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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Environmental Exemptions for the Navy's Mid-Frequency Active Sonar Training Program
This report discusses laws related to the protection of marine mammals when using mid-frequency active sonar including the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), the Endangered Species Act (ESA), the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA). The report discusses each of the laws generally, and then reviews the litigation surrounding the Navy's compliance with these laws in the context of using the sonar for training purposes off California's coast. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94139/
Whales and Sonar: Environmental Exemptions for the Navy's Mid-Frequency Active Sonar Training
This report discusses laws related to the protection of marine mammals when using mid-frequency active sonar including the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), the Endangered Species Act (ESA), the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA). The report discusses each of the laws generally, and then reviews the litigation surrounding the Navy's compliance with these laws in the context of using the sonar for training purposes off California's coast. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87337/
The Endangered Species Act: A Primer
The Endangered Species Act (ESA)1 receives significant congressional attention. The associated power and reach of its comprehensive protection for species identified as endangered or threatened with extinction has ignited concern that there be appropriate bounds on this power. The following discussion provides an overview and background on the various features of the ESA that contribute to its stature and yet spark an ongoing debate over its implementation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9669/
The Endangered Species Act: A Primer
The Endangered Species Act (ESA)1 receives significant congressional attention. The associated power and reach of its comprehensive protection for species identified as endangered or threatened with extinction has ignited concern that there be appropriate bounds on this power. The following discussion provides an overview and background on the various features of the ESA that contribute to its stature and yet spark an ongoing debate over its implementation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9678/
National Estuary Program: A Collaborative Approach to Protecting Coastal Water Quality
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1411/
U.S. Disposal of Chemical Weapons in the Ocean: Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9975/
U.S. Disposal of Chemical Weapons in the Ocean: Background and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9999/
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8671/
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5075/
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5074/
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3204/
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3203/
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3202/
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3201/
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1838/
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5078/
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5077/
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5076/
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9724/
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8927/
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy
On November 16, 1994, the U.N. Law of the Sea Convention entered into force but without accession by the United States. The major part of the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention had been supported by U.s. Administrations, beginning with President Reagan, as fulfilling U.S. interests in having a comprehensive legal framework relating to competing uses of the world's oceans. However, the United States and many industrialized countries found some of the provisions relating to deep seabed mining in Part XI and Annexes III and IV of the Convention contrary to their interests and would not sign or act to ratify the Convention. A number of questions face the Senate as it considers the Convention/Agreement package, including the following: 1) Does the Agreement sufficiently resolve opposing concerns about the deep seabed mining provisions? 2) What precedent does U.S. acceptance of the Convention/Agreement definition of the common heritage of mankind concept establish? 3) What authority should Congress exert over the expenses of another international organization (the International Seabed Authority)? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10503/
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6894/
Law of the Sea: the International Seabed Authority - Its Status and U.S. Participation Therein
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs340/
The U.N. Law of the Sea Convention and the United States: Developments Since October 2003
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7228/
The U.N. Law of the Sea Convention and the United States: Developments Since October 2003
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7227/
The U.N. Law of the Sea Convention and the United States: Developments Since October 2003
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5998/
Dolphin Protection and Tuna Seining
From its inception in 1972, one of the goals of the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) was to reduce the incidental mortality of dolphins in the ETP tuna fishery. Regulations promulgated under MMPA authority set standards for tuna seining and motivated technological improvements that reduced dolphin mortalities in this fishery -- by 1977, annual dolphin mortality by U.S. tuna seiners had declined to about 25,450 animals. Despite the extensive mortalities, no ETP dolphin population has been listed as endangered or threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. However, two ETP dolphin stocks were listed as depleted under the MMPA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs389/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 105th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs742/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 106th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1860/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5124/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3248/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3247/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3246/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 107th Congress
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Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 107th Congress
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Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 107th Congress
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Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 107th Congress
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Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 107th Congress
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Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
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Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
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Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
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Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10027/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
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Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
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Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5130/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5129/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
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Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
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Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
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Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5125/
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