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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
U.S. Assistance to North Korea
This report summarizes U.S. assistance to the Democratic People's Republic of North Korea (DPRK, also known as North Korea). It will be updated periodically to track changes in U.S. provision of aid to North Korea. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10605/
International Food Aid: U.S. and Other Donor Contributions
The United States is the world's major provider of international food aid to low-income developing countries. This report provides three indicators of the U.S. contribution to global food aid: (1) shipments of major donors compiled by the International Grains Council, (2) U.S. contributions to the United Nations World Food Program (WFP), and (3) the U.S. commitment under the Food Aid Convention (FAC). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10577/
Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests
The United States recognized the independence of all the former Soviet republics by the end of 1991, including the South Caucasus states of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. The United States has fostered these states' ties with the West in part to end the dependence of these states on Russia for trade, security, and other relations. The FREEDOM Support Act of 1992 provides authorization for assistance to the Eurasian states for humanitarian needs, democratization, and other purposes. In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States, the Administration appealed for a national security waiver of the prohibition on aid to Azerbaijan, in consideration of Azerbaijan's assistance to the international coalition to combat terrorism. Azerbaijani and Georgian troops participate in stabilization efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq, and Armenian personnel serve in Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10336/
Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests
The United States recognized the independence of all the former Soviet republics by the end of 1991, including the South Caucasus states of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. The United States has fostered these states' ties with the West in part to end the dependence of these states on Russia for trade, security, and other relations. The United States has pursued close ties with Armenia to encourage its democratization and because of concerns by Armenian-Americans and others over its fate. Close ties with Georgia have evolved from U.S. contacts with its pro-Western leadership. The Bush Administration supports U.s. private investment in Azerbaijan's energy sector as a means of increasing the diversity of world energy suppliers and to encourage building multiple energy pipelines to world markets. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10337/
Millennium Challenge Account
In a speech on March 14, 2002, President Bush outlined a proposal for a major new U.S. foreign aid initiative. The Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) is managed by the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) and provides assistance, through a competitive selection process, to developing nations that are pursuing political and economic reforms in three areas: ruling justly, investing in people, and fostering economic freedom. If fully implemented, the initiative would represent one of the largest increases in foreign aid spending in half a century. A growing question raised by some Members of Congress concerns the level of funding to support MCC programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10418/
Millennium Challenge Account: Implementation of a New U.S. Foreign Aid Initiative
In a speech on March 14, 2002, President Bush outlined a proposal for a major new U.S. foreign aid initiative. The program, referred to as the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA), is managed by the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) and provides assistance, through a competitive selection process, to developing nations that are pursing political and economic reforms in three areas: ruling justly, investing in people, and fostering economic freedom. If fully implemented, the initiative would represent one of the largest increases in foreign aid spending in half a century, outpaced only by the Marshall Plan following World War II and the Latin America-focused Alliance for Progress in the early 1960s. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10417/
Post-War Iraq: Foreign Contributions to Training, Peacekeeping, and Reconstruction
Securing and maintaining foreign contributions to the reconstruction and stabilization of Iraq has been a major priority for U.S. policymakers since the launch of Operation Iraqi Freedom in March 2003. This report tracks important changes in financial and personnel pledges from foreign governments since the August 19, 2003 bombing of the U.N. headquarters in Baghdad and major events since the fall of Baghdad on April 9, 2003. This report also discusses international efforts to train and equip the new Iraqi security forces. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10431/
Iraq: Recent Developments in Reconstruction Assistance
Large-scale assistance programs are being undertaken by the United States following the war with Iraq. To fund such programs, in April 2003, Congress approved a $2.48 billion Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Fund (IRRF) in the FY2003 Supplemental Appropriation. In November 2003, the FY2004 Supplemental Appropriation provided an additional $18.4 billion for the IRRF. Many reconstruction efforts on the ground are underway, but security concerns have slowed progress considerably. Of the nearly $29 billion in appropriated funds from all accounts directed at reconstruction purposes, close to 40% is targeted at infrastructure projects -- roads, sanitation, electric power, oil production, etc. About 38% is used to train and equip Iraqi security forces. A range of programs -- accounting for roughly 22% of appropriations -- are in place to offer expert advice to the Iraqi government, establish business centers, rehabilitate schools and health clinics, provide school book and vaccinations, etc. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10442/
Iraq: Recent Developments in Reconstruction Assistance
Large-scale assistance programs are being undertaken by the United States following the war with Iraq. To fund such programs, in April 2003, Congress approved a $2.48 billion Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Fund (IRRF) in the FY2003 Supplemental Appropriation. Additional and similar funding is also outlined in this report. Many reconstruction efforts in Iraq -- including infrastructure projects, the training and equipping of Iraqi security forces, and general political and societal reinforcement -- are underway, but security concerns have slowed progress considerably. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10444/
Iraq: Recent Developments
Large-scale assistance programs are being undertaken by the United States following the war with Iraq. To fund such programs, in April 2003, Congress approved a $2.48 billion Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Fund (IRRF) in the FY203 Supplemental Appropriation, among others. Many reconstruction efforts on the ground are underway, but security concerns have slowed progress considerably. A range of programs -- accounting for roughly 27% of appropriations -- are in place to offer expert advice to the Iraqi government, establish business centers, rehabilitate schools and health clinics, provide school books and vaccinations, etc. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10443/
U.S. Foreign Aid to East and South Asia: Selected Recipients
This report analyzes annual budget justifications and legislation for foreign operations and discusses U.S. foreign aid trends, programs, and restrictions in 16 East Asian and South Asian countries. This report does not cover aid to Pacific Island nations, North Korea, and Afghanistan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10466/
Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
Afghanistan's political transition was completed with the convening of a parliament in December 2005, but since then insurgent threats to Afghanistan's government have escalated to the point that some experts are questioning the future of U.S. stabilization efforts. Afghan citizens are enjoying new personal freedoms that were forbidden under the Taliban. Women are participating in economic and political life. U.S. stabilization measures focus on strengthening the central government and its security forces and on promoting reconstructing while combating the renewed insurgent challenge. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10487/
Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
Afghanistan's planned political transition was completed with the convening of a parliament in December 2005, but insurgent threats to Afghanistan's government persist and are even growing in some southern provinces. A new constitution was adopted in January 2004, and successful presidential elections were held on October 9, 2004, followed by parliamentary elections on September 18, 2005. Afghan citizens are enjoying new personal freedoms that were forbidden under the Taliban. Women are participating in economic and political life; however, the insurgency led by remnants of the former Taliban regime has conducted numerous lethal attacks since mid-2005, narcotics trafficking is rampant, and independent militias remain through the country. U.S. stabilization measures focus on strengthening the central government and its security forces while combating insurgents. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10486/
Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues
Under the Administration's FY2006 foreign assistance request, U.S. aid to sub-Saharan Africa would continue to grow, due to sharp increases through the State Department's Global HIV/AIDS Initiative. Overall, non-food aid to Africa would total about $3.6 billion under the requst, compared with an estimated $3.4 billion being allocated in FY2005. U.S. assistance finds its way to Africa through a variety of channels, including the USAID-administered DA and Child Survival programs, food aid programs, and refugee assistance. The overall level of funding for aid to Africa remains a continuing subject of debate. Other issues include the eligibility of African countries for aid through the Millennium Challenge Account and U.S. support for the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), an African initiative linking increased aid with policy reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10502/
U.S. Foreign Aid to East and South Asia: Selected Recipients
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U.S. Occupation Assistance: Iraq, Germany, and Japan Compared
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U.S. Assistance to Women in Afghanistan and Iraq: Challenges and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9998/
U.S. Aid to the Palestinians
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9997/
Trends in U.S. Foreign Food Aid, FY1992-FY2002
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9642/
The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria: Progress Report and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9982/
The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance in 1992: The Role of Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9655/
U.S. Occupation Assistance: Iraq, Germany, and Japan Compared
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9976/
U.S. Assistance to Women in Afghanistan and Iraq: Challenges and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9974/
U.S. Aid to the Palestinians
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9973/
Trends in U.S. Foreign Food Aid, FY1992-FY2002
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9638/
The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria: Progress Report and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9958/
The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance in 1992: The Role of Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9651/
Iraq: Recent Developments in Reconstruction Assistance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9879/
Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests
The United States recognized the independence of all the former Soviet republics by the end of 1991, including the South Caucasus states of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. The United States has fostered these states' ties with the West in part to end the dependence of these states on Russia for trade, security, and other relations. The FREEDOM Support Act of 1992 provides authorization for assistance to the Eurasian states for humanitarian needs, democratization, and other purposes. In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States, the Administration appealed for a national security waiver of the prohibition on aid to Azerbaijan, in consideration of Azerbaijan's assistance to the international coalition to combat terrorism. Azerbaijani and Georgian troops participate in stabilization efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq, and Armenian personnel serve in Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9831/
U.S. Foreign Aid to South and East Asia: Selected Recipients
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9814/
Millenium Challenge Account
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9786/
Post-War Iraq: Foreign Contributions to Training, Peacekeeping, and Reconstruction
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9777/
Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
The United States and its allies are helping Afghanistan emerging from more than 22 years of warfare, although substantial risk to Afghan stability remains. Before the U.S. military campaign against the orthodox Islamist Taliban movement began on October 7, 2001, Afghanistan had been mired in conflict since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. The defeat of the Taliban has enabled the United States and its coalition partners to send forces throughout Afghanistan to search for Taliban and Al Qaeda fighters and leaders that remain at large, including Osama bin Laden. As the war against remaining Al Qaeda and Taliban elements winds down, the United States is shifting its military focus toward stabilizing the interim government, including training a new Afghan national army, and supporting the international security force (ISAF) that is helping the new government provide security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9763/
Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
The United States and its allies are helping Afghanistan emerging from more than 22 years of warfare, although substantial risk to Afghan stability remains. Before the U.S. military campaign against the orthodox Islamist Taliban movement began on October 7, 2001, Afghanistan had been mired in conflict since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. The defeat of the Taliban has enabled the United States and its coalition partners to send forces throughout Afghanistan to search for Taliban and Al Qaeda fighters and leaders that remain at large, including Osama bin Laden. As the war against remaining Al Qaeda and Taliban elements winds down, the United States is shifting its military focus toward stabilizing the interim government, including training a new Afghan national army, and supporting the international security force (ISAF) that is helping the new government provide security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9747/
Millenium Challenge Account: Implementation of a New U.S. Foreign Aid Initiative
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9736/
Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues
This report discusses the issue of U.S. economic assistance to sub-Saharan Africa, highlighting the importance of continued assistance in light of U.S. national security and also various U.S.-led efforts to promote reform amongst African citizens themselves. U.S. assistance finds its way to Africa through a variety of channels, including the USAID-administered DA program, food aid programs, and indirect aid provided through international financial institutions and the United Nations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9723/
Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests
The United States recognized the independence of all the former Soviet republics by the end of 1991, including the South Caucasus states of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. The United States has fostered these states' ties with the West in part to end the dependence of these states on Russia for trade, security, and other relations. The FREEDOM Support Act of 1992 provides authorization for assistance to the Eurasian states for humanitarian needs, democratization, and other purposes. In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States, the Administration appealed for a national security waiver of the prohibition on aid to Azerbaijan, in consideration of Azerbaijan's assistance to the international coalition to combat terrorism. Azerbaijani and Georgian troops participate in stabilization efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq, and Armenian personnel serve in Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9711/
Iraq: Recent Developments in Reconstruction Assistance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9696/
Restructuring U.S. Foreign Aid: The Role of the Director of Foreign Assistance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9449/
Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests
This report provides an overview of U.S. policy concerns and relations with countries in central Asia. The report discusses issues such as Fostering Pro-Western Orientations, Obstacles to Peace and Independence, Democratization and Human Rights, Security and Arms Control, Trade and Investment, and provides an Aid Overview. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9437/
Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests
This report provides an overview of U.S. policy concerns and relations with countries in central Asia. The report discusses issues such as Fostering Pro-Western Orientations, Obstacles to Peace and Independence, Democratization and Human Rights, Security and Arms Control, Trade and Investment, and provides an Aid Overview. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9436/
Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests
The United States recognized the independence of all the former Soviet republics by the end of 1991, including the South Caucasus states of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. The United States has fostered these states' ties with the West in part to end the dependence of these states on Russia for trade, security, and other relations. The FREEDOM Support Act of 1992 provides authorization for assistance to the Eurasian states for humanitarian needs, democratization, and other purposes. In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States, the Administration appealed for a national security waiver of the prohibition on aid to Azerbaijan, in consideration of Azerbaijan's assistance to the international coalition to combat terrorism. Azerbaijani and Georgian troops participate in stabilization efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq, and Armenian personnel serve in Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9435/
Iraq: Recent Developments in Reconstruction Assistance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9546/
U.S. Foreign Aid to South and East Asia: Selected Recipients
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9390/
Millenium Challenge Account
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9358/
Post-War Iraq: Foreign Contributions to Training, Peacekeeping, and Reconstruction
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9348/
Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Security Issues and Implications for U.S. Interests
This report discusses the internal and external security concerns of the South Caucasus states and U.S. interests and policy toward the region. The countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia are generally considered as comprising the South Caucasus region, which borders Russia, Turkey, and Iran. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9333/
Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
The United States and its allies are helping Afghanistan emerging from more than 22 years of warfare, although substantial risk to Afghan stability remains. Before the U.S. military campaign against the orthodox Islamist Taliban movement began on October 7, 2001, Afghanistan had been mired in conflict since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. The defeat of the Taliban has enabled the United States and its coalition partners to send forces throughout Afghanistan to search for Taliban and Al Qaeda fighters and leaders that remain at large, including Osama bin Laden. As the war against remaining Al Qaeda and Taliban elements winds down, the United States is shifting its military focus toward stabilizing the interim government, including training a new Afghan national army, and supporting the international security force (ISAF) that is helping the new government provide security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9332/
Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
The United States and its allies are helping Afghanistan emerging from more than 22 years of warfare, although substantial risk to Afghan stability remains. Before the U.S. military campaign against the orthodox Islamist Taliban movement began on October 7, 2001, Afghanistan had been mired in conflict since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. The defeat of the Taliban has enabled the United States and its coalition partners to send forces throughout Afghanistan to search for Taliban and Al Qaeda fighters and leaders that remain at large, including Osama bin Laden. As the war against remaining Al Qaeda and Taliban elements winds down, the United States is shifting its military focus toward stabilizing the interim government, including training a new Afghan national army, and supporting the international security force (ISAF) that is helping the new government provide security. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9310/
East Central Europe: Status of International Criminal Court (ICC) Exemption Agreements and U.S. Military Assistance
In a broad effort to obtain U.S. exemptions from International Criminal Court (ICC) jurisdiction, the Bush Administration has sought to conclude bilateral agreements worldwide that would prohibit the transfer of U.S. citizens to the ICC. The European Union has strongly promoted the ICC and is opposed to the U.S.- proposed agreements. This report addresses twelve countries of east central Europe affected by the U.S. and European policies – Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia, and Slovenia – and the status of their varied approaches to the transatlantic disagreement over the ICC. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9287/