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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications
This report provides historical background on the enactment of declarations of war and authorizations for the use of force and analyzes their legal effects under international and domestic law. It also sets forth their texts in two appendices. Because the statutes that confer standby authority on the President and the executive branch potentially play such a large role in an armed conflict to which the United States is a party, the report includes an extensive listing and summary of the statutes that are triggered by a declaration of war, a declaration of national emergency, and/or the existence of a state of war. The report concludes with a summary of the Congressional procedures applicable to the enactment of a declaration of war or authorization for the use of force and to measures under the War Powers Resolution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9813/
The Electoral College: Reform Proposals in the 108th Congress
American voters elect the President and Vice President of the United States under a complex arrangement of constitutional provisions, federal and state laws, and political party practices known as the electoral college system. Despite occasional close elections, this system has delivered uncontested results in 46 of 50 elections since adoption of the 12th Amendment, effective in 1804. Throughout this period, nevertheless, it has been the subject of persistent criticism and many reform proposals. Related measures fall into two basic categories: those that would eliminate the electoral college and substitute direct popular election of the President and Vice President, and those that would retain the existing system in some form and correct perceived defects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9660/
Supreme Court Nominations, 1789-2005: Actions by the Senate, the Judiciary Committee, and the President
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9740/
S. 3521, the Stop Over Spending Act of 2006: A Brief Summary
S. 3521, the Stop Over Spending Act of 2006, proposes several changes to the congressional budget process. This report provides a brief summary of the major provisions of S. 3521. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9483/
The Advisory Panel's Tax Reform Proposals
In early 2005, the President appointed a tax reform advisory panel to formulate tax reform proposals. The report of the President’s Advisory Panel on Tax Reform, issued in November 2005, recommended two reform plans to consider: 1) a revised income tax, referred to as the simplified income tax (SIT); and 2) a consumption tax coupled with a tax on financial income, referred to as the growth and investment tax (GIT). This report discusses the provisions and implications of these two taxes in detail. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9482/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9472/
Presidential Signing Statements: Constitutional and Institutional Implications
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9564/
Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications
This report provides historical background on the enactment of declarations of war and authorizations for the use of force and analyzes their legal effects under international and domestic law. It also sets forth their texts in two appendices. Because the statutes that confer standby authority on the President and the executive branch potentially play such a large role in an armed conflict to which the United States is a party, the report includes an extensive listing and summary of the statutes that are triggered by a declaration of war, a declaration of national emergency, and/or the existence of a state of war. The report concludes with a summary of the Congressional procedures applicable to the enactment of a declaration of war or authorization for the use of force and to measures under the War Powers Resolution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9389/
The Electoral College: Reform Proposals in the 108th Congress
American voters elect the President and Vice President of the United States under a complex arrangement of constitutional provisions, federal and state laws, and political party practices known as the electoral college system. Despite occasional close elections, this system has delivered uncontested results in 46 of 50 elections since adoption of the 12th Amendment, effective in 1804. Throughout this period, nevertheless, it has been the subject of persistent criticism and many reform proposals. Related measures fall into two basic categories: those that would eliminate the electoral college and substitute direct popular election of the President and Vice President, and those that would retain the existing system in some form and correct perceived defects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9300/
Line Item Veto: A Constitutional Analysis of Recent Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10838/
Direct Assaults Against Presidents, Presidents-Elect, and Candidates
Direct assaults against Presidents, Presidents-elect, and candidates have occurred on 15 separate occasions, with five resulting in death. Ten incumbents (about 24% of the 42 individuals to serve in the office), including four of the past six Presidents, have been victims or targets. Four of the ten (and one candidate) died as a result of the attacks. This report identifies these incidents and provides information about what happened, when, where, and, if known, why. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9150/
Delegate Totals and Dates for Presidential Primaries and Caucuses, 1988
This report provides the 1988 Democratic and Republican delegate totals and the calendar of Presidential primaries and caucuses, by State. The information is presented in four separate calendars: alphabetically by State; chronologically by primary or caucus date; and separately for each party, arranged i n State order. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9070/
Candidates for Presidential Nomination in 1988: Major Declared Contestants and Campaign Organizations
This report lists the candidates that have withdrawn from the 1988 Presidential race. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9067/
Former Presidents: Pensions, Facilities, and Services
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8872/
Federal Stafford Act Disaster Assistance: Presidential Declarations, Eligible Activities, and Funding
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8988/
Authorization for Use of Military Force in Response to the 9/11 Attacks (P.L. 107-40): Legislative History
This report provides a legislative history of the legislation, S.J.Res. 23 , the “Authorization for Use of Military Force” (AUMF), which, as Congress stated in its text, constitutes the legislative authorization for the use of U.S. military force contemplated by the War Powers Resolution. It also is the statute which the President and his attorneys have subsequently cited as an authority for him to engage in electronic surveillance against possible terrorists without obtaining authorization of the special Court created by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 1978, as amended. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8970/
National Emergency Powers
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8912/
National Emergency Powers
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8844/
Social Security Financing
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8834/
Ocean Commissions: Ocean Policy Review and Outlook
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8727/
Electoral Votes by State: Changes Resulting from the 1980 Census
This report presents a chart and a U.S. map describing the electoral votes by state and the changes resulted from the 1980 census. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8600/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8689/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8619/
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8536/
National Emergency Powers
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8545/
Persian Gulf and the War Powers Debate: Issue Summary and Review of Events
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8428/
Kissinger Commission Implementation: Actions by the Congress Through 1986 on the Recommendations of the National Bipartisan Commission of Central America
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8422/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8452/
The Unfolding of the Reagan Energy Program: The First Year
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8399/
Votes Other than Favorably on Judicial Nominations, 1939-2003
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8195/
Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications
This report provides historical background on the enactment of declarations of war and authorizations for the use of force and analyzes their legal effects under international and domestic law. It also sets forth their texts in two appendices. Because the statutes that confer standby authority on the President and the executive branch potentially play such a large role in an armed conflict to which the United States is a party, the report includes an extensive listing and summary of the statutes that are triggered by a declaration of war, a declaration of national emergency, and/or the existence of a state of war. The report concludes with a summary of the Congressional procedures applicable to the enactment of a declaration of war or authorization for the use of force and to measures under the War Powers Resolution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8184/
Proposals to Reform Our Presidential Electoral System: A Survey of the Historical Background and Development of the Electoral College, and a Compilation of Proposals to Reform It, With Pro and Con Analyses
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8166/
The Presidential Inauguration of 2005: Basic Facts and Information on Inaugural Festivities
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8010/
Supreme Court Nominations, 1789-2005: Actions by the Senate, Judiciary Committee, and the President
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8125/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8017/
The War Powers Resolution: A Decade of Experience
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8088/
Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act: Legal Requirements for Federal and State Roles in Declarations of an Emergency or a Major Disaster
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7904/
Proper Scope of Questioning of Supreme Court Nominees: The Current Debate
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7899/
9/11 Commission Recommendations: The Senate Confirmation Process for Presidential Nominees
On July 22, 2004, the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, known as the 9/11 Commission, issued its final report, detailing the events up to and including the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks upon the United States. The 9/11 Commission recommended that the Senate adopt rules requiring hearings and votes to confirm or reject national security nominees within 30 days of their submission at the start of each new presidential administration. Implementing the commission's proposal would involve imposing new restrictions on both the power of committee chairs to control the agenda of their committees and the rights of Senators to delay or block nominations through holds and extended debate. This report discusses in detail this proposal, how it could be implemented, and the potential effects of its implementation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7850/
The American Electoral College: Origins, Development, Proposals for Reform or Abolition
This report is a comprehensive annotated bibliography of substantive books, monographs, articles, and documents treating the origins, evolution, and current operational characteristics of the U.S. electoral college system, as well as proposals for its reform or abolition. An explanatory introduction is provided for readers unfamiliar with the issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7995/
Social Security Reform: Effect on Benefits and the Federal Budget of Plans Proposed by the President's Commission to Strengthen Social Security
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7714/
The Intersection Between the Former Presidents Act and the Impeachment Process
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7704/
Speed of Presidential and Senate Actions on Supreme Court Nominations, 1900-2005
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7667/
Prevailing Wage Requirements and the Emergency Suspension of the Davis-Bacon Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7666/
The Davis-Bacon Act: Suspension
The Davis-Bacon Act is one of several statutes that deals with federal government procurement. Enacted in 1931, Davis-Bacon requires, inter alia, that not less than the locally prevailing wage be paid to workers engaged in federal contract construction. This report reviews the several cases during which the Davis-Bacon Act was suspended and will likely be updated as developments make necessary. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7665/
Item Veto: Budgetary Savings
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7626/
Presidential and Vice Presidential Succession: Overview and Current Legislation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7582/
Davis-Bacon Suspension and Its Legislative Aftermath
During the last week of August 2005, Hurricane Katrina gathered strength in the Atlantic and moved against the gulf states. On September 8, 2005, amid the devastation left in Katrina’s wake, President George W. Bush suspended the Davis-Bacon Act as it applies to certain jurisdictions in Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. Although the President has the authority, under Section 6 of the Act, to render such suspensions during a national emergency, that authority has rarely been utilized.1 This report analyzes the legislative aftermath of the suspension. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7543/
Federal Stafford Act Disaster Assistance: Presidential Declarations, Eligible Activities, and Funding
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7528/
Federal Stafford Act Disaster Assistance: Presidential Declarations, Eligible Activities, and Funding
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7527/