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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress

Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress

Date: December 16, 2004
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.
Description: This report discusses policy and legislation regarding fish and marine mammals. These animals are important resources in open ocean and nearshore coastal areas. Commercial and sport fishing are jointly managed by the federal government and individual states. Many laws and regulations guide the management of these resources by federal agencies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Overview of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003

Overview of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003

Date: December 6, 2004
Creator: O'Sullivan, Jennifer; Chaikind, Hinda; Tilson, Sibyl; Boulanger, Jennifer & Morgan, Paulette
Description: This report examines the the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003, which creates a prescription drug benefit for Medicare beneficiaries and establishes a new Medicare Advantage program to replace the current Medicare+Choice program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The 2003 Tax Cut: Proposals and Issues

The 2003 Tax Cut: Proposals and Issues

Date: July 16, 2004
Creator: Brumbaugh, David L. & Richards, Don C.
Description: This report provides a brief description of each tax cut proposal, including major proposals offered by the Democrats in both the House and the Senate during 2003. It discusses the distributional affects of the proposals and potential effects on short and long term economic growth.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Water Act Issues in the 108th Congress

Clean Water Act Issues in the 108th Congress

Date: December 6, 2004
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses issues regarding the Clean Water Act. Prospects for legislative initiatives to comprehensively amend the Clean Water Act (CWA) have stalled for some time over whether and exactly how to change the law, and Congress has recently focused legislative attention on narrow bills to extend or modify selected CWA programs, rather than taking up comprehensive proposals. For example, the 108th Congress enacted one bill amending the CWA, legislation to reauthorize the National Estuary Program (H.R. 4731, P.L. 108-399).
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Brownfields and Superfund Issues in the 108th Congress

Brownfields and Superfund Issues in the 108th Congress

Date: October 27, 2004
Creator: Reisch, Mark
Description: This report discusses the Superfund program for cleaning up the nation's worst hazardous waste sites, created by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, or CERCLA (P.L. 96-510, as amended). It includes recent development and background issues, superfund issues, revenue issues, comprehensive reauthorization, and legislation regarding superfund program.
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Social Security Reform

Social Security Reform

Date: December 9, 2004
Creator: Nuschler, Dawn
Description: This report examines the debate over the future of the Social Security system. It includes discussion of recent developments; background and analysis with information about the basic debate, specific area of contention, reform initiatives; and relevant legislation.
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The Adverse Effect Wage Rate (AEWR)

The Adverse Effect Wage Rate (AEWR)

Date: April 5, 2004
Creator: Whittaker, William G.
Description: This report introduces the adverse effect wage rate (AEWR) and the concerns out of which it grew, from the perspective of labor policy (not of immigration policy). American agricultural employers have long utilized foreign workers on a temporary basis, regarding them as an important manpower resource. Often employed at low wages and under adverse conditions, such alien workers, some argue, may compete unfairly with U.S. workers. To mitigate any "adverse effect" for the domestic workforce, a system of wage floors was developed that applies, variously, both to alien and citizen workers.
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Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 108th Congress

Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 108th Congress

Date: December 1, 2004
Creator: Knezo, Genevieve J.
Description: This report discusses federal funding for research and development. National R&D funding continues to grow, but the federal R&D share has declined to less than 30% of the total. Debates focus on which fields of federal R&D should be increased and how to set priorities and to "balance" health and nonhealth fields.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Frequently Asked Questions Concerning the Federal Income Tax

Frequently Asked Questions Concerning the Federal Income Tax

Date: May 7, 2001
Creator: Luckey, John R.
Description: This report addresses some of the frequently asked historical, constitutional, procedural, and legal questions concerning the federal income tax.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
School Choice: Current Legislation

School Choice: Current Legislation

Date: November 24, 2004
Creator: Smole, David P.
Description: This report provides an overview of current local, state, and federal policies and programs that support school choice and identifies and summarizes recent federal school choice legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Major Tax Issues in the 108th Congress

Major Tax Issues in the 108th Congress

Date: December 2, 2004
Creator: Brumbaugh, David L.
Description: This report provides an overview of major tax issues. It begins by describing three aspects of the economic context in which the tax policy debate during 2004 is likely to occur: the general state of the U.S. economy; the position of the federal budget; and the level of taxes in the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Social Security Reform: Economic Issues

Social Security Reform: Economic Issues

Date: December 3, 2004
Creator: Gravelle, Jane & Labonte, Marc
Description: This report tackles the issue of Social Security reform from an economic perspective that focuses not merely on reform that achieves programmatic sustainability (sustainability within the trust fund), but reform that achieves sustainability for the government and economy as a whole. The President has indicated that Social Security reform will be a major issue in the 109th Congress. For some time comprehensive reform has been an issue of debate in Congress, but no major action has occurred.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Date: November 4, 2004
Creator: Bamberger, Robert
Description: This report discusses energy legislation pertaining to fuel standards. The current corporate average fuel economy standard (CAFE) is 27.5 miles per gallon (mpg) for passenger automobiles and 20.7 mpg for light trucks (scheduled to increase to 22.2 mpg in model year [MY] 2007), a classification that also includes sport utility vehicles (SUVs). Congress had included language in the FY1996-FY2001 Transportation Appropriations prohibiting the use of appropriated funds for any rulemaking on CAFE, effectively freezing the standards.
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21st Century Community Learning Centers in P.L. 107-110: Background and Funding

21st Century Community Learning Centers in P.L. 107-110: Background and Funding

Date: March 16, 2004
Creator: McCallion, Gail
Description: This report summarizes the major provisions of the reauthorized 21st Century Community Learning Centers (21st CCLC) program. It includes sections on fundings, national reservations, formula grants to states, competitive local grants, history, program effectiveness, and relevant legislation in the 107th Congress.
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The Davis-Bacon Act: Issues and Legislation During the 108th Congress

The Davis-Bacon Act: Issues and Legislation During the 108th Congress

Date: March 19, 2004
Creator: Whittaker, William G.
Description: This report discusses the debate surrounding the Davis-Bacon Act (1931, as amended), which requires, among other things, that not less than the locally-prevailing wage be paid to workers employed in federal contract construction. Through recent decades, the Act has become a continuing source of contention, particularly regarding its impacts, whether it should be modified, strengthened, or repealed, and if it is being administered effectively.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Welfare: Reauthorization of the Promoting Safe and Stable Families Program in the 107th Congress

Child Welfare: Reauthorization of the Promoting Safe and Stable Families Program in the 107th Congress

Date: January 24, 2002
Creator: Stoltzfus, Emilie & Spar, Karen
Description: This report discusses the reauthorization of the Promoting Safe and Stable Families Amendments of 2001. The new law maintains the FY2001 mandatory funding level, authorizes additional discretionary funding, and grants new program authority to provide mentoring services for children of prisoners. In addition, the enacted legislation allows states to use Promoting Safe and Stable Families funds for infant "safe haven" programs, provides for reallocation of unused program funds, clarifies language defining family support programs, and gives more explicit instructions to the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) regarding use of funds set aside for research, evaluation and technical assistance.
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Telecommunications Discounts for Schools and Libraries: The "E-Rate" Program and Controversies

Telecommunications Discounts for Schools and Libraries: The "E-Rate" Program and Controversies

Date: November 10, 2004
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A.
Description: This report addresses the controversial issues surrounding the E-rate program's implementation and subsequent legislative measures introduced to address these issues. An additional issue, concern that minors may gain access to "inappropriate" material through the Internet has also had an impact on the E-rate program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Issues Affecting Tidal, Wave, and In-Stream Generation Projects

Issues Affecting Tidal, Wave, and In-Stream Generation Projects

Date: July 9, 2008
Creator: Lane, Nic
Description: This report provides an overview of developments and considerations regarding wave, tidal, and in-stream energy generation technology. It summarizes federal involvement in the regulation of this new industry and highlights current issues in the field.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality Issues and Animal Agriculture: EPA's Air Compliance Agreement

Air Quality Issues and Animal Agriculture: EPA's Air Compliance Agreement

Date: August 26, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses a plan announced by EPA in January 2005, called the Air Compliance Agreement, intended to produce air quality monitoring data on animal agriculture emissions from a small number of farms, while at the same time protecting all participants (including farms where no monitoring takes place) through a "safe harbor" from liability under certain provisions of federal environmental laws.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Conservation Reserve Program: Status and Current Issues

Conservation Reserve Program: Status and Current Issues

Date: August 16, 2007
Creator: Cowan, Tadlock
Description: This report discusses the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) enacted in 1985, which provides payments to farmers to take highly erodible or environmentally-sensitive cropland out of production for ten years or more to conserve soil and water resources.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Water Resources Development Act (WRDA): Army Corps of Engineers Authorization Issues in the 109th Congress

Water Resources Development Act (WRDA): Army Corps of Engineers Authorization Issues in the 109th Congress

Date: March 13, 2006
Creator: Carter, Nicole T.
Description: The Corps is a federal agency in the Department of Defense with military and civilian responsibilities. At the direction of Congress, the Corps plans, builds, operates, and maintains a wide range of water resources facilities in U.S. states and territories.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Endangered Species Act and "Sound Science"

The Endangered Species Act and "Sound Science"

Date: September 27, 2007
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.; Corn, M. L.; Baldwin, Pamela & Alexander, Kristina
Description: This report provides a context for evaluating legislative proposals through examples of how science has been used in selected cases, a discussion of the nature and role of science in general, and its role in the Endangered Species Act (ESA) process in particular, together with general and agency information quality requirements and policies, and a review of how the courts have viewed agency use of science.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Recreation on Federal Lands

Recreation on Federal Lands

Date: April 25, 2006
Creator: Calvert, Kori & Vincent, Carol H.
Description: This report discuses the 109th Congress's considering legislation and conducting oversight on issues involving recreation on federal lands, including traditional recreational pursuits and newer forms of motorized recreation. The Administration is addressing these issues through budgetary, regulatory, and other actions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Funding Levels for Conservation Programs in the 2007 Farm Bill

Funding Levels for Conservation Programs in the 2007 Farm Bill

Date: October 15, 2007
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey
Description: This report consists of two tables, preceded by a brief narrative. The first table summarizes the annual funding provisions, by program, in (1) current law, (2) H.R. 2419 as passed, and (3) the Bush Administration's farm bill proposals. The second table compares FY2007 authorized and actual funding levels for programs authorized in the 2002 farm bill with FY2008 and FY2012 funding levels that would be authorized in the 2007 House-passed farm bill.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department