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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Syria: Background and U.S. Relations
This report analyzes an array of bilateral issues that continue to affect relations between the United States and Syria. It includes descriptions of recent developments, issues for Congress, U.S.-Syrian relations, U.S. Sanctions, and future prospects related to the role of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700921/
Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt
This report presents current data on estimated ownership of U.S. Treasury securities and major holders of federal debt by country. Federal debt represents the accumulated balance of borrowing by the federal government. To finance federal borrowing, U.S. Treasury securities are sold to investors, directly from the Treasury or on the secondary market to individual private investors, financial institutions in the United States or overseas, and foreign, state, or local governments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700626/
U.S. Accession to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations' Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC)
This report analyzes the legal and diplomatic issues involved with accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700692/
Unauthorized Employment in the United States: Issues, Options, and Legislation
As immigration reform and the illegal alien population have gained congressional and public attention in the past several years, the issue of unauthorized employment has come to the fore. It is widely accepted that most unauthorized aliens enter and remain in the United States in order to work. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700614/
VH-71 Presidential Helicopter Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the VH-71 program, which is intended to provide 23 new presidential helicopters to replace the current fleet of 19 aging presidential helicopters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700672/
African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA): Background and Reauthorization
This report discusses the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA), which is a nonreciprocal trade preference program that provides duty-free treatment to U.S. imports of certain products from eligible sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700628/
Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Economic and Social Indicators
This report provides a fact sheet that tracks selected economic and social development indicators for Latin American and Caribbean countries. It also classifies country economies by income. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700650/
The Arecibo Ionospheric Observatory
This report discusses the issues involved with determining whether the Arecib Ionospheric Observatory is more cost-effective than replacing it with newer, available technology. The Arecibo Ionospheric Observatory is a radio and radar telescope located in Barrio Esperanza, Arecibo, Puerto Rico. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700654/
Funding for Education in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (P.L. 111-5)
This report provides a brief overview of the key provisions related to education programs that are or will be administered by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) that were included in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) under Division A, Title VIII, Department of Education, and under Title XIV, State Fiscal Stabilization Fund. It also includes a discussion of relevant provisions that were included in the House and Senate bills. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700611/
Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests
This report discusses the current political and economic conditions in Russia, focusing on the impact of Vladimir Putin's leadership and the leadership of his successor/protégé, Dmitriy Medvedev, both of which have steered Russia away from democratization. The report also discusses the state of the economy since the Soviet collapse in 1999, how the recent global economic downturn has affected Russia, the state of Russia's military, and the current relationship between Russia and the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700691/
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA, P.L. 111-5): Title V, Medicaid Provisions
In addition to reducing some taxes and funding infrastructure projects, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) provisions were designed to provide: temporary support to families and individuals by increasing unemployment compensation benefits; financial assistance for individuals to maintain their health coverage under provisions in the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 (COBRA); temporary increases in Medicaid matching rates; and increases in disproportionate share hospital allotments. This report is a summary of ARRA's Medicaid provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700698/
China and the Global Financial Crisis: Implications for the United States
This report discusses the economy of China and how it is has been affected by the recent economic downturn. China has recently enjoyed one of the world's fastest-growing economies and has been a major contributor to world economic growth, but several Chinese industries have been hard by the crisis, and millions of workers have been laid off. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700624/
Economic Crisis in Greece
This report briefly discusses the current economic situation in Greece. Questions about whether Greece will stay in the Eurozone have resurfaced, as the government's stalemate with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and Eurozone creditors has reached a critical point. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700652/
The Transition to Digital Television: Is America Ready?
This report discusses the background and potential effects of the DTV Delay Act, which directs that all over-the-air full-power television broadcasts will become digital only. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700633/
The President's Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP): Issues for Congress
This report discusses the role of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), including an overview of the history of science and technology advice to the President, issues and options for Congress regarding (OSTP) Director, OSTP management and operations, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), and the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). The report also discusses actions taken by the Obama Administration regarding OSTP. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700641/
Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers
This report attempts to answer basic questions about defense health care, its beneficiary population, the medical services it provides, its costs, and major changes that are underway or have been proposed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700639/
The United Arab Emirates Nuclear Program and Proposed U.S. Nuclear Cooperation
This report provides background information on the UAE nuclear program, reviews developments to date, analyzes proposed nuclear cooperation with the United States, and discusses relevant legislative proposals and options. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700665/
Bosnia: Current Issues and U.S. Policy
This report presents an overview of the economic and political situation in Bosnia. It starts out by describing the current situation, the negotiations on forming a new central government, the international role in Bosnia, and the last part discusses the implications of U.S. policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700635/
Advance Appropriations for Veterans' Health Care: Issues and Options for Congress
This report discusses issues regarding authorization of an advanced appropriation for certain medical care accounts of the Veterans Health Administration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700664/
Charleston, SC, Mass Shooter Might Have Been Denied a Handgun If Not for Possible Recordkeeping Oversights
This report briefly discusses the announcement by Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Director James Comey that the alleged assailant in the Charleston, SC, mass murder/shooting at the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church might have been prevented from acquiring a handgun if not for possible recordkeeping oversights on the part of the FBI and Columbia, SC, city police and county sheriff's departments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700694/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2009
Under President Bush's FY2009 budget request, five federal agencies would have received 92.8% of total federal R&D funding. This report provides an analysis of the R&D budget requests for these agencies, as well as for the Departments of Agriculture (USDA), Commerce (DOC), Homeland Security, Interior (DOI), and Transportation (DOT), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In total these departments and agencies accounted for more than 98% of current and requested federal R&D funding. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700605/
Technology Transfer: Use of Federally Funded Research and Development
This report discusses the federal use of technology transfer, a process by which technology developed in one organization, in one area, or for one purpose is applied in another organization, in another area, or for another purpose. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700617/
Medical Marijuana: Review and Analysis of Federal and State Policies
This report discusses the issue before Congress of whether to continue the federal prosecution of medical marijuana patients and their providers, in accordance with the federal Controlled Substances Act (CSA), or whether to relax federal marijuana prohibition enough to permit the medicinal use of botanical cannabis products when recommended by a physician, especially where permitted under state law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700690/
Farm Bill Legislative Action in the 110th Congress
This report discuses the periodic omnibus farm bill, which is renewed about every five years, and governs federal farm and food policy. The report contains congressional actions and a summary of the conference agreement provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700663/
Special Operations Forces (SOF) and CIA Paramilitary Operations: Issues for Congress
This report will briefly describe special operations conducted by DOD and paramilitary operations conducted by the CIA and discuss the background of the 9/11 Commission's recommendations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700629/
Securing General Aviation
This report discusses safety concerns regarding General aviation (GA), which encompasses a wide range of airports, aircraft, and flight operations. Because GA plays a small but important role in the U.S. economy, improving upon GA security without unduly impeding air commerce or limiting the freedom of movement by air remains a significant challenge. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700666/
Funding for Education in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (P.L. 111-5)
This report provides a brief overview of the key provisions related to education programs that are or will be administered by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) that were included in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) under Division A, Title VIII, Department of Education, and under Title XIV, State Fiscal Stabilization Fund. It also includes a discussion of relevant provisions that were included in the House and Senate bills. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700689/
Internet Governance and the Domain Name System: Issues for Congress
This report provides a definition regarding Internet governance and how the Internet is currently governed. The report discusses the role of United States government and future model of Internet governance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700696/
Veterans' Benefits: The Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Program
This report describes Vocational Rehabilitation & Employment Service (VR&E) program services available to veterans with service-connected disabilities and to their families. It provides information about eligibility and entitlement, the application process, and resources available through other agencies. A brief history of the program is also provided. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700697/
The President's Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP): Issues for Congress
This report discusses the role of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), including an overview of the history of science and technology advice to the President, issues and options for Congress regarding (OSTP) Director, OSTP management and operations, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), and the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). The report also discusses actions taken by the Obama Administration regarding OSTP. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700649/
Intellectual Property Rights and Access to Medicines: International Trade Issues
This report focuses on the relationship between intellectual property right (IPR) provisions in international and U.S. trade policy and access to medicines. This issue represents one component of a broader debate about the relationship between trade policy and public health. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700643/
Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses issues Congress faces regarding the Navy's proposed FY2010 budget, particularly as relating to destroyer procurement plans and programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700682/
Analysis of Selected Legislative Proposals Addressing Guantanamo Detainees
This report discusses the approaches that selected legislative proposals take regarding Guantanamo detainees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700659/
Kenya: Current Conditions and the Challenges Ahead
This report discusses the current political conditions of Kenya, which has long been an important ally of the United States. The report focuses particularly on the December 2007 elections, which many international observers have declared as rigged and deeply flawed. The report also discusses violence that erupted once election results were announced, as well as U.S. efforts to urge Kenya toward election reforms. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700668/
The United Arab Emirates Nuclear Program and Proposed U.S. Nuclear Cooperation
This report provides background information on the UAE nuclear program, reviews developments to date, analyzes proposed nuclear cooperation with the United States, and discusses relevant legislative proposals and options. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700640/
Foreign Investment in U.S. Securities
This report analyzes the extent of foreign portfolio investment in the U.S. economy and assesses the economic conditions that are attracting such investment and the impact such investments are having on the economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700670/
Iran's Nuclear Program: Tehran's Compliance with International Obligations
This report provides a brief overview of Iran's nuclear program and describes the legal basis for the actions taken by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) board and the Security Council. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700615/
Federal Disaster Assistance Response and Recovery Programs: Brief Summaries
This report is designed to assist Members of Congress and their staff as they address the needs of their states, communities, and constituents after a disaster. It includes a summary of federal programs that provide federal disaster assistance to individual survivors, states, territories, local governments, and nongovernmental entities following a natural or man-made disaster. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700676/
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Background and Policy Issues
This report provides an overview of the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child's (CRC) background and structure and examines evolving U.S. policy toward the Convention, including past and current Administration positions and congressional perspectives. It also highlights issues for the 112th Congress, including the Convention's possible impact on federal and state laws, U.S. sovereignty, parental rights, and U.S. family planning and abortion policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700621/
The Student Aid and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 2009
This report reviews and briefly describes the proposals contained in H.R. 3221 to amend programs authorized under HEA and to establish and fund additional new education programs. It will be updated as warranted to track legislative developments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700631/
Honduran-U.S. Relations
This report examines current political and economic conditions in Honduras as well as issues in Honduran-U.S. relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700632/
Ex-Im Bank's General Statutory Authority Expires
This report discusses the Export-Import Bank (Ex-Im Bank), a wholly owned federal government corporation which seeks to provide direct loans, loan guarantees, and export credit insurance to: (1) support exports that the private sector is unwilling or unable to finance alone at commercially viable terms; and/or (2) counter government-backed financing offered by foreign countries through their export credit agency (ECA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700660/
Iran's 2009 Presidential Elections
This report analyzes and discusses Iran's 2009 presidential election, particularly the campaigns of reformist candidate Mir Hussein Musavi and incumbent President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. Allegations of vote rigging and election fraud have led to protests by supporters of candidate Musavi and have provoked international attention. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700618/
Burma's Parliament Defeats Constitutional Amendments
This report discusses the recent defeat of 5 proposed constitutional amendments in Burma that arguably could have advanced democratic reforms in which Congress has shown an interest. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700602/
U.S.-Iraq Agreements: Congressional Oversight Activities and Legislative Response
This report provides detailed information and analysis on the specific oversight activities of Congress concerning the U.S.-Iraq agreements signed on November 17, 2008. The report is divided into three main parts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700674/
Proposed Termination of Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) F136 Alternate Engine
This report discusses Department of Defense's (DOD) FY2009 budget, and the funding of F136 alternate engine for the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF), a program that was initiated by Congress in the FY1996 Defense Authorization Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700616/
Climate Change Litigation: A Survey
This report focuses on the legal debate surrounding climate change. Though the first court decision related to climate change appeared 19 years ago, such litigation has proliferated in just the past six. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700681/
Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security
This report analyzes U.S. and international sanctions against Iran and provides examples of companies and countries that conduct business with Iran, based on a wide range of open-source reporting. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700613/
Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E): Background, Status, and Selected Issues for Congress
This report discusses the establishment of the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E) within the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the America COMPETES Act (P.L. 110-69), which was authorized by Congress in August 2007. Modeled on the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), ARPA-E would support transformational energy technology research projects with the goal of enhancing the nation's economic and energy security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700619/
The President's Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP): Issues for Congress
This report discusses the role of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), including an overview of the history of science and technology advice to the President, issues and options for Congress regarding (OSTP) Director, OSTP management and operations, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), and the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). The report also discusses actions taken by the Obama Administration regarding OSTP. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700687/