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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2004
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Europe and Counterterrorism: Strengthening Police and Judicial Cooperation

Europe and Counterterrorism: Strengthening Police and Judicial Cooperation

Date: October 15, 2004
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Description: The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States gave new momentum to European Union (EU) initiatives to combat terrorism and other crossborder crimes such as drug trafficking, human trafficking, and financial fraud. For many years, EU efforts to address such challenges were hampered by national sovereignty concerns, insufficient resources, and a lack of trust among law enforcement agencies. However, the terrorist attacks and the subsequent revelation of Al Qaeda cells in Europe changed this status quo as it became increasingly evident that the EU’s open borders and different legal systems allowed terrorists and other criminals to move around easily and evade arrest and prosecution. Thus, EU officials renewed their efforts to harmonize national laws and bring down traditional barriers among member states’ police, intelligence, and judicial authorities. As part of this initiative, the EU has also sought to enhance ongoing cooperation with U.S. law enforcement and judicial authorities so that information can be meaningfully shared and suspects apprehended expeditiously.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Endangered Species Act (ESA), Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), and Department of Defense (DOD) Readiness Activities: Background and Current Law

The Endangered Species Act (ESA), Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), and Department of Defense (DOD) Readiness Activities: Background and Current Law

Date: August 9, 2004
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report provides a brief overview of how the Endangered Species Act (ESA)1 and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA)2 and their relevant regulations may apply to military training and readiness activities of the Department of Defense (DOD). Military activities may “take” protected creatures directly (e.g,. killing with ordnance during rifle, gunnery or assault drills), or might destroy habitat (e.g., artillery or bombing practices), even if these results are not the purpose of the activities. The applicability of the MBTA and ESA to military readiness activities has been controversial recently and legislation has been enacted in both the 107th and 108th Congresses on these topics.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2005

Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2005

Date: December 20, 2004
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: This report provides background information on each defense-related environmental program, discusses key funding issues, and examines relevant provisions in authorization legislation and appropriations for FY2005.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Nonproliferation Issues

Nuclear Nonproliferation Issues

Date: June 21, 2004
Creator: Behrens, Carl E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Military Medical Care Services: Questions and Answers

Military Medical Care Services: Questions and Answers

Date: October 22, 2004
Creator: Best Jr., Richard A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Homeland Security: Defending U.S. Airspace

Homeland Security: Defending U.S. Airspace

Date: October 13, 2004
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Potential Military Use of Airships and Aerostats

Potential Military Use of Airships and Aerostats

Date: July 15, 2004
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Potential Military Use of Airships and Aerostats

Potential Military Use of Airships and Aerostats

Date: November 11, 2004
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: U.S. Military Operations

Iraq: U.S. Military Operations

Date: March 9, 2004
Creator: Bowman, Steve
Description: This report discusses US military operations in Iraq. Iraq's chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons programs, together with Iraqi long-range missile development and support for al-Queda terrorism, were the primary justifications put forward for military action.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq:  U.S. Military Operations and Costs

Iraq: U.S. Military Operations and Costs

Date: November 20, 2004
Creator: Bowman, Steven R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Military Forces: What is the Appropriate Size for the United States?

Military Forces: What is the Appropriate Size for the United States?

Date: May 28, 2004
Creator: Bruner, Edward F
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Defense Authorization and Appropriations Bills: A Chronology, FY1970-FY2005

Defense Authorization and Appropriations Bills: A Chronology, FY1970-FY2005

Date: December 14, 2004
Creator: Carter, Linwood B. & Coipuram Jr., Thomas
Description: This report is a research aid, which lists the Department of Defense (DOD) authorization bills (Table 1) and appropriations bills (Table 2).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Terrorism: Some Legal Restrictions on Military Assistance to Domestic Authorities Following a Terrorist Attack

Terrorism: Some Legal Restrictions on Military Assistance to Domestic Authorities Following a Terrorist Attack

Date: February 6, 2004
Creator: Doyle, Charles & Elsea, Jennifer K
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arming Pilots Against Terrorism: Implementation Issues for the Federal Flight Deck Officer Program

Arming Pilots Against Terrorism: Implementation Issues for the Federal Flight Deck Officer Program

Date: January 9, 2004
Creator: Elias, Bartholomew
Description: The report discusses the issues regarding the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-296, 116 Stat. 2135), which contains provisions to arm pilots of passenger aircraft and gives deputized pilots the authority to use force, including lethal force, to defend the flight deck against criminal and terrorist threats. The report includes the legislative Background, implementation issues, equipment, training, operational procedures and costs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Department of Defense Rules for Military Commissions: Analysis of Procedural Rules and Comparison with Proposed Legislation and the Uniform Code of Military Justice

The Department of Defense Rules for Military Commissions: Analysis of Procedural Rules and Comparison with Proposed Legislation and the Uniform Code of Military Justice

Date: March 10, 2004
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer
Description: This report provides a background and analysis comparing military commissions as envisioned under Military Commission Order (M.C.O.) No. 1 and general military courts-martial conducted under the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ). The report notes some of the criticism directed at the President's Military Order (M.O.), and explains how those concerns are addressed by the military commission orders and instructions. The report concludes by summarizing legislation introduced to authorize and regulate military tribunals to try suspected Al Qaeda and Taliban members, and provides two charts to compare the proposed military tribunals under proposed legislation, the regulations issued by the Department of Defense, and standard procedures for general courts-martial under the Manual for Courts-Martial.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Proposed Change to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) under S. 113

Proposed Change to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) under S. 113

Date: August 9, 2004
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer
Description: This report discusses S. 113, a bill to extend the coverage of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act ("FISA") to non-U.S. persons who engage in international terrorism or activities in preparation for terrorist acts, without a showing of membership in or affiliation with an international terrorist group.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Department of Defense Rules for Military Commissions: Analysis of Procedural Rules and Comparison with Proposed Legislation and the Uniform Code of Military Justice

The Department of Defense Rules for Military Commissions: Analysis of Procedural Rules and Comparison with Proposed Legislation and the Uniform Code of Military Justice

Date: March 10, 2004
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K
Description: This report provides a background and analysis comparing military commissions as envisioned under M.C.O. No. 1 to general military courts-martial conducted under the UCMJ. The report notes some of the criticism directed at the President’s M.O., and explains how those concerns are addressed by the military commission orders and instructions. The report provides two charts to compare the regulations issued by the Department of Defense and standard procedures for general courts-martial under the Manual for Courts-Martial. The second chart, which compares procedural safeguards incorporated in the regulations with established procedures in courts martial, follows the same order and format used in CRS Report RL31262, Selected Procedural Safeguards in Federal, Military, and International Courts, in order to facilitate comparison with safeguards provided in federal court and the International Criminal Court.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Department of Defense Rules for Military Commissions: Analysis of Procedural Rules and Comparison with Proposed Legislation and the Uniform Code of Military Justice

The Department of Defense Rules for Military Commissions: Analysis of Procedural Rules and Comparison with Proposed Legislation and the Uniform Code of Military Justice

Date: March 10, 2004
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K
Description: This report provides a background and analysis comparing military commissions as envisioned under M.C.O. No. 1 to general military courts-martial conducted under the UCMJ. The report notes some of the criticism directed at the President’s M.O., and explains how those concerns are addressed by the military commission orders and instructions. The report provides two charts to compare the regulations issued by the Department of Defense and standard procedures for general courts-martial under the Manual for Courts-Martial. The second chart, which compares procedural safeguards incorporated in the regulations with established procedures in courts martial, follows the same order and format used in CRS Report RL31262, Selected Procedural Safeguards in Federal, Military, and International Courts, in order to facilitate comparison with safeguards provided in federal court and the International Criminal Court.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Detention of American Citizens as Enemy Combatants

Detention of American Citizens as Enemy Combatants

Date: March 15, 2004
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K
Description: This report provides background information regarding the cases of two U.S. citizens deemed “enemy combatants,” Yaser Esam Hamdi, who has been returned to Saudi Arabia, and Jose Padilla, who remains in military custody. The report addresses the constitutional and statutory sources that arguably provide authority for the detention of enemy combatants, as well as those that may prevent the exercise of that power with respect to U.S. citizens. The report concludes that historically, even during declared wars, additional statutory authority has been seen as necessary to validate the detention of citizens not members of any armed forces, casting in some doubt the argument that the power to detain is necessarily implied by an authorization to use force. Finally, the report briefly analyzes the Detention of Enemy Combatants Act, H.R. 1029, which would authorize the President to detain U.S. citizens and residents who are determined to be “enemy combatants” in certain circumstances.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Lawfulness of Interrogation Techniques under the Geneva Conventions

Lawfulness of Interrogation Techniques under the Geneva Conventions

Date: September 8, 2004
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Treatment of Prisoners in Iraq: Selected Legal Issues

U.S. Treatment of Prisoners in Iraq: Selected Legal Issues

Date: May 24, 2004
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Army's Modular Redesign: Issues for Congress

U.S. Army's Modular Redesign: Issues for Congress

Date: July 19, 2004
Creator: Feickert, Andrew
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF): Background and Issues for Congress

U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF): Background and Issues for Congress

Date: September 28, 2004
Creator: Feickert, Andrew
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Military Role in Space Control: A Primer

Military Role in Space Control: A Primer

Date: September 23, 2004
Creator: Fernandez, Adolfo J
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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