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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Foreign Aid Reform: Issues for Congress and Policy Options
This report discusses the role of foreign assistance as a tool of foreign policy. There is also a growing recognition of the role that foreign assistance can play as a foreign policy tool that is equal to the role of diplomacy and defense within the current international environment characterized by regional conflicts, terrorist threats, weapons proliferation, concerns with disease pandemics, and the difficulty in overcoming poverty. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700881/
Political Turmoil in Thailand and U.S. Interests
This report examines the Thai government's performance, the role of the military, deposed Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra's impact on the situation, and the royal family's influence. It assesses the prospects for more elections, the degree of control exercised by the army over the civilian government, Thaksin's activities and possible future in Bangkok, and the role of the palace in current Thai politics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700523/
Uganda: Current Conditions and the Crisis in North Uganda
This report discusses current political, social, and economic issues in Uganda. While much of the country has remained stable since the National Resistance Army/Movement (NRA/M) took power in 1986, civil war has ravaged northern Uganda for over 20 years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700546/
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Implementation: The Future of Commercial Trucking Across the Mexican Border
This report discusses the implementation of trucking provisions set forth by NAFTA that would have opened the border states to cross-border trucking competition in 1995 and all of North America in 2000. The full implementation of the provisions has been stalled because of concern with the safety of Mexican trucks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700545/
Iran: Efforts to Achieve a Nuclear Accord
This report discusses Iran's nuclear program and diplomatic efforts to forge a comprehensive agreement to keep that program peaceful. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700548/
Burma: Economic Sanctions
This report provides background information on existing economic sanctions against Burma and possible options to expand sanctions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700554/
France: Efforts to Counter Islamist Terrorism and Radicalization
This report briefly discusses heightened concern regarding the threat of Islamist terrorism in France and Europe. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700826/
Procedures for Congressional Action in Relation to a Nuclear Agreement with Iran: In Brief
This report provides, in brief, analysis of the congressional procedural provisions laid out in the Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act of 2015 (P.L. 114-17). Only provisions relating to congressional actions are covered in this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700889/
U.S. Foreign Assistance to the Middle East: Historical Background, Recent Trends, and the FY2010 Request
This report is an overview of U.S. foreign assistance to the Middle East from FY2005 to FY2009, and of the FY2010 budget request. It includes a brief history of aid to the region, a review of foreign aid levels, a description of selected country programs, and an analysis of current foreign aid issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700896/
Uganda: Current Conditions and the Crisis in North Uganda
This report discusses current political, social, and economic issues in Uganda. While much of the country has remained stable since the National Resistance Army/Movement (NRA/M) took power in 1986, civil war has ravaged northern Uganda for over 20 years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700859/
South Africa: Current Issues and U.S. Relations
This report discusses political, social, and economic issues in South Africa, as well as the country's relationship to the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700517/
Burma and Transnational Crime
This report analyzes the primary actors driving transnational crime in Burma, the forms of transnational crime occurring, and current U.S. policy in combating these crimes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700596/
The Changing U.S.-Japan Alliance: Implications for U.S. Interests
This report examines policy changes that have driven actual and proposed shifts in the alliance between the U.S. and Japan. Key features of the proposals include a reduction in the number of U.S. Marines in Japan, the relocation of a controversial Marine air base in Okinawa, expanded cooperation in training and intelligence sharing, and command structure changes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700570/
Madagascar's 2009 Political Crisis
This report discusses political tensions on the Indian Ocean island of Madagascar between President Marc Ravalomanana and Andry Rajoelina, the former mayor of the capital city, which escalated in early 2009, culminating in the President's forced removal from office. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700532/
The Global Peace Operations Initiative: Background and Issues for Congress
This report describes in detail the Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI), the centerpiece of the Bush Administration's efforts to prepare foreign security forces to participate in international peacekeeping operations. This report lists the funding and allocations set aside for GPOI, as well as the function of GPOI and its future. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700518/
Madagascar's 2009 Political Crisis
This report discusses political tensions on the Indian Ocean island of Madagascar between President Marc Ravalomanana and Andry Rajoelina, the former mayor of the capital city, which escalated in early 2009, culminating in the President's forced removal from office. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700516/
Intellectual Property Rights and Access to Medicines: International Trade Issues
This report focuses on the relationship between intellectual property right (IPR) provisions in international and U.S. trade policy and access to medicines. This issue represents one component of a broader debate about the relationship between trade policy and public health. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700643/
Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security
This report analyzes U.S. and international sanctions against Iran and provides examples of companies and countries that conduct business with Iran, based on a wide range of open-source reporting. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700613/
Latin America: Terrorism Issues
Over the years, the United States has been concerned about threats to Latin American and Caribbean nations from various terrorist or insurgent groups that have attempted to influence or overthrow elected governments. This report discusses these concerns and briefly takes a look at the United States' increased cooperation with the region in the wake of the 9/11 attacks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700722/
Crisis in Greece: Political Implications
This report briefly discusses the political crisis resulting from what began as a debt crisis in Greece in late 2009. Many analysts believe that this political crisis could represent the most significant setback in over 60 years of European integration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700720/
FY2008 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for International Affairs
This report analyzes the international affairs portion of the request and tracks related legislative activity. The White House had submitted emergency supplemental requests to Congress for military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, and international affairs programs totaling $196.5 billion digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700789/
Perspectives on Enhanced Interrogation Techniques
This report briefly summarizes what constituted Enhanced Interrogation Techniques (EITs), provides background on their adoption and use, and discusses differing views on three questions that underpin discussion and debate of this topic. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700781/
The Global Peace Operations Initiative: Background and Issues for Congress
This report describes in detail the Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI), the centerpiece of the Bush Administration's efforts to prepare foreign security forces to participate in international peacekeeping operations. This report lists the funding and allocations set aside for GPOI, as well as the function of GPOI and its future. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700787/
The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)
This report discusses the increasing international pressure on Iran to curb its nuclear program and how that pressure discourages foreign firms from investing in Iran's energy sector, hindering Iran's efforts to expand oil production. It also discusses the history and progress of the formal U.S. effort to curb energy investment in Iran, which began with the Iran Sanctions Act (ISA) in 1996 digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700920/
Financial Regulation and Oversight: Latin American Financial Crises and Reform Lessons from Chile
This report discusses Latin American financial crises and the lessons from comprehensive regulatory reform undertaken by Chile. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700623/
A Shift in the International Security Environment: Potential Implications for Defense--Issues for Congress
This report briefly describes the shift in the international security environment that some observers believe has occurred, and identifies some defense related issues for Congress that could arise from it. Congress's decisions on these issues could have significant implications for U.S. defense capabilities and funding requirements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700656/
China/Taiwan: Evolution of the "One China" Policy--Key Statements from Washington, Beijing, and Taipei
This report provides background information regarding U.S. policy on "One China". The second part of this report discusses the highlights of key statements by Washington, Beijing, and Taipei. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700647/
Border Security: Barriers Along the U.S. International Border
This report analyzes the barriers that are currently being constructed and maintained along the border by the U.S. Border Patrol (USBP), including historical and future cost estimates and the policy issues involved. Because the current debate has largely focused on the deployment of fencing to the border, this report will focus on the policy issues surrounding the construction of border fencing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700836/
The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Provisions and Implications
This report is examines the provisions of the KORUS FTA in the context of the overall U.S.-South Korean economic relationship, U.S. objectives, and South Korean objectives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700788/
The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)
This report discusses the increasing international pressure on Iran to curb its nuclear program and how that pressure discourages foreign firms from investing in Iran's energy sector, hindering Iran's efforts to expand oil production. It also discusses the history and progress of the formal U.S. effort to curb energy investment in Iran, which began with the Iran Sanctions Act (ISA) in 1996 digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700725/
The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)
This report discusses the increasing international pressure on Iran to curb its nuclear program and how that pressure discourages foreign firms from investing in Iran's energy sector, hindering Iran's efforts to expand oil production. It also discusses the history and progress of the formal U.S. effort to curb energy investment in Iran, which began with the Iran Sanctions Act (ISA) in 1996. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700756/
North Korea: Terrorism List Removal
This report discusses the issue of North Korea's inclusion on the U.S. list of terrorism-supporting countries that has been a major issue in U.S.-North Korean diplomacy since 2000, particularly in connection with negotiations over North Korea's nuclear program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700747/
Yemen: Civil War and Regional Intervention
This report provides material on the latest crisis in Yemen and the U.S. policy response. Yemen's internationally backed transition government, which replaced the regime of former President Ali Abdullah Saleh in 2012, appears to have fully collapsed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700733/
The Tibetan Policy Act of 2002: Background and Implementation
This report discusses the Tibetan Policy Act of 2002 (TPA), which established a number of U.S. principles with respect to human rights, religious freedom, political prisoners, and economic development projects in Tibet. Since the TPA's enactment, opinions on the effectiveness of the Act have varied. These views include assessments on the nature of the objectives the TPA sets forth for U.S. policy; the attainability of those objectives; the achievements of the Special Coordinators; and the manner of the Act's implementation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700918/
Iran's Foreign Policy
This report provides an overview of Iran's foreign policy, which has been a subject of numerous congressional hearings and of sanctions and other legislation for many years. The report analyzes Iranian foreign policy as a whole and by region. The regional analysis discusses those countries where Iranian policy is of U.S. concern. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700919/
International Criminal Court Cases in Africa: Status and Policy Issues
This report provides background on ICC investigations in Africa and gives an overview of cases currently before the Court. The report also examines issues raised by the ICC's actions in Africa, including the ICC's possible role in deterring future abuses and the potential impact of international criminal prosecutions on peace processes, ongoing in many countries on the continent. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700926/
Iraq: Oil and Gas Legislation, Revenue Sharing, and U.S. Policy
This report reviews policy proposals and interim contracts, analyzes the positions of various Iraqi political actors, and discusses potential implications for U.S. foreign policy goals in Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689508/
Western Sahara: Status of Settlement Efforts
This report provides a brief history of Morocco and the independence-seeking and the United Nations Mission for the Organization of a Referendum in the Western Sahara (MINURSO). The report discusses the Baker plan and subsequent developments, Moroccan and Algerian views. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689514/
U.S.-Vietnam Relations in 2009: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy
This report provides an overview of U.S. relations with Vietnam, including policy issues, the economic and political situation in Vietnam, and a list of pertinent legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689336/
Border Searches of Laptop Computers and Other Electronic Storage Devices
This report discusses a developing issue in the law of search and seizure: whether the Fourth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution permits warrantless searches of the content of laptop computers and other electronic storage devices at U.S. borders. The federal courts that have addressed this issue have held that the border search exception to the Fourth Amendment applies to these searches, making warrantless searches permissible. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689337/
Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) and the Role of Congress in Trade Policy
This report presents background and analysis on the development of Trade Promotion Authority (TPA), which expired on July 1, 2007. The report also includes a summary of the major provisions under the recently expired authority and a discussion of the issues that have arisen in the debate over TPA renewal, as well as policy options available to Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689380/
International Criminal Court Cases in Africa: Status and Policy Issues
This report provides background on current International Criminal Court (ICC) cases and examines issues raised by the ICC's actions in Africa, including the potential deterrence of future abuses and the potential impact on African peace processes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689361/
Iraq: Oil and Gas Legislation, Revenue Sharing, and U.S. Policy
This report reviews policy proposals and interim contracts, analyzes the positions of various Iraqi political actors, and discusses potential implications for U.S. foreign policy goals in Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689385/
U.S.-Vietnam Relations in 2009: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy
This report provides an overview of U.S. relations with Vietnam, including policy issues, the economic and political situation in Vietnam, and a list of pertinent legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689217/
Iraq: Former Regime Weapons Programs and Outstanding U.N. Issues
This report discusses 17 active U.N. resolutions requiring the dismantlement of Iraq's WMD programs, and those whose application to Iraq have been terminated both before and since the fall of Saddam Hussein's regime. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689263/
Illegal Drug Trade in Africa: Trends and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the rise in illicit drug trafficking in Africa, the U.S. policy response, and implications for U.S. interests. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689297/
The European Parliament
This report discusses the construction and history of the European Parliament (EP), its role in functions of the European Union as well as internationally, various international supports and criticisms of the EP, and the EP's ties with the U.S. Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689282/
Terrorism in Southeast Asia
The report looks at the rise of Islamist militancy and the Jemaah Islamiyah (JI), network, and discusses terrorism in the region, concluding with options for U.S. policy. Strategies include placing greater emphasis on attacking institutions that support terrorism, building up regional governments' capacities for combating terrorist groups, and reducing the sense of alienation among Muslim citizens. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689202/
U.S. Accession to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations' Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC)
This report analyzes the legal and diplomatic issues involved with accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689281/
Russian Compliance with the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty: Background and Issues for Congress
This report describes the current status of the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces Treaty and highlights issues that Congress may address as the United States pursues its compliance concerns with Russia. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689169/
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