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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Israeli-Arab Negotiations: Background, Conflicts, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses issues related to peace in the Middle East, including post-Gulf War negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon; U.S. interest in these and continuing negotiations and peacetalks between Middle Eastern countries; and the role of the U.S., the U.N., the European Union, and Russia in Middle Eastern relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795630/
Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Navy's Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate program, a program to procure 52 LCSs and frigates. The Navy's proposed FY2016 budget requests the procurement of three more LCSs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795692/
Congressional Nominations to U.S. Service Academies: An Overview and Resources for Outreach and Management
This report describes statutory requirements for allocating congressional nominations to service academies and identifies the qualifications that must be met by potential nominees, as established by statute and each academy. Sample documents that could be used by congressional offices at various stages of the nomination selection process are included. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795672/
Long-Range Ballistic Missile Defense in Europe
This report discusses how successive U.S. governments have urged the creation of an anti-missile system to protect against long-range ballistic missile threats from adversary states. The proposed U.S. system has encountered resistance in some European countries and beyond. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795691/
Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers
This report answers several frequently-asked questions about military health care, particularly related to TRICARE and its various aspects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795652/
Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the modernization of the Coast Guard's polar icebreaker fleet, which performs a variety of missions supporting U.S. interests in polar regions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795633/
Navy LPD-17 Amphibious Ship Procurement: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress
This report discusses the Navy's FY2009 shipbuilding plan that calls for procuring an 10th San Antonio (LPD-17) class amphibious ship in FY2011. This report discusses the procurement cost estimates of this ship, as well as related issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795641/
Russian Deployments in Syria Complicate U.S. Policy
This report briefly discusses Russia's military presence in Syria. In recent weeks, Russia has moved military equipment and personnel to Syria, which could potentially be used to resupply the Asad regime or lead to a direct Russian intervention in the Syrian civil war. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795694/
A Shift in the International Security Environment: Potential Implications for Defense--Issues for Congress
This report briefly describes the shift in the international security environment that some observers believe has occurred, and identifies some defense-related issues for Congress that could arise from it. Congress's decisions on these issues could have significant implications for U.S. defense capabilities and funding requirements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795659/
The 2015 National Security Strategy: Authorities, Changes, Issues for Congress
This report discusses the National Security Strategy (NSS), a document released by the Obama Administration which states that its purpose is to "set out the principles and priorities to guide the use of American power and influence in the world." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795632/
2015 Leaders' Summit on U.N. Peacekeeping
This report discusses the outcome of the 2015 Leaders' Summit on U.N. Peacekeeping, which might elevate ongoing congressional interest in several policy issues related to U.N. peacekeeping. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795657/
The Chinese Military: Overview and Issues for Congress
This report provides a brief overview of the Chinese military. In order to cover a wide range of issues in a concise format, the report does not go into great depth on many topics and omits other topics that might be considered germane. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795507/
U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF): Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses Special Operations Forces (SOF), which play a significant role in U.S. military operations and have been given greater responsibility for planning and conducting worldwide counterterrorism operations. It outlines potential policy issues for congressional consideration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795544/
Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Ohio replacement program (ORP), a program to design and build a new class of 12 ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) to replace the Navy's current force of 14 Ohio-class SSBNs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795575/
Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Virginia-class nuclear-powered attack submarine (SSN) program. Decisions that Congress makes on procurement of Virginia-class boats could substantially affect U.S. Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795571/
Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV): Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV) that is currently being developed by the Army and the Marine Corps as a successor to the 11 different versions of the High Mobility, Multi-Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) that have been in service since 1985. A potential issue for Congress is the impact of a year-long continuing resolution on Army and Marine Corps JLTV procurement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795542/
Navy Lasers, Railgun, and Hypervelocity Projectile: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on three potential new weapons that could improve the ability of Navy surface ships to defend themselves against enemy missiles--solid state lasers (SSLs), the electromagnetic railgun (EMRG), and the hypervelocity projectile (HVP). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795508/
Coalition Contributions to Countering the Islamic State
This report discusses the formation of the Islamic State. Some 60 nations and partner organizations agreed to participate, contributing either military forces or resources (or both) to the campaign. In Brussels in December 2014, these 60 partners agreed to organize themselves along five "lines of effort," with at least two countries in the lead for each. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795517/
Fact Sheet: Selected Highlights of the FY2016 National Defense Authorization Act (H.R. 1735 and S. 1376)
This report provides selected highlights of pending versions of the FY2016 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA): H.R. 1735, passed by the House of Representatives on May 15, 2015, and S. 1376, reported by the Senate Armed Services Committee on May 19, 2015. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795563/
Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential issues for Congress on the Navy's irregular warfare (IW) and counterterrorism (CT) operations. Congress's decisions regarding Navy IW and CT operations can affect Navy operations and funding requirements, and the implementation of the nation's overall IW and CT strategies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795549/
NATO Enlargement: Senate Advice and Consent
This report describes the provisions of the North Atlantic Treaty and of the original Senate debate in 1949 pertinent to enlargement and the procedures that have been followed for each subsequent enlargement proposal. It also discusses what the Senate did with respect to the reunification of Germany in 1990 and the implications of that event for Germany's membership in NATO. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795570/
NATO Enlargement: Senate Advice and Consent
This report describes the provisions of the North Atlantic Treaty and of the original Senate debate in 1949 pertinent to enlargement and the procedures that have been followed for each subsequent enlargement proposal. It also discusses what the Senate did with respect to the reunification of Germany in 1990 and the implications of that event for Germany's membership in NATO. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795606/
FY2009 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Policy Issues
This report focuses exclusively on the annual defense authorization process. Military personnel issues typically generate significant interest from many Members of Congress and their staffs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795636/
The Department of Defense Role in Foreign Assistance: Background, Major Issues, and Options for Congress
This report begins with a brief introduction to the three areas in which DOD plays a role in foreign assistance and to Congress's part in authorizing that role and briefly discusses the general evolution of DOD's role and the Department of State's current perception of that role based on current national security needs. The report then provides an overview of the evolution of the DOD role and current activities in the three areas cited above, with a snapshot of the varying perspectives on the DOD roles in these areas. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795623/
Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Navy's Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate program, a program to procure 52 LCSs and frigates. The first LCS was funded in FY2005, and a total of 23 have been funded through FY2015. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795607/
Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2015
This report lists hundreds of instances in which the United States has used its Armed Forces abroad in situations of military conflict or potential conflict or for other than normal peacetime purposes. It is intended primarily to provide a rough survey of past U.S. military ventures abroad, without reference to the magnitude of the given instance noted. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795667/
Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Virginia-class nuclear-powered attack submarine (SSN) program. Decisions that Congress makes on procurement of Virginia-class boats could substantially affect U.S. Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795612/
Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress
This report discusses the 2007 restructuring of the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) program, as well as various financial information relating to the program. The report raises potential oversight issues for Congress relating to various aspects of the program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795634/
Navy TAO(X) Oiler Shipbuilding Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the TAO(X) oiler shipbuilding program, a program to build a new class of 17 fleet oilers for the Navy. The Navy wants to procure the first TAO(X) in FY2016. Decisions that Congress makes regarding the program could affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795527/
Presidential Vetoes of Annual Defense Authorization Bills
This report briefly discusses the historical precedent of Defense Secretary Ashton B. Carter's recommendation that President Obama veto the conference report on H.R. 1735, the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for FY2016. If Obama were to veto the measure, it would mark the fifth time since 1961 that a president has vetoed that measure. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795557/
Peacekeeping/Stabilization and Conflict Transitions: Background and Congressional Action on the Civilian Response/Reserve Corps and other Civilian Stabilization and Reconstruction Capabilities
This report provides background information relating to the Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization (S/CRS) in the Office of the Secretary of State. This report also discusses proposals and tracks related legislative action. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795826/
Congressional Nominations to U.S. Service Academies: An Overview and Resources for Outreach and Management
This report describes statutory requirements for allocating congressional nominations to service academies. It also identifies the qualifications that must be met by potential nominees, as established by statute and each academy. Finally, sample documents that could be used by congressional offices at various stages of the nomination selection process are included. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795850/
Department of Defense Contractor and Troop Levels in Iraq and Afghanistan: 2007-2015
This report provides background information for Congress on the levels of Department of Defense (DOD) troop and contractor personnel deployed in support of prior and ongoing military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795868/
Navy Lasers, Railgun, and Hypervelocity Projectile: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on three potential new weapons that could improve the ability of Navy surface ships to defend themselves against enemy missiles. Any one of these new weapon technologies, if successfully developed and deployed, might be regarded as a "game changer" for defending Navy surface ships against enemy missiles. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795818/
Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress
This report details the 2007 restructuring of the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) program, as well as various financial information relating to the program. The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify the Navy's plans for the LCS program. The LCS program raises potential oversight issues for Congress relating to various aspects of the program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795816/
Diversity, Inclusion, and Equal Opportunity in the Armed Services: Background and Issues for Congress
This report starts by giving an overview of recent research on diversity and organizational management. The next sections outline DOD's military personnel policies, processes and organizational structure for managing diversity, inclusion, and equal opportunity. Finally, the report examines how the concept of diversity and inclusion has evolved over the history of the Armed Forces and addresses some of the current legislative and policy issues related to diversity in the Armed Forces. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795881/
Israeli-Arab Negotiations: Background, Conflicts, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses issues related to peace in the Middle East, including post-Gulf War negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon; U.S. interest in these and continuing negotiations and peacetalks between Middle Eastern countries; and the role of the U.S., the U.N., the European Union, and Russia in Middle Eastern relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795804/
Navy CG(X) Cruiser Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress
This report explores the reasoning behind the development of the technologies and design options for a planned new cruiser called the CG(X). It also discusses the budgetary actions taking place to enable their development, selected technical specifics of their design, and various other information relating to defense procurement costs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795803/
Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) and Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC): Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses issues surrounding the funding for development of Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) and Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC). The Marines are required by law to have the necessary equipment to conduct amphibious operations and land operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795869/
Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2007-2014
This report provides Congress with official, unclassified, quantitative data on conventional arms transfers to developing nations by the United States and foreign countries for the preceding eight calendar years for use in its policy oversight functions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795879/
The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions
This report provides an overview of the New Strategic Arms Reductions Treaty (START). The Obama Administration and outside analysts argue that New START strengthens strategic stability and enhances U.S. national security. Critics, however, question whether the treaty serves U.S. national security interests. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795845/
Organizing the U.S. Government for National Security: Overview of the Interagency Reform Debates
This report aims to help frame the emerging debates for the 111th Congress by taking note of the leading advocates for change, highlighting identified shortcomings in key elements of the current system, and describing categories of emerging proposals for change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795362/
Homeland Security Department: FY2009 Appropriations
This report is a guide to one of the regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It summarizes the status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity, and is updated as events warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795349/
China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities--Background and Issues for Congress
This report focuses on the potential implications of China's naval modernization for future required U.S. Navy capabilities. Other CRS reports address separate issues relating to China. This report is based on unclassified open-source information. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795857/
Less-than-Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement Signed in Burma
Eight ethnic groups and representatives of Burma's government signed a ceasefire agreement on October 15, possibly moving the country one step closer to ending its six decade long civil war. This report briefly discusses the process that lead to the agreement and its implications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795371/
U.N. Convention Against Torture (CAT): Overview and Application to Interrogation Techniques
This report discusses the United Nations Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT) requires signatory parties to take measures to end torture within their territorial jurisdiction and to criminalize all acts of torture. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795469/
Navy LPD-17 Amphibious Ship Procurement: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress
This report discusses the Navy's FY2009 shipbuilding plan that calls for procuring an 10th San Antonio (LPD-17) class amphibious ship in FY2011. This report discusses the procurement cost estimates of this ship, as well as related issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795473/
Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential issues for Congress on the Navy's irregular warfare (IW) and counterterrorism (CT) operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795467/
Navy Role in Counterterrorism and Irregular Warfare: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the nature of Navy involvement in irregular warfare (IW) and counterterrorism (CT) operations. The Navy's role in CT and IW raises several potential oversight issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795495/
Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Ohio replacement program (ORP), a program to design and build a new class of 12 ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) to replace the Navy's current force of 14 Ohio-class SSBNs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795434/
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