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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Public Aid and Faith-Based Organizations (Charitable Choice): Background and Selected Legal Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2199/
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Reauthorization Legislation: An Overview
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Appropriations for FY1999: An Overview
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to CRS reports that provide analytical perspectives on the 13 annual appropriations bills, and other related appropriation measures. It does not include a detailed explanation or description of the budget or appropriations processes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs855/
Line Item Vetoes in the 105th Congress, First Session: A Finding Aid
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The Navy Biofuel Initiative Under the Defense Production Act
This report looks at the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to “assist the development and support of a sustainable commercial biofuels industry" which was entered into by the Secretaries of Energy, Agriculture, and the Navy. It raises issues and concerns for Congress to consider when deciding how to fund MOU. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93938/
Department of Defense Fuel Costs in Iraq
Since the invasion of Iraq in 2003, the average price of fuels purchased for military operations in Iraq has steadily increased. The disparity between the higher price of fuel supplied to the United States Central Command compared to Iraq's civilian population has been a point of contention. Several factors contribute to the disparity, including the different types of fuel used by the military compared to Iraqi civilians, the Iraqi government's price subsidies, and the level pricing that the DOD's Defense Logistics Agency charges for military customers around the world. The Iraqi government has been pressured to reduce its fuel subsidy and black market fuel prices remain higher than the official subsidized price. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10776/
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Full Funding of State Formula
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Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Current Funding Trends
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Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Issues Regarding "Full Funding" of Part B Grants to States
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Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): State Grant Formulas
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Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): State Grant Formulas
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Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Analysis of Changes Made by P.L. 108-446
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The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Overview of Major Provisions
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Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Possible Voucher Issues
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The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases
This report discusses how the total debt of the federal government can increase, an historical overview of debt limits, and how the current economic slowdown has led to higher deficits and thereby a series of debt limit increases, as well as legislation related to these increases. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93968/
The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases
This report discusses how the total debt of the federal government can increase, an historical overview of debt limits, and how the current economic slowdown has led to higher deficits and thereby a series of debt limit increases, as well as legislation related to these increases. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93969/
The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases
This report discusses how the total debt of the federal government can increase, an historical overview of debt limits, and how the current economic slowdown has led to higher deficits and thereby a series of debt limit increases, as well as legislation related to these increases. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93970/
The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases
This report discusses how the total debt of the federal government can increase, an historical overview of debt limits, and how the current economic slowdown has led to higher deficits and thereby a series of debt limit increases, as well as legislation related to these increases. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84037/
The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases
This report discusses how the total debt of the federal government can increase, including an historical overview of debt limits, and how the current economic slowdown has led to higher deficits and thereby a series of debt limit increases, as well as legislation related to these increases. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98048/
The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases
This report discusses how the total debt of the federal government can increase, an historical overview of debt limits, and how the current economic slowdown has led to higher deficits and thereby a series of debt limit increases, as well as legislation related to these increases. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87266/
Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview
President Obama's FY2013 budget submission was released on February 13, 2012. This report provides a graphical overview of historical trends in discretionary budget authority (BA) from FY1976 through FY2011, enacted levels for FY2012 spending, and the levels consistent with the President's proposals for FY2013 through FY2017. Spending caps and budget enforcement mechanisms established in the Budget Control Act (BCA) of 2011 will probably strongly affect the FY2013 budget cycle. This report may provide a starting point for discussions about spending trends and federal priorities, but it does not attempt to explain spending patterns in each policy area. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87175/
Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview
This report provides a graphical overview of historical trends in discretionary budget authority (BA) from FY1976 through FY2011, enacted levels for FY2012 spending, and the levels consistent with President Obama's proposals for FY2013 through FY2017. It also includes a background on functional categories and a section discussing historical spending trends. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99035/
Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview
This report provides a graphical overview of historical trends in discretionary budget authority (BA) from FY1976 through FY2012, preliminary estimates for FY2013 spending, and the levels consistent with the President's proposals for FY2014 through FY2018 using data from President Obama's FY2014 budget submission that was released on April 10, 2013. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276919/
FY2011 Appropriations in Budgetary Context
This report compares the various funding levels that have been considered during the 112th Congress with H.R. 1473, a compromise reached just before the expiration on April 8 of the sixth continuing resolution (CR). H.R. 1473 provides discretionary budget authority to run the federal government for the remainder of FY2011, and includes both discretionary and mandatory spending reductions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99062/
Mandatory Spending Since 1962
Federal spending is divided into three broad categories: discretionary spending, mandatory spending, and net interest. Federal spending has outrun federal revenues for the last 10 fiscal years. In the long term, projections suggest that if current policies remain unchanged, the United States faces a major fiscal imbalance, largely due to rising health care costs and impending Baby Boomer retirements. Because discretionary spending is a smaller proportion of total federal outlays compared to mandatory spending, some budget experts contend that any significant reductions in federal spending must include cuts in entitlement spending. Other budget and social policy experts contend that cuts in entitlement spending could compromise their goals: the economic security of the elderly and the poor. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85455/
Overview of the Federal Debt
The size of current and projected federal deficits and the accumulation of federal debt are central to current congressional deliberations regarding fiscal reforms. This report provides a broad overview of the federal debt, annual budget deficits, and debt service costs. Federal debt is the accumulated sum of unrepaid borrowing by the federal government over time. The total federal debt consists of debt held by the public and intragovernmental debt. Debt owed to the public represents borrowing from entities other than the federal government, and includes borrowing from state and local governments, foreign governments and investors, the Federal Reserve System, and foreign central banks, as well as private investors in the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40158/
Running Deficits: Positives and Pitfalls
The FY2009 federal deficit swelled to $1.414 trillion, or nearly 10% of gross domestic product (GDP), due to the economic recession. The size of recent deficits has added to longstanding concerns regarding the federal government's long-term fiscal condition. However, deficit finance can serve as an important policy tool. This report discusses how deficit finance can help governments manage their economies and how large and persistent deficits can lead to severe economic problems. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31415/
Trends in Discretionary Spending
This report provides a graphical overview of historical trends in discretionary budget authority (BA) from FY1976 through FY2011, enacted levels for FY2012 spending, and the levels consistent with President Obama's proposals for FY2013 through FY2017. It also includes a background on functional categories and a section discussing historical spending trends. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276895/
The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases
This report discusses how the total debt of the federal government can increase, an historical overview of debt limits, and how the current economic slowdown has led to higher deficits and thereby a series of debt limit increases, as well as legislation related to these increases. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267841/
The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases
This report discusses how the total debt of the federal government can increase, an historical overview of debt limits, and how the current economic slowdown has led to higher deficits and thereby a series of debt limit increases, as well as legislation related to these increases. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31401/
The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases
This report discusses how the total debt of the federal government can increase, an historical overview of debt limits, and how the current economic slowdown has led to higher deficits and thereby a series of debt limit increases, as well as legislation related to these increases. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29646/
The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases
This report discusses how the total debt of the federal government can increase, an historical overview of debt limits, and how the current economic slowdown has led to higher deficits and thereby a series of debt limit increases, as well as legislation related to these increases. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40186/
The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases
This report discusses how the total debt of the federal government can increase, an historical overview of debt limits, and how the current economic slowdown has led to higher deficits and thereby a series of debt limit increases, as well as legislation related to these increases. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40187/
The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases
This report discusses how the total debt of the federal government can increase, an historical overview of debt limits, and how the current economic slowdown has led to higher deficits and thereby a series of debt limit increases, as well as legislation related to these increases. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33042/
The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases
This report discusses how the total debt of the federal government can increase, an historical overview of debt limits, and how the current economic slowdown has led to higher deficits and thereby a series of debt limit increases, as well as legislation related to these increases. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227979/
The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases
This report discusses how the total debt of the federal government can increase, provides an historical overview of debt limits, and explains how the current economic slowdown has led to higher deficits and thereby a series of debt limit increases, also discusses the legislation related to these increases. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227978/
Mandatory Spending Since 1962
Mandatory spending includes federal government spending on entitlement programs as well as other budget outlays controlled by laws other than appropriation acts. Entitlement programs such as Social Security and Medicare make up the bulk of mandatory spending. This report looks at mandatory spending and how it has grown over time relative to total federal spending and the size of the U.S. economy. It also analyzes future mandatory spending levels and how they are projected to impact the federal budget. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29663/
Trends in Discretionary Funding
Discretionary spending is essentially all spending on federal wages and salaries. Discretionary spending is often divided into defense, domestic discretionary, and international outlays. Defense and domestic discretionary spending compose nearly all of discretionary spending. The Obama Administration contends that many domestic priorities have been underfunded and has proposed some cuts in defense spending. The current economic and financial turmoil, which has led to several major federal interventions, is projected to increase non-defense spending over the next several fiscal years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26272/
Trends in Discretionary Spending
Discretionary spending is provided in, and controlled by, annual appropriations acts, which fund many of the routine activities commonly associated with such federal government functions as running executive branch agencies, congressional offices and agencies, and international operations of the government. Essentially all spending on federal wages and salaries is discretionary. This report discusses historical, current, and projected discretionary spending trends. It also describes how current discretionary spending trends reflect national priorities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31428/
Circular A-76 and the Moratorium on DOD Competitions: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the current moratorium on the conduct of Department of Defense (DOD) public-private competitions under Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-76 and issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83929/
Circular A-76 and the Moratorium on DOD Competitions: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the current moratorium on the conduct of Department of Defense (DOD) public-private competitions under Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-76 and issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83928/
Circular A-76 and the Moratorium on DOD Competitions: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the current moratorium on the conduct of Department of Defense (DOD) public-private competitions under Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-76 and issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87147/
The Abandoned Mine Land Fund: Grants Distribution and Issues
The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA, P.L. 95-87), enacted in 1977, established reclamation standards for all coal surface mining operations, and for the surface effects of underground mining. It also established the Abandoned Mine Land (AML) program to promote the reclamation of sites mined and abandoned prior to the enactment of SMCRA. To finance reclamation of abandoned mine sites, the legislation established fees on coal production. These collections are divided into federal and state shares; subject to annual appropriation, AML funds are distributed annually to states with approved reclamation programs. This report describes the distribution of these funds and the various issues that arise from said distribution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs398/
Budget Reconciliation FY2006: Medicaid, Medicare, and State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) Provisions
This is one report in the series of reports that discus the Budget Reconciliation- Medicaid, Medicare, and SCHIP Provisions. These are some of the issues discussed in this report: Medicaid Outpatient Prescription Drugs, Long-Term Care under Medicaid, Fraud, Waste, and Abuse, State Financing and Medicaid, Improving the Medicaid and State Children’s Health Insurance Programs, Medicare Advantage, and other Medicare Provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7917/
Budget Reconciliation FY2006: Medicaid, Medicare, and State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) Provisions
This is one report in the series of reports that discus the Budget Reconciliation- Medicaid, Medicare, and SCHIP Provisions. These are some of the issues discussed in this report: Medicaid Outpatient Prescription Drugs, Long-Term Care under Medicaid, Fraud, Waste, and Abuse, State Financing and Medicaid, Improving the Medicaid and State Children’s Health Insurance Programs, Medicare Advantage, and other Medicare Provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7918/
Disaster Relief and Response: FY2003 Supplemental Appropriations
Federal departments and agencies are authorized to undertake a range of emergency management activities, including disaster relief and response efforts. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has primary responsibility, but other departments and agencies provide grants and loans to disaster victims and reimburse state and local governments overwhelmed by costs associated with clearing debris and rebuilding facilities, among other forms of assistance. FY2003 supplemental funding for these activities has been the issue of debate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4426/
Disaster Relief and Response: FY2003 Supplemental Appropriations
On July 25, 2003, the House approved a supplemental appropriations measure (H.R. 2859) that provides $983.6 million for the Disaster Relief Fund administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). During debate Members rejected an amendment to require a rescission from discretionary accounts to compensate for the supplemental. On July 31 the Senate approved the House-passed version of H.R. 2859. The President signed the Emergency Supplemental Appropriation for Disaster Relief Act of 2003 (P.L. 108-69) on August 8, 2003. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4425/
Disaster Relief and Response: FY2003 Supplemental Appropriations
On July 7, 2003, President Bush submitted a second supplemental appropriations request to Congress for FY2003. The request seeks $1.889 billion for three disaster relief activities: $289 million for wildfire suppression and rehabilitation carried out by the Departments of Agriculture and the Interior, $1.550 billion for disaster relief administered by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and $50 million for the investigation and recovery associated with the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster. For the most part, Members of Congress evince support for the disaster relief funding request; however, some debate has occurred on other funding sought, notably funding for AmeriCorps grants. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4424/
Disaster Relief and Response: FY2003 Supplemental Appropriations
On July 7, 2003, President Bush submitted a second supplemental appropriations request to Congress for FY2003. The request seeks $1.889 billion for three disaster relief activities: $289 million for wildfire suppression and rehabilitation carried out by the Departments of Agriculture and the Interior, $1.550 billion for disaster relief administered by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and $50 million for the investigation and recovery associated with the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster. For the most part, Members of Congress evince support for the disaster relief funding request; however, some debate has occurred on other funding sought, notably funding for AmeriCorps grants. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4423/
Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Hurricane Katrina Relief
In response to the widespread destruction caused by Hurricane Katrina, the 109th Congress enacted two FY2005 emergency supplemental appropriations bills, which together provide $62.3 billion for emergency response and recovery needs. However, the funding streams of these appropriated funds and amounts for disaster recovery have changed and appear likely to undergo further changes, largely at the request of the Administration. This report summarizes federal disaster assistance funding legislation in the 109th Congress and presents some information on federal expenditures and obligations for disaster recovery activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10218/
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