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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2005
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Cybercrime: The Council of Europe Convention

Cybercrime: The Council of Europe Convention

Date: December 1, 2005
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Description: This report discusses the Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime of November 2001, which includes forty-two countries and the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Constitutionality of Applying the FCC's Indecency Restriction to Cable Television

Constitutionality of Applying the FCC's Indecency Restriction to Cable Television

Date: December 1, 2005
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: Various federal officials have spoken in favor of extending the Federal Communication Commission’s indecency restriction, which currently applies to broadcast television and radio, to cable and satellite television. This report examines whether such an extension would violate the First Amendment’s guarantee of freedom of speech.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Trade in Services: The Doha Development Agenda Negotiations and U.S. Goals

Trade in Services: The Doha Development Agenda Negotiations and U.S. Goals

Date: September 12, 2005
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: This report is designed to assist Congress to understand and monitor progress of the negotiations and the major issues that the negotiators are addressing. The report provides a brief background section on the significance of services to the U.S. economy. It then explains briefly the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the structure and agenda of the services negotiations in the DDA round, including U.S. objectives in the negotiations. The report concludes with a status report on the negotiations and an examination of potential results.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Creating a National Framework for Cybersecurity: An Analysis of Issues and Options

Creating a National Framework for Cybersecurity: An Analysis of Issues and Options

Date: February 22, 2005
Creator: Fischer, Eric A
Description: Cyber- security refers to three things: measures to protect information technology; the information it contains, processes, and transmits, and associated physical and virtual elements (which together comprise cyberspace); the degree of protection resulting from application of those measures; and the associated field of professional endeavor. This report aims to examine what kind of national cyber-security framework may be needed and how it might be implemented, and it addresses three questions: 1. Where are the major cyber-security weaknesses currently, and where might weaknesses be anticipated in the future? What are the major means of leverage for addressing those weaknesses? What roles should government and the private sector play in the use of those means of leverage to address current and potential future weaknesses?
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Communications Act Revisions: Selected Issues for Consideration

Communications Act Revisions: Selected Issues for Consideration

Date: September 19, 2005
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A
Description: This report provides an overview of selected topics which the 109th Congress may address in its examination of telecommunications issues. The issues included in this report cover: broadband Internet regulation and access; broadcast indecency; digital television transition; Federal Communications Commission structure and reform; intercarrier compensation; media ownership rules; municipal deployment of broadband; public safety communications, the “savings clause” and monopoly issues; spectrum auctions; and universal service fund reform.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Telecommunications Discounts for Schools and Libraries: The “E-Rate” Program and Controversies

Telecommunications Discounts for Schools and Libraries: The “E-Rate” Program and Controversies

Date: July 28, 2005
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A.
Description: This report addresses the controversial issues surrounding the E-rate program’s implementation and subsequent legislative measures introduced to address these issues. An additional issue, concern that minors may gain access to “inappropriate” material through the Internet has also had an impact on the E-rate program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Intercarrier Compensation: One Component of Telecom Reform

Intercarrier Compensation: One Component of Telecom Reform

Date: April 28, 2005
Creator: Goldfarb, Charles B
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Telecommunications Act: Competition, Innovation, and Reform

Telecommunications Act: Competition, Innovation, and Reform

Date: August 12, 2005
Creator: Goldfarb, Charles B
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Open Access Publishing and Citation Archives: Background and Controversy

Open Access Publishing and Citation Archives: Background and Controversy

Date: July 26, 2005
Creator: Knezo, Genevieve J.
Description: This report begins with an inventory of basic information: definitions and guides to histories of the growth of open access publishing and citation archives and descriptions of selected major open access activities. It moves on to summarize major points of difference between proponents and opponents of nongovernmental open access publishing and databases, and then highlights federal, including National Institutes of Health (NIH), open access activities and contentious issues surrounding these developments. The report also briefly describes open access developments in the United Kingdom (where a number of governmental and nongovernmental initiatives have occurred) and in the international arena. Finally, controversial issues which could receive attention in the 109th Congress are summarized.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Open Access Publishing and Citation Archives: Background and Controversy

Open Access Publishing and Citation Archives: Background and Controversy

Date: September 12, 2005
Creator: Knezo, Genevieve J.
Description: This report begins with an inventory of basic information: definitions and guides to histories of the growth of open access publishing and citation archives and descriptions of selected major open access activities. It moves on to summarize major points of difference between proponents and opponents of nongovernmental open access publishing and databases, and then highlights federal, including National Institutes of Health (NIH), open access activities and contentious issues surrounding these developments. The report also briefly describes open access developments in the United Kingdom (where a number of governmental and nongovernmental initiatives have occurred) and in the international arena. Finally, controversial issues which could receive attention in the 109th Congress are summarized.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Digital Television: An Overview

Digital Television: An Overview

Date: June 22, 2005
Creator: Kruger, Lennard G
Description: Digital television (DTV) is a new television service representing the most significant development in television technology since the advent of color television in the 1950s. DTV can provide sharper pictures, a wider screen, CD-quality sound, better color rendition, and other new services currently being developed. A successful deployment of DTV requires: the development by content providers of compelling digital programming; the delivery of digital signals to consumers by broadcast television stations, as well as cable and satellite television systems; and the widespread purchase and adoption by consumers of digital television equipment. A key issue in the Congressional debate over the digital transition has been addressing the millions of American over-the-air households whose existing analog televisions will require converter boxes in order to receive digital signals when the analog signal is turned off.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Digital TV Transition: A Brief Overview

The Digital TV Transition: A Brief Overview

Date: August 12, 2005
Creator: Kruger, Lennard G & Moore, Linda K
Description: Congressional policymakers are seeking a way to accelerate the nation’s transition to digital television and to expedite the transfer of radio frequency channels from the broadcast industry to public safety and commercial users no later than 2009. Broadcasters are holding spectrum in the 700MHz band (channels 52-69) that they would be required to relinquish after the transition to digital television (DTV) is achieved. Without a hard deadline, the transition to digital television has been postponed. Meanwhile, public safety officials want 700 MHz spectrum that has been assigned to them, but not delivered, in order to build new interoperable networks, while the commercial wireless industry would like access to the spectrum for new services.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Corporation for Public Broadcasting: Federal Funding Facts and Status

The Corporation for Public Broadcasting: Federal Funding Facts and Status

Date: June 22, 2005
Creator: McLoughlin, Glenn J
Description: The Corporation for Public Broadcasting, created in 1967, receives approximately 15% of its annual funding from federal appropriations. In turn, the CPB, acting as an umbrella agency, is required to spend 89 percent of the appropriations in grants to members of Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), National Public Radio (NPR), Public Radio International (PRI), and other affiliated public television and radio broadcasters.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Corporation for Public Broadcasting: Federal Funding Facts and Status

The Corporation for Public Broadcasting: Federal Funding Facts and Status

Date: July 25, 2005
Creator: McLoughlin, Glenn J
Description: Congressional policymakers are closely examining federal funding for the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB). Overall, 15.6% of all public television and radio broadcasting funding comes from the federal appropriations that CPB distributes. The CPB’s appropriation is allocated through a distribution formula established in its authorizing legislation. It has historically received two-year advanced appropriations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Amber Alert Program Technology

Amber Alert Program Technology

Date: May 18, 2005
Creator: Moore, Linda K
Description: This report discusses provisions in the National Intelligence Reform Act of 2004 to test Amber Alert network technology for use in expanding the Emergency Alert System (EAS). The Amber Alert network utilizes a combination of technologies, such as highway messages boards, the Internet, and text messaging, to ensure the swift recovery of abducted children.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Emergency Communications Safety Net: Integrating 911 and Other Services

An Emergency Communications Safety Net: Integrating 911 and Other Services

Date: September 1, 2005
Creator: Moore, Linda K
Description: The 9/11 Commission Report recommended that 911 call centers — also called Public Safety Answering Points, or PSAPs — be included in planning for emergency responses.1 Congress, which has since 1999 passed two bills to further the deployment of 911, is reviewing ways to expand 911 capabilities and make it more accessible and effective. Congress is also evaluating ways to improve emergency alerts2 and interoperable communications for public safety.3 Operational convergence of emergency communications seems to many to be inevitable, a question of “when,” not “if.” This report deals primarily with 911 and its recent history. It also summarizes some of the proposals that would improve 911 through new approaches and integration with other services.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Public Safety Communications: Policy, Proposals, Legislation and Progress

Public Safety Communications: Policy, Proposals, Legislation and Progress

Date: June 8, 2005
Creator: Moore, Linda K
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Public Safety, Interoperability and the Transistion to Digital Television

Public Safety, Interoperability and the Transistion to Digital Television

Date: April 18, 2005
Creator: Moore, Linda K
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Spectrum Management and Special Funds

Spectrum Management and Special Funds

Date: August 2, 2005
Creator: Moore, Linda K
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Spectrum Use and the Transisition to Digital TV

Spectrum Use and the Transisition to Digital TV

Date: August 12, 2005
Creator: Moore, Linda K
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Wireless Technology and Spectrum Demand: Third Generation (3G) and Beyond

Wireless Technology and Spectrum Demand: Third Generation (3G) and Beyond

Date: June 8, 2005
Creator: Moore, Linda K
Description: Advances in wireless telecommunications technology are converging with Internet technology to foster new generations of applications and services. Presently, the United States and other countries are moving to third-generation (3G) and fourth-generation mobile telephony. The defining feature of these technologies is that transmission speeds are significantly faster than prevailing technologies. A related trend is the growth in use of Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity) and WiMAX (an industry designation for a specific broadband standard). This report describes various legislation relating to this expansion and ongoing telecommunications development.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Deficit Reduction and Spectrum Auctions: FY2006 Budget Reconciliation

Deficit Reduction and Spectrum Auctions: FY2006 Budget Reconciliation

Date: October 20, 2005
Creator: Moore, Linda K & Kruger, Lennard G
Description: The Congressional Budget Office has informally estimated a value of $10 billion from auction proceeds for these commercial channels; many believe the amount could be higher. Broadcasters are holding this valuable spectrum (channels 52-69) but would be required to relinquish it after the transition to digital television (DTV) is achieved. Without a hard deadline, the transition to digital television has been delayed and the spectrum has not been made available for other uses. Congress anticipates applying some of the proceeds received from auctions of the spectrum to be cleared to help meet deficit-reduction goals passed in H.Con.Res. 95.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Spectrum Auctions and Deficit Reduction: FY2006 Budget Reconciliation

Spectrum Auctions and Deficit Reduction: FY2006 Budget Reconciliation

Date: October 31, 2005
Creator: Moore, Linda K & Kruger, Lennard G
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Emergency Communications: The Emergency Alert System (EAS) and All-Hazard Warnings

Emergency Communications: The Emergency Alert System (EAS) and All-Hazard Warnings

Date: September 2, 2005
Creator: Moore, Linda K & Reese, Shawn
Description: The Emergency Alert System (EAS) is one of several federally managed warning systems. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) jointly administers EAS with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), in cooperation with the National Weather Service (NWS), an organization within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The NOAA/NWS weather radio system has been upgraded to an all-hazard warning capability. This report summarizes the technology and administration of EAS and the NOAA/NWS all-hazard network, and some of the key proposals for change
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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