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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Primer on P.L. 480 -- Program History, Description, and Operations: A Brief Compilation of Explanatory Documents
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Ethiopian Food Situation: International Response
The United States has donated the largest share of the world-wide relief effort. Members of Congress nave passed legislation, the African Famine Relief and Recovery Act of 1985 (2.L. 99-8), authorizing emergency relief assistance to Ethiopia and other famine-stricken countries. Some observers favor trying to remove restrictions that prohibit long-term agricultural development assistance and other forms of economic aid to Ethiopia, but many continue to believe that aid to this Marxist-oriented nation should be limited to humanitarian relief. The Ethiopian food situation will probably remain a central issue among U.S. lawmakers and relief officials during the 99th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9060/
African Famine: U.S. Response
This report discusses the 1985 African famine situation, especially regarding U.S. emergency assistance at a time of U.S. domestic budgetary restraints, the adequacy of U.S. measures for monitoring and anticipating food emergencies, and the scale and nature of U.S. agricultural development programs intended to prevent future famines. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9050/
Article 98 Agreements and Sanctions on U.S. Foreign Aid to Latin America
This report discusses the so-called “Article 98 agreements”. The article contains a provision that the Bush Administration has sought bilateral agreements worldwide to exempt U.S. citizens from ICC prosecution. In 2002, Congress passed the American Servicemembers’ Protection Act or ASPA (P.L. 107-206, title II), which prohibits military assistance to countries that are party to the ICC and that do not have Article 98 agreements. Some Members of Congress and Bush Administration officials have expressed concerns about the unintended effects of these sanctions on U.S. relations with Latin America. Policymakers are considering some options to mitigate these effects without undermining ASPA or diplomatic efforts to secure Article 98 agreements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8998/
Article 98 Agreements and Sanctions on U.S. Foreign Aid to Latin America
This report discusses the so-called “Article 98 agreements”. The article contains a provision that the Bush Administration has sought bilateral agreements worldwide to exempt U.S. citizens from ICC prosecution. In 2002, Congress passed the American Servicemembers’ Protection Act or ASPA (P.L. 107-206, title II), which prohibits military assistance to countries that are party to the ICC and that do not have Article 98 agreements. Some Members of Congress and Bush Administration officials have expressed concerns about the unintended effects of these sanctions on U.S. relations with Latin America. Policymakers are considering some options to mitigate these effects without undermining ASPA or diplomatic efforts to secure Article 98 agreements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8995/
The Earthquake in South Asia: Humanitarian Assistance and Relief Operations
The powerful earthquake struck northern Pakistan and India damaged the homes of as many as three million people, forcing many of them to search for alternative means of shelter. The full extent of the destruction remains unknown because government authorities and relief organizations continue to have difficulty accessing some remote locations. As of the date of this report, the United States government (USG) has pledged $410 million toward the relief effort, almost all of it to assisting Pakistan, which remains a key U.S. ally in the war against terror. So far, about 35% of this pledge has been committed. Some aid agencies are saying that the country needs a great deal more aid than it is getting, and warn that the economic impact of the disaster will surpass $5.2 billion. This burden may contribute toward long-term instability in an area perceived to be of critical importance to the United States in the war on terror. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8997/
Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests
The United States recognized the independence of all the former Soviet republics by the end of 1991, including the South Caucasus states of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. The United States has fostered these states' ties with the West in part to end the dependence of these states on Russia for trade, security, and other relations. The FREEDOM Support Act of 1992 provides authorization for assistance to the Eurasian states for humanitarian needs, democratization, and other purposes. In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States, the Administration appealed for a national security waiver of the prohibition on aid to Azerbaijan, in consideration of Azerbaijan's assistance to the international coalition to combat terrorism. Azerbaijani and Georgian troops participate in stabilization efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq, and Armenian personnel serve in Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8917/
Costa Rica: U.S. Foreign Assistance Facts
This issue brief provides basic information on the U.S. aid program and on the general situation in Costa Rica. It is one in a series on U.S. assistance to key countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8843/
Guatemala: U.S. Foreign Assistance Facts
In the past three years, the Administration has moved to substantially increase U.S. aid levels for Guatemala from $18.3 million in FY84 to a proposed $149.7 million in FY88. Budgetary limits on the overall size of the U.S. foreign aid program may cause reductions in the proposed 1988 levels, however, independent of any choices related to the Guatemalan, situation. This issue brief provides basic information on the U.S. aid program and on the general situation in Guatemala. It also outlines major issues that have arisen in the aid debate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8842/
Honduras: U.S. Foreign Assistance Facts
This report provides basic information on the U.S. aid program and on the general situation in Honduras. It also outlines major issues that have arisen in the aid debate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8841/
Andean Counterdrug Initiative (ACI) and Related Funding Programs: FY2007 Assistance
This report discusses the funds and material support the U.S. has contributed to help Colombia and the Andean region fight drug trafficking since the development of Plan Colombia in 1999. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8778/
Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
The United States and its allies are helping Afghanistan emerging from more than 22 years of warfare, although substantial risk to Afghan stability remains. Before the U.S. military campaign against the orthodox Islamist Taliban movement began on October 7, 2001, Afghanistan had been mired in conflict since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. The defeat of the Taliban has enabled the United States and its coalition partners to send forces throughout Afghanistan to search for Taliban and Al Qaeda fighters and leaders that remain at large, including Osama bin Laden. As the war against remaining Al Qaeda and Taliban elements winds down, the United States is shifting its military focus toward stabilizing the interim government, including training a new Afghan national army, and supporting the international security force (ISAF) that is helping the new government provide security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8762/
Caribbean Basin Initiative
On August 5, 1983, President Reagan signed Public Law 98-67, which provides duty-free entry into the United States for certain Caribbean exports and allows U.S. business people to take tax deductions for the expense of attending conventions in the Caribbean region. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8605/
Agriculture in Afghanistan and Neighboring Asian Countries
Agriculture (as measured by share of gross domestic product and employment) is a significant economic sector in seven Central and South Asian countries: Afghanistan, Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. All of these countries are net food importers. Some have experienced successive years of drought, which has contributed to noticeable declines in agricultural output and the need to increase commodity imports. The United Nations’ World Food Program reports that both Afghanistan and Tajikistan are currently in need of emergency food assistance to cover sizable food deficits. The food outlook in Afghanistan is made uncertain by ongoing military conflict. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8621/
U.S. Foreign Assistance to Latin America and the Caribbean
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Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
The United States and its allies are helping Afghanistan emerging from more than 22 years of warfare, although substantial risk to Afghan stability remains. Before the U.S. military campaign against the orthodox Islamist Taliban movement began on October 7, 2001, Afghanistan had been mired in conflict since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. The defeat of the Taliban has enabled the United States and its coalition partners to send forces throughout Afghanistan to search for Taliban and Al Qaeda fighters and leaders that remain at large, including Osama bin Laden. As the war against remaining Al Qaeda and Taliban elements winds down, the United States is shifting its military focus toward stabilizing the interim government, including training a new Afghan national army, and supporting the international security force (ISAF) that is helping the new government provide security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8574/
Kissinger Commission Implementation: Actions by the Congress Through 1986 on the Recommendations of the National Bipartisan Commission of Central America
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Major Trends in U.S. Foreign Assistance to Central America: 1978-1986
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Liberia: Transition to Peace
This report covers recent events in Liberia and related U.S. policy. In 2003, Liberia began a post-conflict transition process to achieve enduring peace, socio-economic reconstruction and democratic governance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8434/
Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
The United States and its allies are helping Afghanistan emerging from more than 22 years of warfare, although substantial risk to Afghan stability remains. Before the U.S. military campaign against the orthodox Islamist Taliban movement began on October 7, 2001, Afghanistan had been mired in conflict since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. The defeat of the Taliban has enabled the United States and its coalition partners to send forces throughout Afghanistan to search for Taliban and Al Qaeda fighters and leaders that remain at large, including Osama bin Laden. As the war against remaining Al Qaeda and Taliban elements winds down, the United States is shifting its military focus toward stabilizing the interim government, including training a new Afghan national army, and supporting the international security force (ISAF) that is helping the new government provide security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8459/
U.S. Foreign Assistance to Latin America and the Caribbean
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Post-War Iraq: Foreign Contributions to Training, Peacekeeping, and Reconstruction
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Post-War Iraq: A Table and Chronology of Foreign Contributions
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Iraq: Recent Developments in Reconstruction Assistance
Following years of authoritarian rule and economic sanctions, the United States and the international community agreed in the spring of 2003 that efforts should be made to introduce economic reform and democratic government to post-war Iraq. More recently, the Bush Administration has asserted a “victory” strategy composed of eight objectives, five of which are to: transition Iraq to security self-reliance, help Iraqis form a national compact for democratic government, help Iraq build government capacity and provide essential services, help Iraq strengthen its economy, and help Iraq strengthen the rule of law and promote civil rights. To meet these ends, a large-scale reconstruction assistance program has been undertaken by the United States in Iraq. This report describes recent developments in this assistance effort. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8355/
Iraq: Recent Developments in Reconstruction Assistance
Large-scale reconstruction assistance programs are being undertaken by the United States following the war with Iraq. To fund such programs, Congress approved on April 12, 2003, a $2.48 billion Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Fund (IRRF) in the FY2003 Supplemental Appropriation. On November 6, 2003, the President signed into law P.L. 108-106, the FY2004 Emergency Supplemental Appropriation, providing $18.4 billion for Iraq reconstruction. Contributions pledged at the October 24, 2003, Madrid donor conference by other donors amounted to roughly $3.6 billion in grant aid and as much as $13.3 billion in possible loans. This report describes recent developments in this assistance effort. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8314/
The Earthquake in South Asia: Humanitarian Assistance and Relief Operations
The powerful earthquake struck northern Pakistan and India damaged the homes of as many as three million people, forcing many of them to search for alternative means of shelter. The full extent of the destruction remains unknown because government authorities and relief organizations continue to have difficulty accessing some remote locations. As of the date of this report, the United States government (USG) has pledged $410 million toward the relief effort, almost all of it to assisting Pakistan, which remains a key U.S. ally in the war against terror. So far, about 35% of this pledge has been committed. Some aid agencies are saying that the country needs a great deal more aid than it is getting, and warn that the economic impact of the disaster will surpass $5.2 billion. This burden may contribute toward long-term instability in an area perceived to be of critical importance to the United States in the war on terror. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8257/
The U.N. Population Fund: Background and the U.S. Funding Debate
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U.S. Assistance to North Korea: A Fact Sheet
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U.S. Assistance to North Korea: A Fact Sheet
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Humanitarian Crisis in Haiti: 2004
Since armed rebels seized control of Haiti’s fourth largest city, Gonaives, on February 5, 2004, and protests calling for President Aristide’s resignation culminated in his departure on February 29, there has been increasing concern about a looming humanitarian crisis in Haiti. With events on the ground constantly shifting and an increasing lack of security, assessments of the humanitarian situation remain fluid and subject to change. This report covers recent developments and the humanitarian response to the crisis by the United States and other international actors. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8196/
HIV/AIDS International Programs: Appropriations, FY2003-FY2006
This report briefly discusses appropriations for international HIV/AIDS programs. FY2006 Appropriations for Foreign Operations (P.L. 109-102), Labor/HHS/Education (H.Rept. 109-300), Defense, and Agriculture (P.L. 109-97) provide more than $3.4 billion for international HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria initiatives. The largest portion of the funds is provided through P.L. 109-102, which directs more than $2.8 billion to fighting the three diseases. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8280/
Andean Counterdrug Initiative (ACI) and Related Funding Programs: FY2006 Assistance
This report discusses the funds and material support the U.S. has contributed to help Colombia and the Andean region fight drug trafficking since the development of Plan Colombia in 1999. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8275/
Andean Counterdrug Initiative (ACI) and Related Funding Programs: FY2005 Assistance
This report discusses the funds and material support the U.S. has contributed to help Colombia and the Andean region fight drug trafficking since the development of Plan Colombia in 1999. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8191/
Conditions on U.S. Aid to Serbia
In each of the past five fiscal years (FY2001-FY2005), Congress has conditioned U.S. aid to Serbia on a presidential certification that Serbia has met certain conditions, including cooperation with the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY). The 1 Ogth Congress is considering similar certification provisions in the FY2006 foreign aid bill. Supporters of aid conditionality say such provisions may have spurred Serbia's cooperation with the Tribunal. While the certification process continues to enjoy support in Congress, the Administration appears to favor ending it soon, as well as shifting responsibility for prosecuting war crimes from the ICTY to local courts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8134/
Conditions on U.S. Aid to Serbia
In each of the past five fiscal years (FY2001-FY2005), Congress has conditioned U.S. aid to Serbia on a presidential certification that Serbia has met certain conditions, including cooperation with the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY). The 1 Ogth Congress is considering similar certification provisions in the FY2006 foreign aid bill. Supporters of aid conditionality say such provisions may have spurred Serbia's cooperation with the Tribunal. While the certification process continues to enjoy support in Congress, the Administration appears to favor ending it soon, as well as shifting responsibility for prosecuting war crimes from the ICTY to local courts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8059/
U.S. Foreign Aid to Israel
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U.S. Assistance to the Former Soviet Union
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Millennium Challenge Account: Implementation of a New U.S. Foreign Aid Initiative
This report discusses the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA), which provides assistance, through a competitive selection process, to developing nations that are pursing political and economic reforms in three areas: ruling justly, investing in people, and fostering economic freedom. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8035/
Post-War Iraq: Foreign Contributions to Training, Peacekeeping, and Reconstruction
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Iraq: Recent Developments in Reconstruction Assistance
Following years of authoritarian rule and economic sanctions, the United States and the international community agreed in the spring of 2003 that efforts should be made to introduce economic reform and democratic government to post-war Iraq. More recently, the Bush Administration has asserted a “victory” strategy composed of eight objectives, five of which are to: transition Iraq to security self-reliance, help Iraqis form a national compact for democratic government, help Iraq build government capacity and provide essential services, help Iraq strengthen its economy, and help Iraq strengthen the rule of law and promote civil rights. To meet these ends, a large-scale reconstruction assistance program has been undertaken by the United States in Iraq. This report describes recent developments in this assistance effort. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8112/
Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations
This report provides an annotated list of U.N. agencies that are involved in Iraq, key U.S. government agencies, and a sample list of major international and U.S.- based aid organizations that are providing humanitarian assistance to Iraq. Internet links to the U.N. agencies and humanitarian aid organizations are also provided. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8026/
Haiti: International Assistance Strategy for the Interim Government and Congressional Concerns
This report discusses international assistance strategy, known as the Interim Cooperation Framework (ICF), to address Haiti’s short-term needs between the collapse of the government of President Jean- Bertrand Aristide in February 2004 and the initial phase of a new government scheduled to be inaugurated in February 2006. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7936/
U.S. Assistance to Vietnam
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Iraq: Recent Developments in Reconstruction Assistance
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U.S. Foreign Aid to East and South Asia: Selected Recipients
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Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues
This report discusses the issue of U.S. economic assistance to sub-Saharan Africa, highlighting the importance of continued assistance in light of U.S. national security and also various U.S.-led efforts to promote reform amongst African citizens themselves. U.S. assistance finds its way to Africa through a variety of channels, including the USAID-administered DA program, food aid programs, and indirect aid provided through international financial institutions and the United Nations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7876/
Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues
This report discusses the issue of U.S. economic assistance to sub-Saharan Africa, highlighting the importance of continued assistance in light of U.S. national security and also various U.S.-led efforts to promote reform amongst African citizens themselves. U.S. assistance finds its way to Africa through a variety of channels, including the USAID-administered DA program, food aid programs, and indirect aid provided through international financial institutions and the United Nations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7875/
Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues
This report discusses the issue of U.S. economic assistance to sub-Saharan Africa, highlighting the importance of continued assistance in light of U.S. national security and also various U.S.-led efforts to promote reform amongst African citizens themselves. U.S. assistance finds its way to Africa through a variety of channels, including the USAID-administered DA program, food aid programs, and indirect aid provided through international financial institutions and the United Nations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7874/
Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests
The United States recognized the independence of all the former Soviet republics by the end of 1991, including the South Caucasus states of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. The United States has fostered these states' ties with the West in part to end the dependence of these states on Russia for trade, security, and other relations. The FREEDOM Support Act of 1992 provides authorization for assistance to the Eurasian states for humanitarian needs, democratization, and other purposes. In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States, the Administration appealed for a national security waiver of the prohibition on aid to Azerbaijan, in consideration of Azerbaijan's assistance to the international coalition to combat terrorism. Azerbaijani and Georgian troops participate in stabilization efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq, and Armenian personnel serve in Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7832/
Africa, the G8, and the Blair Initiative
Britain's Prime Minister Blair assumed the rotating presidency of the G8 group of nations (see text box) in January 2005, and he intends to use the July 2005 G8 summit, which he will chair, to push his Africa development initiative. Climate change will be the second focus of the G8 meeting, being called the "Gleneagles summit." The purpose of this report is to provide background on Africa, the G8, and the Gleneagles meeting. It outlines the British proposals and the U.S. reaction to them to date. In addition, it briefly reviews the problems that have inhibited African development and the response to those problems at previous G8 meetings. For additional information, see CRS Report RL32489, Africa: Development Issues and Policy Options, and CRS Issue Brief IB95052, Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7590/