You limited your search to:

 Country: United States
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Use of the Annual Appropriations Process to Block Implementation of the Affordable Care Act (FY2011-FY2016)
This report summarizes the language related to the Affordable Care (ACA) that was added to annual appropriations legislation by congressional appropriators since the ACA was signed into law. The information is presented in a table. While a detailed examination of the ACA itself is beyond the scope of this report, a brief overview of the ACA's core provisions and its impact on federal spending is provided as context for the material in the table. Congress remains deeply divided over implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), which President Obama signed into law in March 2010. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824565/
The Use of Modified Adjusted Gross Income (MAGI) in Federal Health Programs
This report explores how modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) is defined differently across health programs such as Medicare, the health insurance exchanges under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), and Medicaid. It also discusses why MAGI is used, and how it is applied, specific to each program. The report covers that MAGI is used to determine (1) penalty amounts owed if a person does not comply with the individual mandate or whether an individual is exempt from the individual mandate; (2) eligibility for and the amount of a premium credit to purchase coverage through a health insurance exchange; and (3) Medicaid income eligibility for certain populations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824590/
Tax Benefits for Health Insurance: Current Legislation
This report discusses a variety of potential proposals to change the tax benefits for health insurance and medical expenses, including measures that would expand the availability and attractiveness of health savings accounts (HSAs), or employer tax credits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824518/
Discretionary Spending Under the Affordable Care Act (ACA)
This report examines the Affordable Care Act's (ACA's) effects on discretionary spending. It first discusses all the ACA authorizations (and reauthorizations) of appropriations for grant and other programs; this information, along with actual funding amounts, is summarized in a series of tables. The report then reviews the ACA administrative costs borne by CMS and the IRS. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824419/
The Ebola Outbreak: Quarantine and Isolation Authority
This legal sidebar discusses recent quarantine policies announced by several states, including New York and New Jersey, for travelers arriving from areas affected by the outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease, which have raised legal and constitutional questions about federal and state authority to order quarantine and isolation measures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824427/
Military Medical Care Services: Questions and Answers
This report attempts to answer basic questions about the Military Health Services System (MHSS), its beneficiary population, the medical services it provides, its costs, and major changes that are underway or have been proposed. Citations are made to more detailed CRS studies where appropriate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824459/
Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis
This report discusses the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), P.L. 111-148, as amended, Congress enacted a “minimum coverage provision,” which compels certain individuals to have a minimum level of health insurance. This report provides an analysis of the constitutionality of this provision requiring individuals to obtain health insurance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821696/
Medicare Physician Payment Updates and the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) System
This report provides a background on the Medicare fee schedule, the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) system, and the annual updates and discusses recent proposals to address this issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822555/
Medicare Physician Payment Updates and the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) System
This report provides a background on the Medicare fee schedule, the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) system and the annual updates, and discusses recent proposal to address this issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821668/
Public Health, Workforce, Quality, and Related Provisions in H.R. 3590, as Passed by the Senate
This report summarizes the workforce, prevention, quality, and related provisions in H.R. 3590, as passed by the Senate. It begins with some background on health care delivery reform, followed by an overview of the report’s content and organization digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821682/
Long-Term Care (LTC): Financing Overview and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of long-term care (LTC) and an explanation of the nation’s complex financing system of public and private payers. It also describes some of the major challenges facing Congress as it contemplates LTC reform and whether and how to include LTC in health reform legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820874/
Medicare Primer
This report provides an overview of Medicare, the nation's federal insurance program, which pays for covered health care services of qualified beneficiaries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820963/
Medicare Home Health Benefit Primer: Benefit Basics and Issues
This report describes home health eligibility criteria, home health services, characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries who use home health services, and home health providers. Further, this report describes in detail the Medicare home health prospective payment system (HH PPS), provides an overview of Medicare home health payments, and discusses issues for Congress related to the Medicare home health benefit. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc808302/
Medicaid and CHIP Maintenance of Effort (MOE): Requirements and Responses
This report summarizes the MOE requirements enacted under American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act as modified by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 and what these requirements have meant for states in terms of their actions to restrict Medicaid and/or CHIP eligibility. It also summarizes recent legislative activity to repeal the MOE requirements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822572/
Self-Insured Health Insurance Coverage
This report provides background information on private health insurance coverage, state and federal regulation of private coverage, and self-insured health plans. It includes data on the prevalence of self-insurance and discusses the employer decision to self-insure. Lastly, it describes selected private health insurance provisions under federal health reform, and application of such provisions on self-insured plans. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc812033/
Self-Insured Health Insurance Coverage
This report provides background information on private health insurance coverage, state and federal regulation of private coverage, and self-insured health plans. It includes data on the prevalence of self-insurance and discusses the employer decision to self-insure. Lastly, it describes selected private health insurance provisions under federal health reform, and application of such provisions on self-insured plans. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822356/
Transitional Medical Assistance (TMA) Under Medicaid
This report provides an overview of transitional medical assistance (TMA). While Section 1925 of the Social Security Act outlines the provisions requiring states to provide TMA for up to 12 months, states have considerable flexibility in designing and implementing their TMA programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822344/
Hurricane Katrina: Medicaid Issues
This report discusses the following: Medicaid’s rules on eligibility, benefits, and financing in the context of current questions and issues raised by Hurricane Katrina. Recent state actions in response to Medicaid issues raised by the hurricane. Federal Medicaid waiver authority, including information on current activity in this area and the New York Disaster Relief Medicaid waiver granted in response to the September 11 terrorist attacks. Current federal legislation related to Medicaid and Hurricane Katrina relief efforts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822601/
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Proposed Rule on Medicaid Managed Care: Frequently Asked Questions
This report responds to a series of frequently asked questions (FAQs) identified to address some of the major updates included in the proposed rule. The FAQs summarize provisions such as the introduction of a minimum medical loss ratio (MLR), guidance on enrolling the long-term services and supports (LTSS) population in managed care, and network adequacy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822604/
Health Savings Accounts: Overview of Rules for 2012
This report provides a summary of the principal rules governing Health Savings Accounts (HSAs), covering such matters as eligibility, qualifying health insurance, contributions, and withdrawals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822646/
Mental Health Parity and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010
This report provides a brief background on mental health parity and the policy discussion around parity in health insurance coverage; an overview of federal mental health parity law prior to the enactment of the ACA; and an analysis of the impact of the ACA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc810015/
Mental Health Parity and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010
This report provides a brief background on mental health parity and the policy discussion around parity in health insurance coverage; an overview of federal mental health parity law prior to the enactment of the ACA; and an analysis of the impact of the ACA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822647/
Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis
This report first analyzes the authority of Congress to enact the minimum essential coverage requirement contained in Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), as well as how a court might analyze this provision if challenged based on various provisions of the Fifth and Tenth Amendments. This report discusses whether there must be exceptions to a requirement to purchase health insurance based on First Amendment freedom of religion, and finally, discusses some of the legal challenges to this federal requirement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc806315/
Community Living Assistance Services and Supports (CLASS) Provisions in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA)
This report first discusses the cost and financing for long-term care (LTC) services as well as the current market for private LTC insurance. It then details those CLASS program requirements for enrollment, premiums, eligibility, benefits, administration, and oversight. The report also discusses federal budget implications, as estimated by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Finally, the report provides a timeline of the CLASS program provisions enacted under PPACA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822373/
Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis
This report first analyzes the authority of Congress to enact the minimum essential coverage requirement contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), as well as how a court might analyze this provision if challenged based on various provisions of the Fifth and Tenth Amendments. This report discusses whether there must be exceptions to a requirement to purchase health insurance based on First Amendment freedom of religion, and finally, discusses some of the legal challenges to this federal requirement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc815463/
Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis
This report first analyzes the authority of Congress to pass a law of this nature, as well as how a court could analyze this provision in light of a constitutional challenge based on various provisions of the Fifth and Tenth Amendments. Finally, this report discusses whether the exceptions to the individual responsibility requirement to purchase health insurance satisfy First Amendment freedom of religion protections. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820533/
Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis
This report first analyzes the authority of Congress to pass a proposal of this nature, as well as how a court could analyze this type of proposal if there were to be a constitutional challenge based on various provisions of the Fifth Amendment. Finally, this report discusses whether there must be exceptions to a requirement to purchase health insurance based on First Amendment freedom of religion. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822651/
Medicaid Expenditures, FY2003 and FY2004
This report discusses the federal medical assistance percentage (FMAP), which is the percentage of Medicaid benefit costs paid for by the federal government. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822569/
Environmental Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors: What Are the Human Health Risks?
This report discusses the human health risks, specifically from endocrine disruptors that are chemical compounds in drugs, food, consumer products, or the ambient environment that can interfere with internal biological processes of animals that normally are regulated by their hormones. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821040/
Public Health, Workforce, Quality, and Related Provisions in H.R. 3962
This report discusses health care reform, which was at the top of the domestic policy agenda for the 111th Congress, driven by concerns about the growing ranks of the uninsured and the unsustainable growth in spending on health care and health insurance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821068/
Medicare Primer
This report provides an overview of Medicare, the nation's federal insurance program, which pays for covered health care services of qualified beneficiaries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821635/
Medicaid Reimbursement Policy
This report begins with a summary of basic federal requirements applicable to payments for all services and an overview of major developments in federal Medicaid reimbursement policy over the last 20 years. This overview provides a historical context for current policies and highlights some issues that have been perennial concerns for federal and state policymakers. The next four sections of the report provide a detailed discussion of Medicaid reimbursement for four basic categories of services or providers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821969/
The Title X Family Planning Program
This report discusses Title X of the Public Health Service Act. The program, enacted in 1970, is the only federal program devoted solely to family planning and related preventive health services. Although the authorization for Title X ended with FY1985, funding for the program has been provided through bills that provide appropriations for the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821032/
Medicaid and SCHIP: The President’s FY2006 Budget Proposals
This report describes the proposal and provides an estimate of the cost or savings based on publicly available information. The report provides a brief background for the proposal and provides a listing of current Congressional Research Service (CRS) reports related to the proposal. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821149/
Tax Benefits for Health Insurance and Expenses: Overview of Current Law and Legislation
This report discusses how tax policy affects health insurance and health care spending. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820965/
Prescription Drug Coverage Under Medicaid
Medicaid is a joint federal-state entitlement program that pays for medical services on behalf of certain groups of low-income persons. It is the third largest social program in the federal budget, exceeded only by Social Security and Medicare and is typically the second largest spending item for states. This report discusses prescription drug policies under the program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821134/
Prescription Drug Coverage Under Medicaid
Medicaid is a joint federal-state entitlement program that pays for medical services on behalf of certain groups of low-income persons. It is the third largest social program in the federal budget, exceeded only by Social Security and Medicare and is typically the second largest spending item for states. This report discusses prescription drug policies under the program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc806352/
The ACA Medicaid Expansion
This report provides an overview of the ACA Medicaid expansion, and the impact of the Supreme Court decision on the ACA Medicaid expansion. Then, the report describes who is covered under the expansion, the expansion rules, and how the expansion is financed. In addition, enrollment and expenditure estimates for the ACA Medicaid expansion are provided. Finally, the report reviews state decisions whether or not to implement the ACA Medicaid expansion, and the implications of those decisions on certain individuals, employers, and hospitals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821147/
Health Insurance Coverage for Retirees
With the retirement of the baby boom generation looming ahead, employers offering coverage to their retired workers will face a huge future financial commitment. Some employers have already reduced or eliminated their commitment to insure their retirees. Recent trends indicate that retiree health benefits are increasingly subject to higher beneficiary cost-sharing. Further, among employers who provide health insurance for current retirees, their current workers are less likely to be guaranteed these benefits upon retirement. This report discusses issues regarding health insurance coverage for retirees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821153/
Health Insurance Coverage for Retirees
With the retirement of the baby boom generation looming ahead, employers offering coverage to their retired workers will face a huge future financial commitment. Some employers have already reduced or eliminated their commitment to insure their retirees. Recent trends indicate that retiree health benefits are increasingly subject to higher beneficiary cost-sharing. Further, among employers who provide health insurance for current retirees, their current workers are less likely to be guaranteed these benefits upon retirement. This report discusses issues regarding health insurance coverage for retirees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc818013/
Medicare Home Health Benefit Primer: Benefit Basics and Issues
This report describes home health eligibility criteria, home health services, characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries who use home health services, and home health providers. Further, this report describes in detail the Medicare home health prospective payment system (HH PPS), provides an overview of Medicare home health payments, and discusses issues for Congress related to the Medicare home health benefit. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820974/
Medicare: FY2008 Budget Issues
This report discusses President's budget request to Congress for Medicare, for the following federal fiscal year, along with projections for the five-year budget window. The President’s 2008 budget includes Medicare legislative proposals with estimated savings of $4.3 billion in 2008 and $65.6 billion over the five-year budget window. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822013/
Medicaid Citizenship Documentation
Due to recent changes in federal law, individuals who declare that they are citizens for Medicaid eligibility purposes must present documentation that proves citizenship and documents personal identity. This report discusses issues related to Medicaid citizenship documentation that have received considerable media and interest group attention, as well as proposed legislation that would affect the requirement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821644/
Health Insurance Coverage: Characteristics of the Insured and Uninsured Populations in 2007
Based on data from the Census Bureau’s Current Population Survey (CPS), 45.7 million people in the United States had no health insurance in 2007 — a decrease of approximately 1.3 million people when compared with 2006. This report briefly examines the characteristics of this uninsured population. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821392/
Medicare Physician Payment Updates and the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) System
This report discusses the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR), which is the statutory method for determining the annual updates to the Medicare physician fee schedule. The SGR system was established because of the concern that the Medicare fee schedule itself would not adequately constrain overall increases in spending for physicians’ services. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822441/
Medicare: FY2007 Budget Issues
This report discusses President's budget request to Congress for Medicare, for the following federal fiscal year, along with projections for the five-year budget window. The President’s 2007 budget includes Medicare legislative proposals for Part A (Hospital Insurance) and Part B (Supplementary Medical Insurance) spending with estimated savings of $2.5 billion in 2007 and $35.9 billion over the five-year budget window. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821466/
Health Care and Markets
Health care spending is one of the most rapidly growing portions of the federal budget. Projections suggest if the rapid growth in health care costs is not curtailed, governments at all levels will face an uncomfortable choice between significant cuts in other spending priorities or major tax increases. This report examines the economic justification for government intervention and involvement in health care markets. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822522/
Federal Drug Price Negotiation: Implications for Medicare Part D
This report discusses what it means for the federal government to “negotiate” drug prices under existing public programs, the arguments for and against such activities, and some implications for the pharmaceutical industry, Medicare beneficiaries, and others if similar federal involvement were to occur on behalf of the Medicare Part D program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822530/
Recent Developments in Medicare Affecting Long-Term Care Hospitals
Medicare pays about $36 billion annually for post-acute care in four separate settings: long-term care hospitals (LTCHs), inpatient rehabilitation settings (IRFs), skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), and in the home. This report provides background information on several operational issues affecting LTCHs that are currently attracting attention from Congress, specifically efforts to develop a patient assessment tool, to develop qualification criteria that should be imposed on LTCHs, and to change Medicare’s LTCH payment methods. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822533/
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services: President’s FY2013 Budget
This report summarizes the President's budget estimates for each section of the CMS budget. Then, for each legislative proposal included in the President's budget, this report provides a description of current law and the President's proposal. The explanations of the President's legislative proposals are grouped by the following program areas: Medicare, Medicaid, program integrity, and health insurance programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822539/