, 1998
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: This report summarizes legislative developments on the proposal and briefly analyzes its likely legal effect if added to the Constitution.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legislative Prayer and School Prayer: The Constitutional Difference

Legislative Prayer and School Prayer: The Constitutional Difference

Date: October 26, 1994
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Religious Freedom Restoration Act: Its Rise, Fall, and Current Status

The Religious Freedom Restoration Act: Its Rise, Fall, and Current Status

Date: June 25, 1998
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Religious Freedom Amendment: H.J. Res. 78, As Reported by the House Judiciary Committee

The Religious Freedom Amendment: H.J. Res. 78, As Reported by the House Judiciary Committee

Date: May 28, 1998
Creator: Ackerman, David M & Sayler, James
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Japan-U.S. Trade Negotiations: Will the Deadlock Be Broken?

Japan-U.S. Trade Negotiations: Will the Deadlock Be Broken?

Date: September 13, 1994
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Japan's Response to U.S. Trade Pressures: End of an Era?

Japan's Response to U.S. Trade Pressures: End of an Era?

Date: June 12, 1995
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Regional Free Trade Partners and U.S. Interests: What's Next?

Regional Free Trade Partners and U.S. Interests: What's Next?

Date: March 13, 1995
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Reauthorization Legislation: An Overview

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Reauthorization Legislation: An Overview

Date: June 4, 1997
Creator: Aleman, Steven R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
English as the Official Language of the United States: An Overview

English as the Official Language of the United States: An Overview

Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Aleman, Steven R; Bruno, Andorra & Dale, Charles V
Description: This report provides background on contemporary efforts to declare English the official language, a review of selected issues raised by official English proposals in Congress, and a summary of arguments that have been advanced in favor of and in opposition to such proposals.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Issues Related to the Provision of Housing and Utilities to Employees

Issues Related to the Provision of Housing and Utilities to Employees

Date: April 7, 1997
Creator: Alwin, Lawrence F.
Description: Over 3,200 state employees receive free, state-subsidized housing and utilities; live in state-owned properties for a nominal monthly rate; or receive monthly cash payments in lieu of in-kind housing benefits. Over 1,300 state employees receive some form of educational assistance from their employing agencies
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Secret Sessions of Congress: A Brief Historical Overview

Secret Sessions of Congress: A Brief Historical Overview

Date: April 6, 1999
Creator: Amer, Mildred L
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Appropriations for FY1999: An Overview

Appropriations for FY1999: An Overview

Date: April 28, 1999
Creator: Anderson, J. Michael
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to CRS reports that provide analytical perspectives on the 13 annual appropriations bills, and other related appropriation measures. It does not include a detailed explanation or description of the budget or appropriations processes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Line Item Vetoes in the 105th Congress, First Session: A Finding Aid

Line Item Vetoes in the 105th Congress, First Session: A Finding Aid

Date: February 13, 1998
Creator: Anderson, J. Michael & Jimenez, Rita
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Vocational Education: Legislation to Reauthorize the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act

Vocational Education: Legislation to Reauthorize the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act

Date: May 18, 1998
Creator: Apling, Richard N
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Biotechnology, Indigenous Peoples, and Intellectual Property Rights

Biotechnology, Indigenous Peoples, and Intellectual Property Rights

Date: April 16, 1993
Creator: Axt, Josephie R; Lee, Margaret Mikyung & Ackerman, David M
Description: This report examines intellectual property right in pharmaceuticals in a particular context, namely, medicinal products and processes derived from the biodiversity resources of areas inhabited by indigenous peoples. This report discusses the international law regarding intellectual property rights in traditional knowledge and the American laws regarding traditional knowledge.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Committee Markup Process in the House of Representatives

The Committee Markup Process in the House of Representatives

Date: November 1, 1999
Creator: Bach, Stanley
Description: This report discusses aspects of the process by which House committees mark up and report legislation. Among the subjects discussed are: selecting the text to be marked up, offering and debating amendments, and making motions to conclude debates during markups. The report also discusses relevant rules and practices concerning motions, quorums, votes, points of order, and parliamentary inquiries.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Conference Committee and Related Procedures: An Introduction

Conference Committee and Related Procedures: An Introduction

Date: July 29, 1996
Creator: Bach, Stanley
Description: Conference committees generally are free to conduct their negotiations as they choose, but they are to address only the matters on which the House and Senate have disagreed. Moreover, they are to propose settlements that represent compromises between the positions of the two houses. When they have completed their work, they submit a conference report and joint explanatory statement, and the House and Senate vote on accepting the report without amendments. Sometimes conference reports are accompanied by amendments that remain in disagreement. Only after the two houses have reached complete agreement on all provisions of a bill can it be sent to the President for his approval or veto.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
House Rules Governing Committee Markup Procedures

House Rules Governing Committee Markup Procedures

Date: January 27, 1999
Creator: Bach, Stanley
Description: This report provides general guidance to committees for conducting meetings to mark up legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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