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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities--Background and Issues for Congress
This report focuses on the potential implications of China's naval modernization for future required U.S. Navy capabilities. The report particularly discusses how potential United States responses to China's military modernization effort -- including its naval modernization effort -- have emerged as a key issue in U.S. defense planning. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306548/
F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program
This report provides background on the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program and discusses spending during FY2014 and the proposed budget for FY 2015. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306493/
Water Quality Issues in the 113th Congress: An Overview
This report discusses the legislative and oversight issues regarding water quality, as well as wastewater treatment funding issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306462/
Analysis of S. 2198: Emergency Drought Relief Act of 2014
This report discusses the Emergency Drought Relief Act of 2014, which would address drought impacts in California and other states, and assist with drought response. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306426/
Airport Privatization: Issues and Options for Congress
This report discusses airport privatization, particularly the low participation in the Airport Privatization Pilot Program (APPP) and the policy changes that would be required to encourage more airports to privatize. It provides background on privatization in general, the APPP and reasons why it has not stimulated privatization, privatization in Europe and Canada, and related issues and options. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306492/
U.S. Rail Transportation of Crude Oil: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the challenges in the transportation of oil, as refineries that once received crude oil principally from oceangoing tankers are now seeing increasing deliveries by domestic transport. It also outlines possible issues for Congress including rail transport of oil versus pipelines, and the possible increase of oil spills from rail transport. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306472/
Research Tax Credit: Current Law and Policy Issues for the 113th Congress
This report describes the current status of the Research Tax Credit, summarizes its legislative history, discusses policy issues it raises, and describes legislation to modify and extend it. The report will be updated as warranted by legislative activity or other developments affecting the credit. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306428/
International Climate Change Financing: The Green Climate Fund (GCF)
This report discusses United States commitments for climate change through financial and technical assistance and multilateral programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306450/
Defense Acquisitions: How DOD Acquires Weapon Systems and Recent Efforts to Reform the Process
This report outlines the Department of Defense's (DOD) defense acquisition structure, discusses recent major reports addressing defense acquisition, and considers recent DOD efforts to improve the acquisition of weapon systems. It also includes a description of recent congressional efforts to reform the DOD's acquisition process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306454/
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and presents potential issues for Congress concerning the Navy's ship force-structure goals and shipbuilding plans, including the planned size of the Navy, the rate of Navy ship procurement, and prospective affordability. Congressional decisions on Navy shipbuilding programs can substantially affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306491/
Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response
This report discusses the recent conflict in Syria including an overview of the situation, information about anti- and pro-Asad forces, background on chemical weapons and disarmament, plans for U.S. policy and assistance, and a general sense of the future outlook. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306498/
CRS Resources on the FY2014 Funding Gap, Shutdown, and Status of Appropriations
This report provides an annotated list of Congressional Research Service (CRS) resources and analyses relevant to funding gaps, including (1) the funding gap that commenced on October 1, 2013, and terminated on October 17, 2013, with the enactment of P.L. 113-46 -- a continuing appropriations measure providing appropriations through January 15, 2014; (2) historical funding gaps; and (3) continuing appropriations measures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306424/
Who Pays for Long-Term Services and Supports? A Fact Sheet
This report discusses the long-term services and supports (LTSS) that refer to a broad range of health and health-related services and supports needed by individuals over an extended period of time. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306452/
Venezuela: Background and U.S. Relations
This report discusses the current United States relation with Venezuela, including background on the political situation and recent developments, the economic conditions, relevant U.S. policies, and the legislative initiatives in the 111th and 112th Congresses. The United States traditionally has had close relations with Venezuela, a major supplier of foreign oil, but there has been friction in relations under the government of populist President Hugo Chávez. U.S. officials have expressed concerns about human rights, Venezuela's military arms purchases, its relations with Cuba and Iran, and its efforts to export its brand of populism to other Latin American countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306433/
Deployable Federal Assets Supporting Domestic Disaster Response Operations: Summary and Considerations for Congress
This report discusses deployable federal assets, which generally refers to specially-trained federal employees whose mission is to provide on-scene assistance to communities by supporting disaster response. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306441/
Chemical Facility Security: Issues and Options for the 113th Congress
This report provides a brief overview of the existing statutory authority and implementing regulation, as well as a description of several policy issues raised in previous debates regarding chemical facility security. It also identifies policy options for congressional consideration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306439/
Iran Sanctions
This report discusses the recent development regarding the negotiations with Iran about its nuclear program. It provides background information on Iranian nuclear program and debates the November 24 Joint Plan of Action Elements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306465/
Community Development Block Grants and Related Programs: A Primer
This report provides an introduction to the laws and rules governing the Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) and related programs. It contains information on eligibility of entities and activities, national objectives and program requirements, formula allocation, and related programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306435/
Legislative Actions to Repeal, Defund, or Delay the Affordable Care Act
This report summarizes legislative actions taken to repeal, defund, delay, or otherwise amend the Affordable Care Act (ACA) since the law's enactment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306464/
U.S.-Vietnam Nuclear Cooperation Agreement: Issues for Congress
This report discusses the U.S.-Vietnamese cooperation on nuclear energy and nonproliferation that has grown in recent years along with closer bilateral economic, military, and diplomatic ties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306494/
The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC): An Overview
This report discusses the earned income tax credit (EITC), established in the tax code in 1975, which offers cash aid to working parents with relatively low incomes who care for dependent children. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306490/
Bolivia: In Brief
This report provides background information on Bolivia, an analysis of its current political and economic situation, and an assessment of some key issues in Bolivian-U.S. relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306463/
International Food Aid Programs: Background and Issues
This report describes the major U.S. international food aid programs along with the related issues--including the Administration's reform proposals--currently before Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306429/
Apprehensions of Unauthorized Migrants along the Southwest Border: Fact Sheet
This report discusses the number of illegal alien apprehensions between southern ports of entry (POE) in the United States, which has generally declined. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306466/
Libya: Transition and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the revolution and post-conflict transition in Libya, triggered in mid-February 2011 by a chain of events resulting in the death of the Prime Minister (Qadhafi); a new government was elected in July. The report also looks at the military and economic state of the country, including human rights, Islam and politics, and Libya's oil assets. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306489/
Malaysia: Background and U.S. Relations
This report analyzes U.S.-Malaysia relations and the economy, domestic politics, and diplomacy of Malaysia. It also provides background on current events and policy debates, as Congress has expressed interest in a variety of issues in U.S.-Malaysia relations, especially regarding trade, security cooperation, and human rights. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306496/
U.S. Foreign Aid to Israel
This report provides an overview of U.S. foreign assistance to Israel. It includes a review of past aid programs, data on annual assistance, and an analysis of current issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306497/
Corporate Expatriation, Inversions, and Mergers: Tax Issues
This report discusses relevant portions of the U.S. corporate income tax system and how inversions have commonly been structured. It also looks at how Congress and Department of the Treasury have reduced the benefits of inversions, including The American Jobs Creation Act, as well as post-2004 inversions and treasury regulations, and policy options. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306449/
U.S. Circuit and District Court Nominations: Senate Rejections and Committee Votes Other Than to Report Favorably, 1939-2013
This report discusses the 19 U.S. circuit and district court nominations that led to committee consideration of actions other than a favorable report (or other than approval by the full Senate). For each nominee, it lists the votes cast by the Judiciary Committee and the full Senate and identifies circumstances that kept members from approving the nominations, such as senatorial courtesy, ideological disagreement, and concern over nominees' qualifications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306443/
Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Virginia-class nuclear-powered attack submarine (SSN) program. The Navy's proposed FY2015 budget requests $5,285.3 million in procurement and advance procurement (AP) funding for the program. Congress decisions on procurement of Virginia-class boats could substantially affect U.S. Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306482/
Long-Term Services and Supports: In Brief
This report provides an overview of long-term services and supports (LTSS) -- a component of personal health care -- including information in response to the following questions: What is LTSS? Who needs LTSS? Who provides LTSS? How much does LTSS cost? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306459/
Federal Building and Facility Security: Frequently Asked Questions
This report discusses the security of federal government buildings and facilities that affect not only the daily operations of the federal government but also the health, well-being, and safety of federal employees and the public. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306468/
President Obama's Climate Action Plan
This report discusses President Obama's Climate Action Plan (CAP) to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GHG), and to encourage adaptation to expected climate change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306440/
The Federal Budget: Overview and Issues for FY2015 and Beyond
This report provides an overview of federal budget issues, focusing on recent fiscal policy changes. It discusses the major policy proposals contained in the President's FY2015 budget and the House and Senate budget resolutions and also addresses major short- and long-term fiscal challenges. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306470/
Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations
This report provides an overview of Jordanian politics and current issues in U.S.-Jordanian relations. It provides a brief discussion of the nation's government and economy, as well as Jordan's cooperation in promoting Arab-Israeli peace and other U.S. policy objectives in the Middle East. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306476/
Internet Governance and the Domain Name System: Issues for Congress
This report provides a definition regarding Internet governance and how the Internet is currently governed. The report discusses the role of United States government and future model of Internet governance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306421/
Summary Cost Data for Federally-Facilitated Exchanges, 2014
This report discusses the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA, P.L. 111-148, as amended), which contains a number of provisions that affect the individual health insurance market. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306431/
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2015 Budget and Appropriations
This report tracks the FY2015 State Department, Foreign Operations and Related Programs appropriations process. It includes information about recent actions, current requests and past trends, state operations and related agencies, and foreign operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306432/
Private Health Insurance Market Reforms in the Affordable Care Act (ACA)
This report provides background information about the private health insurance market, including market segments and regulation. It then describes each Affordable Care Act (ACA) market reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306460/
Venezuela: Background and U.S. Relations
This report discusses the current Congressional issues in relation to Venezuela, including background on the political situation and recent developments, the economic conditions, relevant U.S. policies, and the legislative initiatives in the 111th and 112th Congresses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306474/
Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Recent Activities and Ongoing Developments
This report provides a summary update of selected issues related to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306481/
Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, focusing particularly on the influence of the Taliban and other militant groups, and on the leadership of Afghan President Hamid Karzai. This report also discusses the U.S.-Afghanistan relationship, in both the short and long term, and U.S. efforts under the Obama Administration to provide military, reconstructive, and stabilization aid. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306487/
Crisis in the Central African Republic
This report provides background on the evolving political, security, and humanitarian crisis in the Central African Republic (CAR), which began when a fractious rebel coalition seized control of the central government in March 2013. The report also describes U.S. policy responses and analyzes possible issues for Congress, including oversight of U.S. humanitarian assistance and support for international stabilization efforts in CAR. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306427/
Summary Cost Data for Health Plans Available in Maine's Exchange, 2014: Fact Sheet
This report discusses the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA, P.L. 111-148, as amended) that contains a number of provisions that may affect the individual health insurance market. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306457/
How Social Security Benefits Are Computed: In Brief
This report discusses how Social Security benefits are currently computed, including information about eligibility, earnings, cost-of-living adjustments, factors that can affect benefit levels, and benefits for dependents. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306533/
Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues
This report provides an overview of the rationale for the Prompt Global Strike (PGS) mission and the possible deployment of conventional warheads on long-range ballistic missiles or boost-glide systems. It also reviews the Air Force and Navy efforts to develop these systems and summarizes congressional reaction to these proposals, then provides a more detailed account of the issues raised by these concepts and programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306541/
House Standing Committees' Rules on Legislative Activities: Analysis for the 113th Congress
This report examines in text and tables how committees implemented House rules in their individual committee rules for the 113th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306539/
The U.S. Secret Service: History and Missions
This report discusses potential policy questions concerning the U.S. Secret Service through an examination of the Service's history and its statutory authorities, mission, and present activities within Department of Homeland Security (DHS). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306565/
Afghanistan: Drug Trafficking and the 2014 Transition
This report describes key U.S. counternarcotics programs in Afghanistan in the context of the 2014 transition and analyzes policy issues related to these programs for Congress to consider as policy makers examine the drug problem in Afghanistan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306535/
The Power to Regulate Commerce: Limits on Congressional Power
This report discusses the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution, which provides that the Congress shall have the power to regulate interstate and foreign commerce. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306564/