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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
U.S. Food and Agricultural Imports: Safeguards and Selected Issues
The report provides background information in the increase of food and agricultural imports and federal oversight responsibilities. It discusses international trade considerations, import refusals by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), administration, and legislative proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103216/
Rising Food Prices and Global Food Needs: The U.S. Response
This report discusses rising food prices that are having impacts across the world, but especially among poor people in the low-income developing countries. The report addresses several issues, such as: Why Are Food Prices Increasing? How Countries Have Responded? Food Aid Funding Shortfalls, and the U.S. Response to Food Aid Funding Shortfalls. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98102/
Horse Slaughter Prevention Bills and Issues
This report discusses the bills and issues regarding horses that are slaughtered for human food. Debate revolves around the acceptability of horse slaughter, and how to care for and/or humanely dispose of horses if they no longer become human food. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98119/
Farm and Food Support Under USDA's Section 32 Program
This report describes provisions in the 2008 farm bill (P.L. 110-234) related to Section 32 appropriations and how non-transferred money (funding not put toward child nutrition programs) may be spent. It includes an overfiew of how Section 32 funds have generally been used and the implications of the new restrictions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96784/
Seafood Safety: Background and Issues
This report provides brief background information regarding seafood safety. The report address the question; are the current food safety programs sufficiently protecting consumers, and if not, what changes should be considered? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94229/
What Is the “Farm Bill”?
This report describes the Farm Bill (P.L. 110-246, Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, which was enacted into law on June 18, 2008. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94207/
International Food Aid Provisions of the 2008 Farm Bill
The report discusses the international food aid provision (2008 Farm Bill) of U.S. agricultural commodities for emergency relief and economic development. This provision addresses the United States' major response to food security problems in developing countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94239/
Food Safety Provisions of the 2008 Farm Bill
The report discusses the food safety provision in the 2008 Farm Bill. Food safety re-emerged as an issue in the 110th Congress following a series of widely publicized incidents — including adulterated Chinese seafood and pet food ingredient imports, findings of bacteria-tainted spinach, meat, and poultry produced domestically, and several large food recalls. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94236/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses the recent development in different programs administered by U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) with the goal to promote agricultural exports and to provide food aid. These programs include direct export subsidies, export market development, export credit guarantees, and foreign food aid. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94058/
Domestic Food Assistance: The Farm Bill and Other Legislation in the 110th Congress
This report covers issues and legislative changes addressed in the farm bill, legislative changes included in the FY2008 Agriculture appropriations measure (included in the FY2008 Consolidated Appropriations Act; P.L. 110-161), and proposed legislation that involves programs and activities that are normally not part of the farm bill (e.g., child nutrition program proposals). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94089/
The National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility: Issues for Congress
This report outlines current progress towards establishment of the National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility (NBAF), presents current and projected funding levels and timelines, and describes policy issues of potential interest to Congress, such as agency coordination, possession of viruses, construction timelines, disposition of PIADC, and community safety concerns. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94114/
Farm and Food Support Under USDA's Section 32 Program
The 110th Congress in June 2008 passed a new omnibus farm bill (P.L. 110-246). Provisions in this new law now spell out more explicitly how the Secretary is to use the annual Section 32 appropriation. Section 32 of the act of August 24, 1935 (P.L. 74-320 as amended; 7 U.S.C. 612c) authorizes a permanent appropriation equal to 30% of annual U.S. customs receipts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87328/
U.S. Food and Agricultural Imports: Safeguards and Selected Issues
The issue was explored at numerous congressional hearings in 2007 and 2008, and Members of Congress introduced a variety of bills to modify or overhaul the current system. Some sought broad reforms in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) oversight of both food and drug safety, including of imports. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87330/
Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods
This report briefly discusses the USDA's FY2006 appropriation, which postpones rules requiring many retailers to provide country-of-origin labeling (COOL) for fresh produce, red meats, and peanuts until September 30, 2008. The report also discusses related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29507/
Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods
This report briefly discusses the USDA's FY2006 appropriation, which postpones rules requiring many retailers to provide country-of-origin labeling (COOL) for fresh produce, red meats, and peanuts until September 30, 2008. The report also discusses related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29506/
Federal Farm Promotion ("Check-off") Programs
The U.S. Supreme Court in 2005 affirmed the constitutionality of the so-called beef check-off program, one of the 18 generic promotion programs for agricultural products that are now active nationally. Supporters view check-offs as economically beneficial self-help activities that need minimal government involvement or taxpayer funding. Producers, handlers, and/or importers are required to pay an assessment, usually deducted from revenue at time of sale - thus the name check-off. However, some farmers contend they are being "taxed" for advertising and related activities they would not underwrite voluntarily. The Supreme Court's decision to uphold the beef check-off is considered significant for the future of the other programs, although the Court left open the possibility of additional challenges. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26082/
Potential Farm Sector Effects of 2009 H1N1 "Swine Flu": Questions and Answers
This report discusses how the outbreak of the strain of influenza A (H1N1), commonly referred to as "swine flu," affected the domestic and international pork markets. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26156/
Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods
The 2002 farm bill required retailers to provide country-of-origin labeling for fresh produce, red meats, peanuts, and seafood by September 30, 2004. Congress twice postponed implementation for all but seafood; country-of-origin labeling (COOL) now must be implemented by September 30, 2008. Some lawmakers have proposed new COOL requirements for other foods and food ingredients, as part of a proposed overhaul of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26116/
Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods
The 2002 farm bill required retailers to provide country-of-origin labeling (COOL) for fresh produce, red meats, peanuts, and seafood by September 30, 2004. Congress twice postponed implementation for all bu seafood; COOL now must be implemented by September 30, 2008. This report describes the current status of the COOL issue, as well as the ongoing discussion of additional COOL requirements for other foods and food ingredients as part of the proposed Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act overhaul. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26117/
U.S.-Russia Meat and Poultry Trade Issues
Russia announced on August 29, 2008, that it was banning poultry imports from 19 U.S. establishments due to safety concerns, and that 29 others could lose approval if they do not improve their standards. Russian officials also signaled that they might reduce U.S. permits to import poultry and pork under that country's quota system. The economic stakes of Russian import actions are high for U.S. poultry producers - 29% of their exports went to that market in 2007 - and red meat producers, who also are experiencing strong growth in the Russian market. In Congress, any potential options likely would be reviewed within the context of the broader geopolitical situation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10790/
International Food Aid Provisions
Provision of U.S. agricultural commodities for emergency relief and economic development is the United States' major response to food security problems in developing countries. Title III in the omnibus farm bill enacted in June 2008, the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, reauthorizes and makes a number of changes in U.S. international food aid programs. Farm bill debate over U.S. food aid programs focused generally on how to make delivery of food aid more efficient and more effective. This report explores this and related legislation, as well as the areas of this ongoing and international issue that are continually debated. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10760/
Food Safety Provisions of the 2008 Farm Bill
Food safety has re-emerged as an issue in the 110th Congress following a series of widely publicized incidents -- including adulterated Chinese seafood and pet food ingredient imports, findings of bacteria-tainted spinach, meat, and poultry produced domestically, and several large food recalls. In May 2008, Congress approved a new omnibus farm law (P.L. 110-234; H.R. 2419) that includes, among other provisions, several changes affecting U.S. food safety programs. Changes in the livestock title (Title XI) include subjecting catfish to U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) mandatory inspections similar to those for red meat and poultry; creating an option for state-inspected meat and poultry plants to ship their products across state lines; and requiring meat and poultry establishments to notify USDA about potentially adulterated or misbranded products. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10748/
Food Safety Provisions of the 2008 Farm Bill
Food safety re-emerged as an issue in the 110th Congress following a series of widely publicized incidents -- including adulterated Chinese seafood and pet food ingredient imports, findings of bacteria-tainted spinach, meat, and poultry produced domestically, and several large food recalls. In 2008, Congress approved a new omnibus farm law that includes, among other provisions, several changes affecting U.S. food safety programs. This report outlines said provisions and explores the issue of food safety and related legislation in detail. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10747/
The FDA 2009 Budget Request
The Administration's FY2009 budget request of $2.4 billion for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) would provide a 5.7% increase ($130 million) over FY2008. User fees would make up about 26% of the total amount requested and would account for 61% of the proposed increase. Budget documents indicate that the additional funding would provide for expanded activities to ensure the safety of foods and drugs, as well as to accelerate the availability of new medical products. About half of the requested increase would be used for cost-of-living pay increases, as opposed to new program activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10745/
Haiti: Legislative Responses to the Food Crisis and Related Development Challenges
Haiti faces several interrelated challenges, the most immediate being a lingering food crisis that in April 2008 led to deadly protests and the ouster of Haiti's prime minister. Haiti also suffers from a legacy of poverty, unemployment, and under-development that is compounding security problems for its new and fragile democracy. This report describes in detail the amount and types of emergency food aid and other relief aid that the United States has sent and will continue to send to Haiti. This report also outlines relevant pieces of legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10742/
Haiti: Legislative Responses to the Food Crisis and Related Development Challenges
Haiti faces several interrelated challenges, the most immediate being a deepening food crisis that in April 2008 led to deadly protests and the ouster of Haiti's prime minister. Haiti also suffers from a legacy of poverty, unemployment, and underdevelopment that is compounding security problems for its new and fragile democracy. This report follows the current situation in Haiti and key legislative initiatives designed to help address Haiti's many challenges. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10741/
Haiti: Legislative Responses to the Food Crisis and Related Development Challenges
Haiti faces several interrelated challenges, the most immediate being a lingering food crisis that in April 2008 led to deadly protests and the ouster of Haiti's prime minister. Haiti also suffers from a legacy of poverty, unemployment, and under-development that is compounding security problems for its new and fragile democracy. This report describes in detail the amount and types of emergency food aid and other relief aid that the United States has sent and will continue to send to Haiti. This report also outlines relevant pieces of legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10740/
Health and Safety Concerns Over U.S. Imports of Chinese Products: An Overview
China is a major source of U.S. imports of consumer products (such as toys) and an increasingly important supplier of various food products. Reports of unsafe seafood, pet food, toys, tires, and other products imported from China over the past year or so have raised concern in the United States over the health, safety, and quality of imported Chinese products. This report provides an overview of this issue and implications for U.S.-China trade relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10714/
Health and Safety Concerns Over U.S. Imports of Chinese Products: An Overview
China is a major source of U.S. imports of consumer products (such as toys) and an increasingly important supplier of various food products. Reports of unsafe seafood, pet food, toys, tires, and other products imported from China over the past year or so have raised concern in the United States over the health, safety, and quality of imported Chinese products. This report provides an overview of this issue and implications for U.S.-China trade relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10713/
Health and Safety Concerns Over U.S. Imports of Chinese Products: An Overview
China is a major source of U.S. imports of consumer products (such as toys) and an increasingly important supplier of various food products. Reports of unsafe seafood, pet food, toys, tires, and other products imported from China over the past year or so have raised concern in the United States over the health, safety, and quality of imported Chinese products. This report provides an overview of this issue and implications for U.S.-China trade relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10710/
Department of Defense Food Procurement: Background and Status
Military food items, also known as subsistence items, are generally procured under the auspices of the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA), an agency of the Department of Defense (DOD) which provides worldwide logistics support for the U.S. military services. Under DLA, the Defense Supply Center (DCSP) is the inventory control point for food, clothing, textiles, medicines, medical equipment, general and industrial supplies and services for the military, their eligible dependents, and other non-DOD customers worldwide. This report will describe the origin, authority, and policy in military food procurement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10644/
International Food Aid: U.S. and Other Donor Contributions
The United States is the world's major provider of international food aid to low-income developing countries. This report provides three indicators of the U.S. contribution to global food aid: (1) shipments of major donors compiled by the International Grains Council, (2) U.S. contributions to the United Nations World Food Program (WFP), and (3) the U.S. commitment under the Food Aid Convention (FAC). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10577/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2004, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10067/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2004, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10066/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2005, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10117/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2005, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10116/
Meat and Poultry Inspection Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10052/
Meat and Poultry Inspection Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10101/
Meat and Poultry Inspection Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10051/
Sugar Policy Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10095/
Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods
Federal law requires most imports, including many food items, to bear labels informing the “ultimate purchaser” of their country of origin. Meats, produce, and several other raw agricultural products generally have been exempt. The omnibus farm law (P.L. 107-171) signed on May 13, 2002, contains a requirement that many retailers provide, starting on September 30, 2004, country-of-origin labeling (COOL) on fresh fruits and vegetables, red meats, seafood, and peanuts. The program is voluntary until then. USDA on October 8, 2002, issued guidelines for the voluntary labeling program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10018/
Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods
The 2002 farm bill (P.L. 107-171) as modified by the FY2004 USDA appropriation (P.L. 108-199) mandates retail country-of-origin labeling (COOL) for fresh produce, red meats, and peanuts starting September 30, 2006, and for seafood starting September 30, 2004. Some in Congress still strongly support mandatory COOL, especially after discoveries since 2003 of “mad cow” disease in four Canadian-born cattle. Others counter that COOL is a marketing, not an animal or human health, concern and should be voluntary. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10089/
Trends in U.S. Foreign Food Aid, FY1992-FY2002
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Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs), Including "Mad Cow Disease": Public Health and Scientific Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9656/
The Private Testing of Mad Cow Disease: Legal Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9653/
The International Wine Market: Description and Selected Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9641/
Trends in U.S. Foreign Food Aid, FY1992-FY2002
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9638/
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs), Including "Mad Cow Disease": Public Health and Scientific Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9652/
The Private Testing of Mad Cow Disease: Legal Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9650/
The International Wine Market: Description and Selected Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9637/
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