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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Results 14101 - 14150 of 18,524
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COLAs for Military Retirees: Summary of Congressional and Executive Branch Action, 1982-2003 (FY1983-FY2004)
The Omnibus Reconciliation Act of 1982 (which applied to FY1983 budget issues) suspended previously existing permanent law pertaining to cost-of-living adjustments(COLAs) for federal civilian and military retirees, and changed the COLA calculation formulas to postpone and/or reduce future COLAs for military retirees during 1983-1985 (FY1984-FY1986).This report examines executive and congressional COLA-related initiatives associated with each of the fiscal year budgeting processes from calendar year 1982 (FY1983) through calendar year 2000 (FY2001). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6000/
COLAs for Military Retirees: Summary of Congressional and Executive Branch Action, 1982-2002 (FY1983-FY2003)
The Omnibus Reconciliation Act of 1982 (which applied to FY1983 budget issues) suspended previously existing permanent law pertaining to cost-of-living adjustments(COLAs) for federal civilian and military retirees, and changed the COLA calculation formulas to postpone and/or reduce future COLAs for military retirees during 1983-1985 (FY1984-FY1986).This report examines executive and congressional COLA-related initiatives associated with each of the fiscal year budgeting processes from calendar year 1982 (FY1983) through calendar year 2000 (FY2001). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3222/
COLAs for Military Retirees: Summary of Congressional and Executive Branch Action, 1982-2001 (FY1983-FY2002)
The Omnibus Reconciliation Act of 1982 (which applied to FY1983 budget issues) suspended previously existing permanent law pertaining to cost-of-living adjustments(COLAs) for federal civilian and military retirees, and changed the COLA calculation formulas to postpone and/or reduce future COLAs for military retirees during 1983-1985 (FY1984-FY1986).This report examines executive and congressional COLA-related initiatives associated with each of the fiscal year budgeting processes from calendar year 1982 (FY1983) through calendar year 2000 (FY2001). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3221/
Business and Labor Spending in U.S. Elections
Federal election law has long prohibited corporate and union spending in federal elections, but distinctions in statutes and judicial rulings have opened avenues by which these groups have been able to spend money in the electoral process. Business groups make particular use of political action committee (PAC) donations to candidates and soft money donations to parties. Unions made prominent use of issue advocacy in 1996, but labor’s political strength lies in exempt activity communications with members. This report explains these tools and their use in today’s elections. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs468/
The Use of Union Dues for Political Purposes: A Legal Analysis
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs467/
The Use of Labor Union Dues for Political Purposes: A Legal Analysis
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1263/
The Use of Union Dues for Political Purposes: A Discussion of Agency Fee Objectors and Public Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs738/
Affirmative Action: Recent Congressional and Presidential Activity
In recent years, the U.S. Congress and the President have been reevaluating, and proposing changes to, existing affirmative action policies. Multiple bills to restrict affirmative action were introduced in the 104th Congress, but only one limited measure was enacted. Some anti-preference legislation is currently before the 105th Congress. The Clinton Administration has generally opposed efforts to terminate affirmative action programs and, instead, has proposed various reforms. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs737/
Political Spending by Organized Labor: Background and Current Issues
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Unemployment Benefits: Legislative Issues in the 108th Congress
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Unemployment Benefits: Legislative Issues in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5099/
Unemployment Benefits: Legislative Issues in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5098/
Unemployment Benefits: Legislative Issues in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3220/
Unemployment Benefits: Legislative Issues in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3219/
Unemployment Benefits: Legislative Issues in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3218/
Unemployment Benefits: Legislative Issues in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3217/
Unemployment Benefits: Legislative Issues in the 105th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs735/
Does Trade Reduce Wages of U.S. Workers?
This report examines in some detail the hypothesis that trade is undermining the economic status of the American worker. Two questions are addressed: one, Has trade tended to reduce the average level of wages? and, two, Has trade increased the inequality of wages? The general conclusion reached is that poor wage performance is largely a problem of the domestic economy, that would have occurred with or without trade. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs141/
The Male-Female Wage Gap: A Fact Sheet
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1262/
Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA): Reauthorization of Title I Job Training Programs
Title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA) (P.L. 105-220), the country’s chief job training legislation, authorizes several job training programs, including Youth, Adult, and Dislocated Worker Activities; Job Corps; Youth Opportunity Grants; and programs for Native Americans, migrant and seasonal farmworkers, and veterans. The funding authorization for WIA programs expires on September 30,2003. On May 8, 2003, the House passed H.R. 1261, the Workforce Reinvestment and Adult Education Act of 2003. In addition to reauthorizing the Title I job training programs, the bill would also reauthorize the adult education and literacy programs and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. This report focuses on provisions related to the Title I programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5097/
Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA): Reauthorization of Title I Job Training Programs
Title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA) (P.L. 105-220), the country’s chief job training legislation, authorizes several job training programs, including Youth, Adult, and Dislocated Worker Activities; Job Corps; Youth Opportunity Grants; and programs for Native Americans, migrant and seasonal farmworkers, and veterans. The funding authorization for WIA programs expires on September 30,2003. On March 6, 2003, the Administration released its proposal for reauthorization of the Title I programs. On March 27, 2003, the House Committee on Education and the Workforce approved H.R. 1261, as amended, the Workforce Reinvestment and Adult Education Act of 2003. In addition to reauthorizing the Title I job training programs, the bill would also reauthorize the adult education and literacy programs and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. This report focuses on provisions related to the Title I programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5096/
Job Training: Characteristics of Workforce Training Participants
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1848/
The Work Opportunity Tax Credit and the 105th Congress
The Work Opportunity Tax Credit (WOTC) was initiated in the Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-188). It is a temporary measure intended to encourage for-profit employers to hire members of specifically designated groups thought to experience recurring problems in the labor market. This document describes the WOTC and identifies issues for members of the 105th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs734/
Job Training Reform: Legislation in the 105th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs733/
Vocational Education: Legislation to Reauthorize the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs732/
The Job Training Partnership Act: Training Programs at a Glance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs731/
African Development Bank and Fund
The African Development Bank Group, including the Bank itself (AfDB) and its “soft-loan” affiliate, the African Development Fund (AfDF), is a development finance institution based in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. The Bank has 53 African members, as well as 24 non-regional members, including the United States. In the mid-1990s, the Bank faced management problems and difficulties arising from non-performing loans, but reforms launched in 1995 by a new Bank president, Omar Kabbaj, brought new pledges of support from the non-regionals. U.S. contributions to the Fund resumed in FY1998 and to the Bank in FY2000. This report will be updated as events warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1847/
Russia's Paris Club Debt: U.S. Interests
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1261/
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the 2000 Summit in Brunei
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1846/
African Development Bank and Fund
The African Development Bank Group, including the Bank itself (AfDB) and its "soft-loan" affiliate, the African Development Fund (AfDF), is a development finance institution based in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. The Bank has 53 African members, as well as 24 non-regional members, including the United States. In the mid-1990s, the Bank faced management problems and difficulties arising from non-performing loans, but reforms launched in 1995 by a new Bank president, Omar Kabbaj, brought new pledges of support from the non-regionals. U.S. contributions to the Bank resumed in FY2000. This report will be updated as events warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1260/
IMF Reform and the International Financial Institutions Advisory Commission
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1845/
Debt Reduction: Initiatives for the Most Heavily Indebted Poor Countries
This report offers a broad overview of the debate concerning debt reduction for poor developing countries. It profiles the scope and structure of debt and reviews previous debt relief strategies and the current HIPC Initiative. It analyzes and compares competing alternatives endorsed by the Administration, congressional activists, NGOs, and other G-7 governments. Several key issues, such as costs, impact, and conditionality, of pending proposals are also assessed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1259/
Multilateral Development Banks: Issues for the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5095/
Multilateral Development Banks: Issues for the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5094/
Multilateral Development Banks: Issues for the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5093/
Multilateral Development Banks: Issues for the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5092/
Multilateral Development Banks: Issues for the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3216/
Multilateral Development Banks: Issues for the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3215/
Multilateral Development Banks: Issues for the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3214/
Multilateral Development Banks: Issues for the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3213/
Multilateral Development Banks: Issues for the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3212/
China and the Multilateral Development Banks
Congress is currently considering appropriations for U.S. contributions to the World Bank and other multilateral development banks (MDBs) as well as separate legislation that would require U.S. representatives to these institutions to oppose all concessional loans to China. This report provides a brief analysis of China’s relationship with the MDBs to highlight some issues and help Members of Congress, congressional staff, and observers better understand the context for the current debates in Congress and the multilateral agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs466/
Foreign Direct Investment in the U.S.: Staging a Comeback?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs229/
The Exchange-Rate System: Return to Bretton Woods?
This report focuses on the exchange-rate system set up at Bretton Woods, its breakdown in the 1970s, the current system of managed floating and, finally, proposals to return part or all the way to a more fixed-rate system. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs228/
A Reappraisal of Foreign Investment Policy
The rise of the multinational corporation and the increased flow of capital across national borders have raised anew the question of how to treat foreign direct investment, both inward and outward. The U.S. government and, increasingly, other governments advocate that, with some exceptions, economic policies should be neutral in the treatment of investment, foreign and domestic, inward and outward. This report discusses the changing view of foreign investment, both nationally and internationally. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs140/
Japanese and U.S. Economic Involvement in Asia and the Pacific: Comparative Data and Analysis
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs139/
International Financial Institutions and Environment: Multilateral Development Banks and the Global Environment Facility
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs138/
The Yen/Dollar Exchange Rate
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs137/
Balkan Cooperation on War Crimes Issues: 2005 Update
A combination of intensified international pressure and deadlines associated with Euro-Atlantic integration processes has prompted a spate of transfers of persons indicted for war crimes to the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in The Hague in late 2004-early 2005. Full cooperation with The Hague tribunal has been established as a key prerequisite to further progress toward a shared long-term goal for the western Balkan countries: closer association with and eventual membership in the European Union (EU) and NATO. This report is updated as the number of individuals indicted for war crimes have been transferred to The Hague from Serbia, Kosovo, and Bosnia. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6280/
Organization of American States: A Primer
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6279/