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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Results 14101 - 14150 of 20,475
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Intelligence Issues for Congress
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Intelligence Issues for Congress
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Intelligence Issues for Congress
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Intelligence Issues for Congress
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Intelligence Issues for Congress
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Intelligence Issues for Congress
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Intelligence Issues for Congress
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Internet: An Overview of Key Technology Policy Issues Affecting Its Use and Growth
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Social Security: Brief Facts and Statistics
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Cruise Missile Defense
Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft — vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload. The Department of Defense is pursuing several initiatives that seek to improve capabilities against an unpredictable cruise missile threat. These initiatives compete for funding and congressional attention. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6369/
Social Security: Summary of Major Changes in the Cash Benefits Program
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Trade and the Americas
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Immigration Legislation and Issues in the 106th Congress
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Country Applicability of the U.S. Normal Trade Relations (Most-Favored-Nation) Status
The United States accords permanent normal-trade-relations (NTR) (formerly called most-favored-nation (MFN)) treatment to all its trading partners except six countries to which it is denied by law and 11 countries whose NTR status is temporary and subject to the conditions of Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6367/
Internet: An Overview of Key Technology Policy Issues Affecting Its Use and Growth
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China's Most-Favored-Nation Status: U.S. Wheat, Corn, and Soybean Exports
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Agricultural Wetlands: Current Programs and Legislative Proposals
Amending Federal laws to protect wetlands, especially agricultural wetlands, is a contentious issue for the 104th Congress. Critics contend that current programs are excessive in their reach and unfairly restrict private landowners. Supporters counter that these programs are critical if the Nation is to achieve the stated goal of no-net-loss of wetlands. The two major statutes under which agricultural wetlands are protected are swampbuster, enacted in the Agriculture, Food, Trade, and Conservation Act of 1985, and section 404, enacted in the 1972 Clean Water Act. This report describes both programs, emphasizing how they relate to each other. It explains how each program works, especially on agricultural wetlands, and the likely effect of proposed revisions to swampbuster. Also, it briefly considers other legislative proposals that would amend the section 404 program, which, if enacted, would further affect how agricultural wetlands are protected. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6360/
The Information Superhighway: Status and Issues
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China's Changing Conditions
Congressional interest in the leadership change and economic transformation underway in China has grown substantially over the past few years. Leading congressional concerns focus on how economic conditions in China pose opportunities for U.S. enterprise and how the evolution of conditions in China fosters U.S. security, economic, and political interests. Congressional concern with China grew in 1995 and 1996 as a result of reports of the serious decline in the health of senior Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping. Present conditions in China include; A vibrant but sometimes overheated economy, A less divided central political leadership. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6359/
Campaign Finance: Constitutional and Legal Issues of Soft Money
"Soft money" has become one of the major issues in the area of campaign financing in federal elections. The controversy surrounding this issue is due to the perception that soft money may be the largest loophole in the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA). Soft money is broadly defined as funds that are raised and spent according to applicable state laws; that would be impermissible, under the FECA, to spend directly in federal elections and that may have an indirect influence on federal elections. This Issue Brief discusses three major types of soft money: political party soft money, corporate and labor union soft money, and soft money used for issue advocacy communications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6363/
Cuba: Issues for Congress
This report examines the economic and political situation in Cuba, including the human rights situation, and U.S. policy toward Cuba. The report also analyzes a number of issues facing Congress in U.S. policy toward Cuba, including: the overall direction of U.S. policy; challenges to U.S. policy in the World Trade Organization; restrictions on commercial food and medical exports; restrictions on travel; bilateral drug trafficking cooperation; Cuba and terrorism; funding for U.S.-government sponsored radio and television broadcasting to Cuba; the Russian signals intelligence facility in Cuba; migration issues; and compensation to the families of those Americans killed in 1996 when Cuba shot down two U.S. civilian planes. The report cites legislation that was passed in the 106th Congress, and also tracks legislative action on these various issues in U.S. policy toward Cuba in the 107th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6358/
Restructuring DOE and Its Laboratories: Issues in the 106th Congress
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Softwood Lumber Imports: The 1996 U.S.-Canada Agreement
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Moldova: Background and U.S. Policy
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Iraq: Elections and New Government
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K-12 Education Programs: Appropriations Summary
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Overtime Pay: The Department of Labor Initiative and Congressional Response (2003-2004)
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Foreign Direct Investment in the United States: An Economic Analysis
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Final Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Rules on Retiree Health Plans and the Age Discrimination in Employment Act
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Iraq: Transition to Sovereignty
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The Constitutionality of Including the Phrase "Under God" in the Pledge of Allegiance
On October 14, 2003, the Supreme Court granted certiorari in the appeal regarding the California statute, and on June 14, 2004, the Court reversed the Ninth Circuit’s decision finding that Newdow lacked standing to challenge the school district’s policy in federal court. This report summarizes the facts of the case, the opinions that have been rendered, congressional action, and the appeal to the Supreme Court. It will be updated as circumstances warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6131/
Federal Crime Control Assistance to State and Local Governments
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Nuclear Weapons: The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program
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Beneficiary Information and Decision Supports for the Medicare-Endorsed Prescription Drug Discount Card
On December 8, 2003 the President signed into law the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA, P.L. 108-173). This legislation establishes a Medicare prescription drug benefit, effective January 1, 2006. In the interim, the legislation requires the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to establish a temporary program of Medicare-endorsed prescription drug discount cards. This report discusses the objectives and benefits of this legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6351/
Health Care Flexible Spending Accounts
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Influenza Vaccine Shortages and Implications
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The Flat Tax, Value-Added Tax, and National Retail Sales Tax: Overview of the Issues
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Social Security: The Public Servant Retirement Protection Act (H.R. 4391/S. 2455)
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Health Savings Accounts
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The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Comparison and Analysis of Selected Provisions in H.R. 1350 as Passed by the House and by the Senate, 108th Congress
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Cable and Satellite Television Network Tiering and a la Carte Options for Consumers: Issues for Congress
The large cable programmers, who provide most of the popular cable (and broadcast) television programming, respond that a single large expanded basic service tier represents the most efficient way to offer programming and that allowing customers to obtain networks on an a la carte basis or in small tiers would raise costs – and hence prices to consumers – and also reduce the diversity of programs offered, so that consumer welfare would suffer in the long run. In this report, the pros and cons of offering subscribers only a single large expanded basic service tier and also of the various proposals to provide consumers more options are presented. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6123/
Offshoring (a.k.a. Offshore Outsourcing) and Job Insecurity Among U.S. Workers
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Medicare Endorsed Prescription Drug Discount Card Program
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Aviation Security: Issues Before Congress Since September 11, 2001
The events of September 11, 2001 heightened concerns regarding aviation security in the United States. The ensuing debate in Congress focused on the degree of federal involvement needed to improve aviation security and restore public confidence in air travel. The Aviation and Transportation Security Act (ATSA, P.L. 107-71, 115 Stat. 597) established the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) and contained provisions establishing a federal screener workforce and requiring screening of checked baggage using explosive detection systems. In November 2004, airports will be eligible to opt out of the federal security screening program and a provision of P.L. 107-296 preserving TSA in its present form will expire allowing DHS to restructure the TSA if it so chooses, although no such plan has been revealed to date. During the second session of the 108th Congress, oversight of TSA’s plans for implementing the security screening opt-out program will likely be of considerable interest as will any plans to restructure the TSA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6121/
Education for the Disadvantaged: Overview of ESEA Title 1-A Amendments Under the No Child Left Behind Act
Title I, Part A, of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) authorizes federal aid to local educational agencies (LEAs) for the education of disadvantaged children. Title I-A grants provide supplementary educational and related services to low-achieving and other pupils attending schools with relatively high concentrations of pupils from low-income families in pre-kindergarten through grade 12. Title I-A is the largest federal elementary and secondary education assistance program, with services provided to (a) over 90% of all LEAs; (b) approximately 45,000 (58% of all) public schools; and (c) approximately 11 million (22% of all) pupils, including approximately 167,000 pupils attending private schools. Four-fifths of all pupils served are in pre-kindergarten through grade 6, while only 5% of pupils served are in grades 10-12. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6120/
Medicare Payment Policies
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Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2003
This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) districts of the 219 women Members of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5725/
Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2001
This report identifies the committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) districts of the 209 women Members of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2074/
Welfare Law and Domestic Violence
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Welfare Law and Domestic Violence
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