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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Emergency Communications Legislation, 2002-2006: Implications for the 110th Congress
Since September 11, 2001, several bills introduced in the U.S. Congress have included provisions to assist emergency communications. Key provisions from a number of these bills have become law. This report summarizes progress in developing legislation, especially in the 109th Congress, in three areas of emergency communications: communications among first responders and other emergency personnel; emergency warnings and alerts; and 911 call centers and systems. Each area could be the subject of further consideration in the 110th Congress, through oversight, additional legislation, or funding. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc808127/
Emergency Communications Legislation, 2002-2006: Implications for the 110th Congress
Since September 11, 2001, several bills introduced in the U.S. Congress have included provisions to assist emergency communications. Key provisions from a number of these bills have become law. This report summarizes progress in developing legislation, especially in the 109th Congress, in three areas of emergency communications: communications among first responders and other emergency personnel; emergency warnings and alerts; and 911 call centers and systems. Each area could be the subject of further consideration in the 110th Congress, through oversight, additional legislation, or funding. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820861/
Emergency Communications Legislation: Implications for the 110th Congress
Since September 11, 2001, several bills introduced in the U.S. Congress have included provisions to assist emergency communications. Key provisions from a number of these bills have become law. This report discusses legislation addressing communications among first responders. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc809320/
Emergency Communications Legislation: Implications for the 110th Congress
Since September 11, 2001, several bills introduced in the U.S. Congress have included provisions to assist emergency communications. Key provisions from a number of these bills have become law. This report summarizes progress in developing legislation, especially in the 109th Congress, in three areas of emergency communications: communications among first responders and other emergency personnel; emergency warnings and alerts; and 911 call centers and systems. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc806534/
Tsunamis: Monitoring, Detection, and Early Warning Systems
This report discusses proposals for international tsunami early warning systems and examines U.S. policy regarding tsunamis. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822372/
Tsunamis: Monitoring, Detection, and Early Warning Systems
This report discusses proposals for international tsunami early warning systems and examines U.S. policy regarding tsunamis. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821555/
Tsunamis: Monitoring, Detection, and Early Warning Systems
This report discusses proposals for international tsunami early warning systems and examines U.S. policy regarding tsunamis. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820330/
Tsunamis: Monitoring, Detection, and Early Warning Systems
This report discusses proposals for international tsunami early warning systems and examines U.S. policy regarding tsunamis. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc809949/
Tsunamis: Monitoring, Detection, and Early Warning Systems
This report discusses proposals for international tsunami early warning systems and examines U.S. policy regarding tsunamis. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc807676/
Tsunamis: Monitoring, Detection, and Early Warning Systems
This report discusses proposals for international tsunami early warning systems and examines U.S. policy regarding tsunamis. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc807519/
Assistance After Hurricanes and Other Disasters: FY2004 and FY2005 Supplemental Appropriations
This report presents summary information on the requests and congressional action for supplemental disaster relief funding for FY2004. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822622/
FEMA DRF Major Disaster Assistance: New Jersey
This report discusses the Disaster Relief Fund (DRF) that is managed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and is the primary source of funding used to provide assistance following a major disaster declaration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821173/
FY2006 Supplemental Appropriations: Iraq and Other International Activities; Additional Hurricane Katrina Relief
This report discusses the two separate FY2006 supplemental appropriations requests submitted on February 16, 2006. The first, totaling $72.4 billion, would fund ongoing military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan ($67.9 billion), non-DOD intelligence operations ($0.3 billion), State Department operations in Iraq and various foreign aid programs, including additional assistance for Iraq ($4.2 billion), and other counter-terrorism funding for other agencies ($12 million). The other supplemental would provide $19.8 billion for recovery and reconstruction activities in hurricane affected Gulf Coast areas. Thus, Congress is to consider during the early months of 2006 a combined spending proposal of $92.2 billion. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821424/
Elections in States Affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita
The aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita created staggering problems and challenging conditions for the people of Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas, as well as for the state and local governments there. Many problems were immediately apparent, whereas others that involved ongoing government functions, such as elections, were less obvious at first. This report discusses the challenge of running elections in the many affected communities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821393/
FEMA DRF Major Disaster Assistance: Kansas
This report describes the Disaster Relief Fund (DRF), which is managed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and is the primary source of funding used to provide assistance following a major disaster declaration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821054/
Federal Employees: Human Resources Management Flexibilities in Emergency Situations
This report discusses guidance from the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) on the various human resources (HR) flexibilities available to federal departments and agencies to facilitate management in emergency situations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821104/
Green Infrastructure and Issues in Managing Urban Stormwater
Managing stormwater is one of the biggest and most expensive problems facing cities across the United States. This report discusses legislation that has been introduced to support research and implementation of green/innovative stormwater infrastructure. Overall, many in Congress remain concerned about how municipalities will pay for needed investments in water infrastructure projects generally—not limited to green infrastructure—and what role the federal government can and should play in those efforts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821441/
Detection of Explosives on Airline Passengers: Recommendation of the 9/11 Commission and Related Issues
The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-458) directs the Department of Homeland Security to place high priority on developing and deploying equipment for passenger explosives screening; requires TSA to submit a strategic plan for deploying such equipment; and authorizes additional research funding. It also requires that passengers who are selected for additional screening be screened for explosives, as an interim measure until all passengers can be screened for explosives. Congressional interest in this topic continues in the 109th Congress. This report discusses the current state of passenger explosives trace detection, ongoing federal R&D efforts and pilot equipment deployments, and related policy issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821060/
Community Development Block Grant Funds in Disaster Relief and Recovery
This report discusses the CDBG program, which administered by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is the federal government’s largest and most widely available source of financial assistance to support state and local government-directed neighborhood revitalization, housing rehabilitation, and economic development activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821645/
Drought Policy, Response, and Preparedness
This report examines the various ways Congress and other federal, state, and local policymakers are considering to prepare for and respond to drought; how to coordinate actions and assign responsibilities; and who bears the costs of impacts, disaster response, and long-term adjustment to drought. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822674/
Side-by-Side Comparison of Flood Insurance Reform Legislation in the 110th Congress
This report discusses the key policy objectives of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) that were threefold: (1) reduce the nation's flood risk through floodplain management; (2) improve flood hazard data and risk assessment by mapping the nation's floodplains; and (3) make affordable flood insurance widely available in communities that adopt and enforce measures to make future construction safer from flooding. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822489/
Disaster Debris Removal After Hurricane Katrina: Status and Associated Issues
This report discusses issues associated with debris removal operations after a disaster on the scale of Katrina. In particular, it discusses why debris removal was an ongoing concern months after the hurricane, as well as factors that make debris removal such a costly, complex operation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822476/
Fiscal Year 2005 Homeland Security Grant Program: State Allocations and Issues for Congressional Oversight
This report summarizes key provisions of the FY2005 program guidance, with special attention to differences from the FY2003 and FY2004 editions. This report also discusses issues regarding methods used to allocate federal homeland security assistance and authorized expenditures of homeland security assistance programs, and it analyzes options Congress may wish to consider for resolving those issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822705/
FY2004 Appropriations for First Responder Preparedness: Fact Sheet
This report provides an overview of FY2004 appropriations for state and local terrorism preparedness. Preparedness may be defined as enhancing a state or local government’s capability to respond effectively to a terrorist attack, particularly one involving a weapon of mass destruction (WMD). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822424/
Flood Damage Related to Army Corps of Engineers Projects: Selected Legal Issues
This report examines federal liability for flood damage and analyzes legal defenses available to the federal government. Specifically, it provides an overview of the discretionary function exemption under the Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) and immunity under the Flood Control Act of 1928 (FCA) as applied to Corps projects. The report also considers the Corps’ potential liability for damages caused by levee failure during Hurricane Katrina and the activation of floodways during the 2011 Mississippi flooding. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822419/
Hurricane Katrina: Medicaid Issues
This report discusses the following: Medicaid’s rules on eligibility, benefits, and financing in the context of current questions and issues raised by Hurricane Katrina. Recent state actions in response to Medicaid issues raised by the hurricane. Federal Medicaid waiver authority, including information on current activity in this area and the New York Disaster Relief Medicaid waiver granted in response to the September 11 terrorist attacks. Current federal legislation related to Medicaid and Hurricane Katrina relief efforts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822601/
Emergency Communications Legislation: Implications for the 110th Congress
This report discusses legislation addressing communications among first responders and the issues such as interoperability -- the capability of different systems to connect. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795626/
Tsunami Detection and Warnings for the United States
This report discusses topics in respect to tsunami disaster warnings for the United States, discussions ensued between the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) about developing a multi-hazard warning and response system. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795649/
Haiti: Post-Hurricane Conditions and Assistance
This report discusses U.S. and international disaster assistance to Haiti following storms in August and September 2008 which caused widespread devastation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795512/
Federal Aid for Reconstruction of Houses of Worship: A Legal Analysis
This report examines the constitutional rules governing federal funding for religious buildings and analyzes the Court's previous decisions on this issue. It also analyzes more recent lower court and administrative opinions that have distinguished the Court's decisions and allowed public funds to be awarded to houses of worship. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795534/
Drought Legislation: Comparison of Selected Provisions in H.R. 2898 and S. 1894
This report summarizes the provisions of S. 1894, as introduced, and H.R. 2898, as passed by the House for conservation of fish species and their habitats in drought-stricken areas. It identifies comparable provisions between the two bills and discusses some of the ways in which those provisions overlap or differ. It also summarizes selected other major provisions in each bill. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795677/
The 2009 Influenza A(H1N1) "Swine Flu" Outbreak: U.S. Responses to Global Human Cases
This report discusses the April 2009 outbreak of the influenza strain known as H1N1, or swine influenza. This report describes the distribution of the virus and the statistics of affected areas, as well as international and U.S. efforts to treat infected persons, respond to outbreaks in various countries, and prepare for a possible influenza pandemic. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795645/
Emergency Relief for Disaster-Damaged Roads and Transit Systems: In Brief
This report describes Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) assistance for the repair and reconstruction of highways and bridges damaged by disasters (such as Hurricane Sandy in 2012) or catastrophic failures (such as the collapse of the Skagit River Bridge in Washington State in 2013). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795412/
Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami: Humanitarian Assistance and Relief Operations
This report summarizes the extent of the disaster and relief effort and includes descriptions of the U.S. and international assistance efforts. It also examines protection mechanisms for children and separated orphans. A section is devoted to the situation in each of the affected countries followed by an analysis of selected issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795433/
DHS Appropriations FY2016: Protection, Preparedness, Response, and Recovery
This report is part of a suite of reports that discuss appropriations for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) for FY2016. It specifically discusses appropriations for the components of DHS included in the third title of the homeland security appropriations bill--the National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD), the Office of Health Affairs (OHA), and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Collectively, Congress has labeled these components in the appropriations act in recent years as "Protection, Preparedness, Response, and Recovery." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770549/
Emergency Communications Legislation: Implications for the 110th Congress
This report discusses the legislation addressing communications among first responders focused first on interoperability -- the capability of different systems to connect -- with provisions in the Homeland Security Act (P.L. 107-296). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770518/
FEMA's Pre-Disaster Mitigation Program: Overview and Issues
This report discusses Pre-Disaster Mitigation (PDM), and "Project Impact," a FEMA pilot program. It provides an overview of PDM, legislative history, funding and mitigation studies related to Hurricane Katrina, issues for Congress, and overall observations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770547/
The Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC): An Overview
This report discusses the Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC), which is an agreement among member states to provide assistance after disasters overwhelm a state's capacity to manage consequences. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770551/
Federal Stafford Act Disaster Assistance: Presidential Declarations, Eligible Activities, and Funding
This report discusses the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (the Stafford Act) that authorizes the President to issue major disaster, emergency, and fire management declarations, which in turn enable federal agencies to provide assistance to state and local governments overwhelmed by catastrophes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770593/
Wildfire Spending: Background, Issues, and Legislation in the 114th Congress
This report provides background information and analysis of funding for federal wildfire suppression operations. It concludes by summarizing relevant legislative proposals introduced in the 114th Congress and discussing their possible implications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770557/
An Emergency Communications Safety Net: Integrating 911 and Other Services
This report deals primarily with 911 and its recent history. It discusses the existing situation of 911's capacity to respond in emergencies, some proposals to improve the system, and recent legislative activity. Proposals include better connections between 911 call centers and emergency responders, building a more robust capacity, incorporating Internet protocols, developing the capacity for back-up call centers after disasters have occurred, and coordinating 911 with other types of call centers, such as the 211 centers that provide municipal services. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770604/
Department of Homeland Security Assistance to States and Localities: A Summary and Issues for the 111th Congress
This report summarizes several emergency management and homeland security programs, and identifies and analyzes potential issues for the 111th Congress. These issues include the purpose and number of assistance programs; the evaluation of the use of grant funding; the determination of eligible grant recipients; the programs' funding amounts; and the programs' funding distribution methodologies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743485/
United States Fire Administration: An Overview
This report discusses the United States Fire Administration (USFA), which aims to significantly reduce the nation's loss of life from fire, while also achieving a reduction in property loss and non-fatal injury due to fire. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743615/
Public Health and Medical Preparedness and Response: Issues in the 111th Congress
This report summarizes key issues in domestic public health and medical preparedness and response, citing other CRS Reports and sources of additional information. Key recent events--the 2001 terrorist attacks, Hurricane Katrina, and concerns about an influenza ("flu") pandemic, among others--sharpened congressional interest in the nation's systems to track and respond to public health threats. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743554/
California Drought: Hydrological and Regulatory Water Supply Issues
This report provides a summary of California's 2012-2015 drought including: comparisons, where applicable, to previous droughts; a summary of the key regulatory requirements that at certain times limit water deliveries (or exports) from the San Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers' Delta; and a brief discussion of California water rights with their relation to different types of federal contracts and their associated water allocations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743502/
Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding
This report discusses the Assistance to Firefighters Grant (AFG) Program, also known as fire grants of the FIRE Act grant program. The program provides federal grants directly to local fire departments and unaffiliated Emergency Medical Services (EMS) organizations to help address a variety of equipment, training, and other firefighter-related and EMS needs. This report also discusses the possible reauthorization of AFG and the related Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response Firefighters (SAFER) program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743490/
Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding
This report discusses the Assistance to Firefighters Grant (AFG) Program, also known as fire grants of the FIRE Act grant program. The program provides federal grants directly to local fire departments and unaffiliated Emergency Medical Services (EMS) organizations to help address a variety of equipment, training, and other firefighter-related and EMS needs. This report also discusses the possible reauthorization of AFG and the related Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response Firefighters (SAFER) program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743429/
Federal Flood Policy Challenges: Lessons from the 2008 Midwest Flood
This report provides a primer on recent developments, the federal role in flood policy, and the limitations of levees and dams. It also discusses lessons from the 2008 Midwest flood compared to the 1993 flood, and the evolution of U.S. flood policy. It pays particular attention to the role of Congress and federal agencies and programs, and the available tools for addressing the nation's flood challenge. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743476/
USAID's Office of Transition Initiatives After 15 Years: Issues for Congress
This report discusses USAID's Office of Transition Initiatives' (OTI's) origin, its past and present activities, and issues about the program's impact, structure, and role within USAID that may be of interest to Congress. OTI's activities are overtly political, based on the idea that in the midst of political crisis and instability abroad there are local agents of change whose efforts, when supported by timely and creative U.S. assistance, can tip the balance toward peaceful and democratic outcomes that advance U.S. foreign policy objectives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743579/
Federal Disaster Recovery Programs: Brief Summaries
This report identifies programs administered by federal agencies to provide a range of assistance to individual victims; state, territorial, and local governments; and non-governmental entities after major disasters, including certain terrorist attacks. It provides brief descriptive information to help congressional offices determine which programs bear further consideration in the planning, organization, or implementation of recovery operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743571/