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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Federal Public Transportation Program: In Brief
This report provides an introduction to the public transportation program administered by the Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration (FTA). This program was authorized in FY2016 through FY2020 by the Fixing America's Surface Transportation (FAST) Act (P.L. 114-94). The focus of the federal program is still on the capital side, but the program has evolved to support operational expenses in some circumstances, as well as safety oversight, planning, and research. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824560/
Coast Guard Cutter Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Coast Guard's programs for procuring 8 National Security Cutters (NSCs), 25 Offshore Patrol Cutters (OPCs), and 58 Fast Response Cutters (FRCs). The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify the Coast Guard's funding requests and acquisition strategies for the NSC, OPC, and FRC programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824470/
Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the sustainment and modernization of the Coast Guard's polar icebreaker fleet. Coast Guard polar icebreakers perform a variety of missions supporting U.S. interests in polar regions. The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify the Administration's plans for sustaining and modernizing the polar icebreaking fleet. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824561/
Highway Finance: RABA’s Double-edged Sword
This report discusses a possible reduction in federal highway program spending. Congress has chosen to overrule provisions of law that would have reduced the FY2003 spending level to $23.2 billion, and has instead settled on $31.8 billion, the same as the FY2002 level. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820984/
U.S. Motor Vehicle Industry: Federal Financial Assistance and Restructuring
This report focuses on the current situation faced by the Detroit 3, key aspects of their current crisis, including possible consequences of a failure of one or more companies, and some aspects of legislative actions that have been considered to bridge their financial conditions to a more stable situation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821135/
Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the sustainment and modernization of the Coast Guard’s polar icebreaker fleet, which performs a variety of missions supporting U.S. interests in polar regions. The Coast Guard’s proposed FY2015 budget requests $6 million to continue initial acquisition activities for a new polar icebreaker. The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify Coast Guard plans for sustaining and modernizing its polar icebreaking fleet. Congressional decisions on this issue could affect Coast Guard funding requirements, the Coast Guard’s ability to perform its polar missions, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821405/
The Department of Housing and Urban Development: FY2008 Appropriations
This report tracks the FY2008 congressional appropriations process and provides a detailed discussion of the funding and issues related to the majority of accounts in HUD’s budget. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821562/
Motor Vehicle Manufacturing Employment: National and State Trends and Issues
The 110th Congress is addressing many issues that could have a major impact on the U.S. motor vehicle manufacturing industry. This includes adopting new fuel economy standards for automobiles and light trucks (P.L. 110-140), plus consideration of legislation that may be used to help promote the manufacturing of future generations of fuel-efficient vehicles (S. 2191). This report looks at four sets of issues that have received attention in Congress or among the public more widely, with respect to employment in the U.S. motor manufacturing industry. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821565/
Coast Guard Deepwater Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the Deepwater program, which is a 20- to 25-year acquisition effort to replace or modernize 93 aging Coast Guard ships and 207 aging Coast Guard aircraft. The program’s estimated total acquisition cost is $19 billion to $24 billion. On March 25, 2005 the Coast Guard submitted to Congress a revised implementation plan for the program that alters the planned capabilities and numbers of Deepwater assets and the schedule for acquiring or modernizing them. Some Members of Congress have criticized the revised implementation plan. The Coast Guard’s proposed FY2006 budget requests $966 million for the program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821595/
Detection of Explosives on Airline Passengers: Recommendation of the 9/11 Commission and Related Issues
The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-458) directs the Department of Homeland Security to place high priority on developing and deploying equipment for passenger explosives screening; requires TSA to submit a strategic plan for deploying such equipment; and authorizes additional research funding. It also requires that passengers who are selected for additional screening be screened for explosives, as an interim measure until all passengers can be screened for explosives. Congressional interest in this topic continues in the 109th Congress. This report discusses the current state of passenger explosives trace detection, ongoing federal R&D efforts and pilot equipment deployments, and related policy issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821060/
Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies (THUD): FY2008 Appropriations
This report is a guide to one of the regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the Subcommittees on Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies of the House and Senate Committees on Appropriations. It summarizes the current legislative status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related legislative activity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc805740/
Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies (THUD): FY2008 Appropriations
This report is a guide to one of the regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the Subcommittees on Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies of the House and Senate Committees on Appropriations. It summarizes the current legislative status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related legislative activity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc815690/
Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies (THUD): FY2008 Appropriations
This report is a guide to one of the regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the Subcommittees on Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies of the House and Senate Committees on Appropriations. It summarizes the current legislative status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related legislative activity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820944/
Navy Nuclear-Powered Surface Ships: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress
This report discusses congressional interest in expanding the use of nuclear power to a wider array of Navy surface ships, starting with the Navy’s planned CG(X) cruiser. The issue for Congress is whether the CG(X) or other future Navy surface ships should be nuclear-powered. Congress’s decisions on this issue could affect, among other things, future Navy capabilities, Navy funding requirements, and the shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821651/
Dallas Love Field: The Wright and Shelby Amendments
The history of the Wright Amendment dates back to the 1960s when the now defunct Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB) proposed the creation of a single regional airport in the Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) area. This report discusses legislation affecting the Wright/Shelby restrictions that have been introduced in the 109th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821650/
Federal Highway Research, Development and Technology Deployment Program and Reauthorization Legislation
Debate over the future of federal support for highway research and development (RD) and technology deployment (TD) is part of the broader debate over reauthorization of federal policy regarding highway and transit programs. This report discusses the scope and nature of the RD and TD program of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and surveys issues associated with its reauthorization. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822015/
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and presents potential issues for Congress concerning the Navy’s ship force-structure goals and shipbuilding plans. The planned size of the Navy, the rate of Navy ship procurement, and the prospective affordability of the Navy’s shipbuilding plans have been matters of concern for the congressional defense committees for the past several years. Decisions that Congress makes on Navy shipbuilding programs can substantially affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822482/
The Safe-Harbor Provision for Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE)
This report analyzes the legal implications of the safe-harbor provision found in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (H.R. 6). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821483/
Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies (THUD): FY2009 Appropriations
This report is a guide to one of the regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the Subcommittees on Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies of the House and Senate Committees on Appropriations. It summarizes the current legislative status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related legislative activity. The report lists the key CRS staff relevant to the issues covered and related CRS products. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821493/
The Department of Housing and Urban Development: FY2008 Appropriations
This report, tracks congressional appropriations for HUD and provides a detailed discussion of the funding and issues related to the majority of accounts in the Department’s budget. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822418/
Coast Guard Deepwater Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress
This report discusses the Integrated Deepwater Systems (IDS) program, or Deepwater program for short, which is a $24-billion, 25-year project to replace and modernize the Coast Guard’s aging fleet of deepwater-capable ships and aircraft. It is the largest and most complex acquisition effort in Coast Guard history, encompassing 91 new cutters, 124 new small surface craft, and 244 new or converted airplanes, helicopters, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify the Administration’s annual funding requests and overall approach for the program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821515/
Sport Utility Vehicles, Mini-Vans, and Light Trucks: An Overview of Fuel Economy and Emissions Standards
Most sport utility vehicles, mini-vans, and pickups are classified as “light trucks” and thus are regulated less stringently than passenger cars under two major laws — the Energy Policy and Conservation Act for fuel economy standards, and the Clean Air Act for emissions standards. This report discusses the discrepancy between emissions and fuel economy standards for passenger cars and light trucks, how that discrepancy is changing, and legislative activity related to these issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820893/
Transportation Security: Issues for the 110th Congress
The focus of this report is how best to construct and finance a system of deterrence, protection, and response that effectively reduces the possibility and consequences of another terrorist attack without unduly interfering with travel, commerce, and civil liberties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821551/
Air Quality and Transportation Enhancement Provisions in the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991
This report describes how the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Program (CMAQ) and enhancement programs function, examines the policy issues surrounding them, and summarizes relevant provisions in major legislation to reauthorize ISTEA in the 105th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821528/
Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Ohio replacement program (ORP), a program to design and build a new class of 12 ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) to replace the Navy's current force of 14 Ohio-class SSBNs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795575/
Transportation Security: Issues for the 114th Congress
This report examines aviation, transit and passenger rail security, as well as port and maritime security. The difficulty and cost of protecting the transportation sector from attack raises a core question for policymakers: how much effort and resources to put toward protecting potential targets versus pursuing and fighting terrorists. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795871/
The Vessel Incidental Discharge Act: Background and Issues
This report discusses the combination of regulations and standards for controlling vessel discharges, which is at issue today and is addressed in legislation in the 114th Congress, the Vessel Incidental Discharge Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795810/
DOT's Federal Pipeline Safety Program: Background and Key Issues for Congress
This report reviews the history of federal programs for pipeline safety, significant safety issues, and recent developments focusing on key issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795391/
Federal Railroad Safety Programs: Selected Issues in Proposed Reauthorization Legislation
This report describes the major issues in the debate over reauthorization of Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) in the 110th Congress. It also describes the major provisions of H.R. 2095 as passed by the House and as passed by the Senate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795447/
Emergency Relief for Disaster-Damaged Roads and Transit Systems: In Brief
This report describes Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) assistance for the repair and reconstruction of highways and bridges damaged by disasters (such as Hurricane Sandy in 2012) or catastrophic failures (such as the collapse of the Skagit River Bridge in Washington State in 2013). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795412/
Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Ohio replacement program (ORP), a program to design and build a new class of 12 ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) to replace the Navy's current force of 14 Ohio-class SSBNs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795434/
National Aviation Security Policy, Strategy, and Mode-Specific Plans: Background and Considerations for Congress
This report examines the current National Aviation Security Policy, the National Strategy for Aviation Security, and formal mode-specific plans developed for implementing this strategic approach. This report also identifies and discusses some overarching considerations for congressional oversight and possible legislative action regarding the U.S. policy and strategy for securing the aviation domain. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795442/
The Army's Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information on the Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV) and it discusses the Army's proposed replacement to the Vietnam-era M-113 personnel carriers, which are still in service in a variety of support capacities in Armored Brigade Combat Teams (ABCTs). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795408/
Federal Loans to the Auto Industry Under the Energy Independence and Security Act
This report examines various programs considered by Congress, including grants and loans, to help automakers with the increased cost of compliance with higher fuel economy standards. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795466/
Federalism Issues in Surface Transportation Policy: A Historical Perspective
This report provides a historical perspective on contemporary federalism issues in surface transportation policy, from the beginning of the nation through the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21). It also discusses legislative activity during the 114th Congress to reauthorize highway and mass transit programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795476/
Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the modernization of the Coast Guard's polar icebreaker fleet, which performs a variety of missions supporting U.S. interests in polar regions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795720/
Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the sustainment and modernization of the Coast Guard's polar icebreaker fleet, which performs a variety of missions supporting U.S. interests in polar regions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795703/
House Transportation Bill Would Hold Spending Below Senate Bill
This report discusses the Surface Transportation Reauthorization and Reform Act of 2015 (STRRA), which provides only those spending increases the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) has determined are needed to cover projected inflation in the cost of the existing surface transportation program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795756/
Overview of the Air Carrier Access Act
TThis report briefly discusses the Air Carrier Access Act's (ACAA) statutory provisions, accompanying regulations, relevant judicial opinions, legislation in the 110th Congress, and possible considerations for the 111th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795742/
Cargo Preferences for U.S.-Flag Shipping
This report explains the motivation behind cargo preference law, discusses issues concerning the cost-effectiveness of the program, and reviews attempts to apply cargo preference to the nation's oil trade. The report also identifies several disparate bills reflecting wide disagreement on the future direction of cargo preference policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795793/
The State Department's Final Decision on the Keystone XL Pipeline
This report briefly discusses the State Department's denial of TransCanada's request for a Presidential Permit for proposed pipeline facilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795713/
Coast Guard Cutter Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Coast Guard's programs for procuring 8 National Security Cutters (NSCs), 25 Offshore Patrol Cutters (OPCs), and 58 Fast Response Cutters (FRCs). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795387/
Federal Aviation Administration Reauthorization: An Overview of Selected Provisions in Proposed Legislation Considered by the 110th Congress
The report is intended to provide a brief summary and analysis of major legislative provisions in bills related to reauthorization of the Federal Aviation Administration and related aviation programs that were considered during the 110th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770583/
Essential Air Service (EAS)
This report discusses Congress' establishment of the Essential Air Service (EAS), a program to ensure that small communities that were served by certificated air carriers before the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 would continue to receive scheduled passenger service, with subsidies if necessary. Deregulation gave airlines almost total freedom to determine which domestic markets to serve and what airfares to charge, which raised the concern that communities with relatively low passenger levels would lose service as carriers shifted their operations to serve larger and often more profitable markets. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770631/
Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the sustainment and modernization of the Coast Guard's polar icebreaker fleet. Coast Guard polar icebreakers perform a variety of missions supporting U.S. interests in polar regions. The operational U.S. polar icebreaking fleet currently consists of one heavy polar icebreaker, Polar Star, and one medium polar icebreaker, Healy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770570/
Transportation and Transportation Security Related Provisions of House and Senate Stimulus Legislation (H.R. 1)
This report discusses the major transportation and transportation security-related provisions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (H.R. 1) as passed by the House on January 28, 2009, and the Senate on February 10, 2009. The report also discusses the major transportation provisions of the conference report on H.R. 1 (H.Rept. 111-16), which was passed by both the House and Senate on February 13, 2009, and signed by President Barack Obama on February 17, 2009. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743475/
Coast Guard Cutter Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Coast Guard's programs for procuring 8 National Security Cutters (NSCs), 25 Offshore Patrol Cutters (OPCs), and 58 Fast Response Cutters (FRCs), intended as replacements for 90 aging Coast Guard cutters and patrol craft. The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify the Coast Guard's funding requests and acquisition strategies for these programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743461/
Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on sustaining and modernizing the Coast Guard's polar icebreaker fleet, which performs a variety of missions supporting U.S. interests in polar regions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743412/
Amtrak: Budget and Reauthorization
This report discusses the background and funding of Amtrak, which was created by Congress in 1970 to provide intercity passenger railroad service. It operates approximately 44 routes over 22,000 miles of track, 97% of which is owned by freight rail companies. It runs a deficit each year, and requires federal assistance to cover operating losses and capital investment. Without a yearly federal grant to cover operating losses, Amtrak would not survive as presently configured. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743543/
Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress
This report provides an overview of current issues surrounding alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles. It includes background information on various kinds of alternative fuels and issues, recend developments, and related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743393/