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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Unemployment Benefits: Legislative Issues in the 108th Congress
This report discusses the federal-state unemployment compensation (UC) system, which pays benefits to covered workers who become involuntarily unemployed for economic reasons and meet state-established eligibility rules. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855914/
The Adverse Effect Wage Rate (AEWR)
This report introduces the adverse effect wage rate (AEWR) and the concerns out of which it grew, from the perspective of labor policy (not of immigration policy). American agricultural employers have long utilized foreign workers on a temporary basis, regarding them as an important manpower resource. Often employed at low wages and under adverse conditions, such alien workers, some argue, may compete unfairly with U.S. workers. To mitigate any "adverse effect" for the domestic workforce, a system of wage floors was developed that applies, variously, both to alien and citizen workers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855826/
Social Security Reform: Economic Issues
This report tackles the issue of Social Security reform from an economic perspective that focuses not merely on reform that achieves programmatic sustainability (sustainability within the trust fund), but reform that achieves sustainability for the government and economy as a whole. The President has indicated that Social Security reform will be a major issue in the 109th Congress. For some time comprehensive reform has been an issue of debate in Congress, but no major action has occurred. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855859/
The Davis-Bacon Act: Issues and Legislation During the 108th Congress
This report discusses the debate surrounding the Davis-Bacon Act (1931, as amended), which requires, among other things, that not less than the locally-prevailing wage be paid to workers employed in federal contract construction. Through recent decades, the Act has become a continuing source of contention, particularly regarding its impacts, whether it should be modified, strengthened, or repealed, and if it is being administered effectively. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855863/
The Effects on U.S. Farm Workers of an Agricultural Guest Worker Program
This report discusses the debate concerning an agricultural guest worker program and the impact such a program might have on U.S. workers. Guest worker programs are meant to assure employers (e.g., fruit, vegetable, and horticultural specialty growers) of an adequate supply of labor when and where it is needed, while not adding permanent residents to the U.S. population. They include mechanisms -- such as the H-2A program's labor certification process -- intended to avoid adversely affecting the wages and working conditions of similarly-employed U.S. workers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847601/
The Gender Wage Gap and Pay Equity: Is Comparable Worth the Next Step?
This report examines the trend in the male-female wage gap and the explanations offered for its existence. Remedies proposed for the gender wage gap's amelioration are addressed, with an in-depth focus on the comparable worth approach to achieving "pay equity" or "fair pay" between women and men. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824687/
Retirement Savings and Household Wealth in 2000: Analysis of Census Bureau Data
This report examines recent trends in retirement saving and the policy implications. The aging of the American population and the impending retirement of the "baby boom" will place significant strains over the next several decades on both Social Security and on retirees' own financial resources. With continued increases in average life expectancies, retirees in the 21st century will have to stretch their savings and other assets over longer periods of retirement than were experienced by their parents and grandparents. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824473/
The Workforce Investment Act (WIA): Program-by-Program Overview and FY2007 Funding of Title I Training Programs
This report tracks current appropriations and related legislation for Title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA) (P.L. 105-220). Following a brief summary of each WIA program, the report presents the status of legislative proposals contained in the Administration’s FY2007 budget request and compares WIA funding in the FY2006 appropriation, the FY2007 budget request, and the FY2007 House and Senate Appropriations Committee reports. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821697/
Proposed Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues
This report examines three labor issues and arguments related to the pending U.S.-Colombia free trade agreement (CFTA, H.R. 5724): violence against trade unionists; impunity (accountability for or punishment of the perpetrators); and worker rights protections for Colombians. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820872/
Worker Safety in the Construction Industry: The Crane and Derrick Standard
This report first examines the incidence of fatal and nonfatal on-the-job injuries in the private sector. It next analyzes the causes of fatalities in the construction industry and the involvement of cranes in those deaths. The report then addresses the status of a proposed rule to update the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) crane and derrick standard. It closes with an overview of jurisdictions having safety regulations for cranes more stringent, in whole or part, than the existing federal standard. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820844/
The Family and Medical Leave Act: Recent Legislative and Regulatory Activity
This report begins with a brief overview of the major features of the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) and its regulations The various proposals that have been made to amend the act since its inception more than a decade ago are then categorized and discussed. It closes with a review of legislative and regulatory activity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc807528/
The Family and Medical Leave Act: Recent Legislative and Regulatory Activity
This report begins with a brief overview of the major features of the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) and its regulations The various proposals that have been made to amend the act since its inception more than a decade ago are then categorized and discussed. It closes with a review of legislative and regulatory activity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820848/
Minimum Wage, Overtime Pay, and Child Labor: Inventory of Proposals in the 109th Congress to Amend the Fair Labor Standards Act
This report discusses potential changes to the Fair Labor Standards Act that may occur during the 109th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc811521/
Job Loss: Causes and Policy Implications
Job loss is one of the most important macroeconomic problems facing policymakers, both in terms of its economic and social cost. This report discusses factors that cause job loss and the policy implications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822384/
Minimum Wage, Overtime Pay, and Child Labor: Inventory of Proposals in the 109th Congress to Amend the Fair Labor Standards Act
This report discusses potential changes to the Fair Labor Standards Act that may occur during the 109th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc807795/
Taxation of Unemployment Benefits
Unemployment compensation (UC) benefits have been fully subject to the federal income tax since the passage of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-514). Individuals who receive UC benefits during a year may elect to have the federal (and in some cases state) income tax withheld from their benefits. H.R. 6844 would provide a two-year suspension of the taxation of UC benefits. This report provides an overview of the taxation of UC benefits and legislation related to taxing UC benefits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc810335/
Minimum Wage, Overtime Pay, and Child Labor: An Inventory of Proposals in the 109th Congress to Amend the Fair Labor Standards Act
This report discusses potential changes to the Fair Labor Standards Act that may occur during the 109th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc808344/
Minimum Wage, Overtime Pay, and Child Labor: An Inventory of Proposals in the 109th Congress to Amend the Fair Labor Standards Act
This report discusses potential changes to the Fair Labor Standards Act that may occur during the 109th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc807019/
Minimum Wage, Overtime Pay, and Child Labor: An Inventory of Proposals in the 109th Congress to Amend the Fair Labor Standards Act
This report discusses potential changes to the Fair Labor Standards Act that may occur during the 109th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822369/
Minimum Wage, Overtime Pay, and Child Labor: An Inventory of Proposals in the 109th Congress to Amend the Fair Labor Standards Act
This report discusses potential changes to the Fair Labor Standards Act that may occur during the 109th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc807927/
Causes of Unemployment: A Cross-Country Analysis
This report examines data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to explore what differences in microeconomic structures and policies explain the causes of unemployment across various countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822358/
Taxation of Unemployment Benefits
Unemployment compensation (UC) benefits have been fully subject to the federal income tax since the passage of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-514). Individuals who receive UC benefits during a year may elect to have the federal (and in some cases state) income tax withheld from their benefits. Legislation was introduced in the 108th Congress that would have repealed the taxation of UC benefits, provided a two-year suspension of the taxation of UC benefits, or transferred the proceeds from taxing UC benefits to the Unemployment Trust Fund. This report provides an overview of the taxation of UC benefits and legislation related to taxing UC benefits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc811277/
Unauthorized Aliens Residing in the United States: Estimates Since 1986
This report discusses a rise in the unauthorized resident ("illegal") alien population from 1986 to 2010. It looks at reasons that illegal aliens stay resort to breaking the law and how illegal aliens affect the workforce in certain industries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822599/
Immigration: Legislative Issues on Nonimmigrant Professional Specialty (H-1B) Workers
This report discusses the latest legislative developments regarding immigration policy for professional workers. It provides analysis for H-1B admissions and legislative issues in the 110th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822632/
Trafficking in Persons in Latin America and the Caribbean
This report describes the nature and scope of the problem of trafficking in persons in Latin America and the Caribbean. The report then describes U.S. efforts to deal with trafficking in persons in the region, as well as discusses the successes and failures of some recent country and regional anti-trafficking efforts. The report concludes by raising several issues for policy consideration that may be helpful as the 109th Congress continues to address human trafficking as part of its authorization, appropriations, and oversight activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821093/
State and Local Restrictions on Employing, Renting Property to, or Providing Services for Unauthorized Aliens: Legal Issues and Recent Judicial Developments
This report discusses the constitutional issues raised in relation to state and local laws intended to deter the presence of unauthorized aliens, along with the implications that federal civil rights statutes might have on the implementation and enforcement of measures restricting such persons' ability to obtain employment, housing, or other state and local benefits or services. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820878/
Unauthorized Employment in the United States: Issues and Options
As Congress considers immigration reform and ways to address the unauthorized alien population, the issue of unauthorized employment is the focus of much discussion. This report discusses options for addressing unauthorized employment in the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820981/
The Workforce Investment Act (WIA): Program-by-Program Overview and Funding of Title I Training Programs
This report tracks current appropriations and related legislation for Title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA) (P.L. 105-220). Following a brief summary of each WIA program, the report presents the status of legislative proposals contained in the Administration’s FY2007 budget request and compares WIA funding in the FY2006 appropriation, the FY2007 budget request, and the FY2007 House and Senate Appropriations Committee reports. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822486/
The Americans with Disabilities Act: Toyota Motor Manufacturing v. Williams
The Supreme Court, in Toyota Motor Manufacturing v. Williams, held that to be an individual with a disability under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) an individual must have substantial limitations on abilities that are central to daily life,rather than only to those abilities used in the workplace. In an unanimous opinion written by Justice O’Connor, the Court interpreted the definition of individual with disability narrowly to exclude individuals who are limited only in the performance of manual tasks associated with their job. This report will briefly discuss Williams and its implications for the ADA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822472/
Labor Union Recognition Procedures: Use of Secret Ballots and Card Checks
This report begins with a summary of legislation that would, if enacted, change existing union recognition procedures. The report then reviews the rights and responsibilities of workers and employers under the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) and the different ways that workers may form or join a union. The report then examines the potential impact of changes in union recognition procedures. Finally, the report considers whether there is an economic rationale for protecting the rights of workers to organize and bargain collectively. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822502/
Leave Benefits in the United States
This report begins by reviewing U.S. government regulation of time off from work for any purpose. It then examines the incidence of paid leave benefits voluntarily provided by U.S. firms. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822607/
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Services in Private Schools under P.L. 108-446
This report examines the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004, P.L. 108-446, which makes several changes to the previous law regarding children with disabilities in private schools. Generally, children with disabilities enrolled by their parents in private schools are to be provided special education and related services to the extent consistent with the number and location of such children in the school district served by a LEA pursuant to several requirements. These requirements include new provisions relating to direct services to parentally placed private school children with disabilities, the calculation of the proportionate amount of funds, and a requirement for record keeping. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822411/
Pay Discrimination Claims Under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act: A Legal Analysis of the Supreme Court’s Decision in Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Inc.
This report discusses Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Inc., a recent case in which the Supreme Court considered the timeliness of a sex discrimination claim filed under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, which prohibits employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821454/
Legislative, Executive, and Judicial Officials: Process for Adjusting Pay and Current Salaries
Leaders and Members of the Senate and the House of Representatives, the Vice President, individuals in positions on the Executive Schedule (EX), and federal justices and judges receive an annual pay adjustment under the Ethics Reform Act of 1989, P.L. 101-194. This report includes five tables which provide the January 2004, January 2005, January 2006, and January 2007 salaries for federal officials, members of the Senior Executive Service (SES), and employees in senior-level (SL), scientific and professional (ST), and GS-15 positions in the Washington, DC, and the “Rest of the United States” locality pay areas. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820900/
The Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA): Reauthorization of Job Training Programs in the 109th Congress
This report discusses the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA), P.L. 105-220, which is the nation’s chief job training legislation, authorizes several job training programs, including Youth, Adult, and Dislocated Worker Activities; and Job Corps. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820905/
Social Security: The Cost-of-Living Adjustment in January 2005
This report discusses how the cost-of-living adjustment (COLA) for Social Security benefits are determined. The 2.7% COLA payable in January 2005 was triggered by the rise in the CPI-W (Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers) from the third quarter of 2003 to the third quarter of 2004. This COLA triggers identical percentage increases in Supplemental Security Income (SSI), veterans' pensions, and railroad retirement benefits, and causes other changes in the Social Security program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795651/
The Effects on U.S. Farm Workers of an Agricultural Guest Worker Program
This report discusses the debate concerning an agricultural guest worker program and the impact an agricultural guest worker program might have on U.S. workers. Guest worker programs are meant to assure employers (e.g., fruit, vegetable, and horticultural specialty growers) of an adequate supply of labor when and where it is needed while not adding permanent residents to the U.S. population. They include mechanisms, such as the H-2A program's labor certification process, intended to avoid adversely affecting the wages and working conditions of similarly employed U.S. workers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795502/
Pay-for-Performance: Linking Employee Pay to Performance Appraisal
This report discusses issues related to measuring performance across the federal government and analyzes a variety of methods utilized by the government to measure employee performance and its linkage to pay. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795601/
The Haitian Economy and the HOPE Act
This report discusses the HOPE Act as it relates to the Haitian economy and U.S. trade policy. In providing preferential access to Haitian apparel imports, the HOPE Act, as amended, gives Haitian firms a competitive (price) advantage over other foreign producers who must pay U.S. duties on apparel exports made from yarns and fabrics supplied by non-regional (e.g., Asian) producers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795842/
The Haitian Economy and the HOPE Act
This report discusses the HOPE Act as it relates to the Haitian economy and U.S. trade policy. In providing preferential access to Haitian apparel imports, the HOPE Act, as amended, gives Haitian firms a competitive (price) advantage over other foreign producers who must pay U.S. duties on apparel exports made from yarns and fabrics supplied by non-regional (e.g., Asian) producers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795409/
Unemployment Benefits: Legislative Issues in the 108th Congress
This report discusses the federal-state unemployment compensation (UC) system, which pays benefits to covered workers who become involuntarily unemployed for economic reasons and meet state-established eligibility rules. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795462/
The Federal Workforce: Characteristics and Trends
This report discusses the federal workforce, which is also expected by some to reflect the gender, racial, and ethnic diversity of the country as a whole. In addition, understanding recent changes in the overall size and composition of the federal workforce can indicate what changes may lie in the future. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795737/
Temporary Farm Labor: The H-2A Program and the U.S. Department of Labor's Proposed Changes in the Adverse Effect Wage Rate (AEWR)
This report begins with a description of the H-2A program. Next, the report explains how the AEWR is currently determined and how it would be calculated under the proposed regulations. Finally, the report examines some potential effects of the proposed change in the AEWR on the wages and employment of foreign and U.S. workers on U.S. farms. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795765/
Federal White-Collar Pay: FY2009 Salary Adjustments
This report discusses the federal white-collar employee pay. The annual pay adjustment is based on the Employment Cost Index (ECI), which measures changes in private-sector wages and salaries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795757/
Funding for Workforce Development in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009
This report provides a brief overview of the key provisions related to workforce development programs administered by the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) that were included in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) under Division A, Title VIII, Department of Labor. It also provides estimates of state grants for programs for which these estimates are relevant and for which data needed to produce the estimates are available. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743444/
Unemployment and Health Insurance: Current Legislation and Issues
This report discusses the link between health insurance coverage and unemployment. One consequence of unemployment is that people can also lose their health insurance. The danger of losing insurance is most obvious for coverage that is provided by employers, but people who become unemployed might no longer be able to pay individual market premiums as well. Recent estimates indicate for each percentage point increase in the unemployment rate, the number of uninsured would increase by 1.1 million. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743413/
The Employee Free Choice Act
This report discusses legislative attempts to amend the National Labor Relations Act ("NLRA") to allow for union certification without an election, based on signed employee authorizations. The Employee Free Choice Act ("EFCA") has been introduced in the past three Congresses to allow union certification based on signed authorizations, provide a process for the bargaining of an initial agreement, and prescribe new penalties for certain unfair labor practices. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743346/
State and Local Restrictions on Employing, Renting Property to, or Providing Services for Unauthorized Aliens: Legal Issues and Recent Judicial Developments
This report discusses the constitutional issues raised in relation to state and local laws intended to deter the presence of unauthorized aliens, along with the implications that federal civil rights statutes might have on the implementation and enforcement of measures restricting such persons' ability to obtain employment, housing, or other state and local benefits or services. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700536/
Electronic Employment Eligibility Verification
This report discusses E-Verify, a program in which participating employers submit information about their new hires (name, date of birth, Social Security number, immigration/citizenship status, and alien number, if applicable) from the I-9 form. This information is automatically compared with information in Social Security Administration and, if necessary, DHS databases to verify identity and employment eligibility. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700588/
Retirement Savings and Household Wealth in 2007
This report discusses various issues that impact the retirement income of Americans. About half of all workers in the United States participate in an employer-sponsored retirement plan of some kind, a proportion that has remained relatively stable over the past thirty years. Because the majority of assets held in retirement accounts are invested in stocks, trends in stock prices have a significant impact on households' retirement account balances. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700850/
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