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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Gun Legislation in the 109th Congress

Gun Legislation in the 109th Congress

Date: May 6, 2006
Creator: Krouse, William J.
Description: This report discusses the ongoing debate over the efficacy and constitutionality of federal regulation of firearms and ammunition. The report provides background information and analysis over the pros and cons of the debate and gun related statistics.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Sentencing Guidelines: Background, Legal Analysis, and Policy Options

Federal Sentencing Guidelines: Background, Legal Analysis, and Policy Options

Date: April 4, 2005
Creator: Seghetti, Lisa M. & Smith, Alison M.
Description: This report provides a summary of U.S. penal policy at the federal level. The report then discusses legislation that created the current federal sentencing structure, the different types of sentencing guidelines, and analyses of departures from the guidelines under the federal system and of possible policy options the 109th Congress may wish to consider if it chooses to address this issue.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Gun Legislation in the 109th Congress

Gun Legislation in the 109th Congress

Date: May 15, 2006
Creator: Krouse, William J.
Description: This report discusses the ongoing debate over the efficacy and constitutionality of federal regulation of firearms and ammunition. The report provides background information and analysis over the pros and cons of the debate and gun related statistics.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Criminal Money Laundering Legislation in the 109th Congress

Criminal Money Laundering Legislation in the 109th Congress

Date: March 15, 2006
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: This report gives a brief overview of U.S. law as it relates to the crime of money laundering by identifying bills in the 109th Congress that have amended definitions or sentencing for money laundering and predicated offenses.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Proposed Change to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) under S. 113

Proposed Change to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) under S. 113

Date: August 9, 2004
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer
Description: This report discusses S. 113, a bill to extend the coverage of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act ("FISA") to non-U.S. persons who engage in international terrorism or activities in preparation for terrorist acts, without a showing of membership in or affiliation with an international terrorist group.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Capital Punishment: An Overview of Federal Death Penalty Statutes

Capital Punishment: An Overview of Federal Death Penalty Statutes

Date: July 23, 2002
Creator: Bazan, Elizabeth B.
Description: This report lists the current federal capital offenses and summarizes the procedures for federal civilian death penalty cases. Several laws are relevant to the topic including: P.L. 103-322, the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994; the Anti-terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996; and P.L. 107-197, the Terrorist Bombings Convention Implementation Act of 2002.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Combating Terrorism: First Emergency Supplemental Appropriations - Distribution of Funds to Departments and Agencies

Combating Terrorism: First Emergency Supplemental Appropriations - Distribution of Funds to Departments and Agencies

Date: January 7, 2003
Creator: Riehl, James R.
Description: This report provides background on the 2001 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States, P.L. 107-38 (H.R. 2888) as well as the criteria for use of the funds developed by The Office of Management and Budget (OMB). It also outlines information about supplemental fund distributions in three tables.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
War On Drugs: Legislation in the 108th Congress and Related Developments

War On Drugs: Legislation in the 108th Congress and Related Developments

Date: January 10, 2005
Creator: Eddy, Mark
Description: This report covers significant legislative and oversight activities of the 108th Congress that concern domestic law enforcement aspects of federal anti-drug policy. It also includes an overview of significant executive branch actions and other current developments of likely interest to the congressional audience that follows this issue.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Drug Control: International Policy and Approaches

Drug Control: International Policy and Approaches

Date: March 6, 2003
Creator: Perl, Raphael
Description: This report discusses various U.S. international narcotics policy approaches meant to achieve two main goals: to reduce the supply of illicit narcotics flowing into the United States, and to reduce the amount of illicit narcotics cultivated, processed, and consumed worldwide.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Mandatory Minimum Sentencing Statutes: An Overview of Legislation in the 107th Congress

Federal Mandatory Minimum Sentencing Statutes: An Overview of Legislation in the 107th Congress

Date: April 17, 2003
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: This report examines legislation in the 107th Congress pertaining to federal mandatory minimum sentencing statutes (mandatory minimums), which demand that execution or incarceration follow criminal conviction. They cover drug dealing and using a gun to commit a federal crime, among other crimes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Proposed Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues

Proposed Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues

Date: January 15, 2009
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Description: This report examines three labor issues and arguments related to the pending U.S.-Colombia free trade agreement (CFTA, H.R. 5724): violence against trade unionists; impunity (accountability for or punishment of the perpetrators); and worker rights protections for Colombians.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Immigration-Related Detention: Current Legislative Issues

Immigration-Related Detention: Current Legislative Issues

Date: January 30, 2008
Creator: Siskin, Alison
Description: This report examines policy issues surrounding detention of aliens, including concerns about the number of aliens subject to mandatory detention and the justness of mandatory detention, especially as it is applied to asylum seekers arriving without proper documentation. Some have raised concerns about the length of time in detention for aliens who have been ordered removed. Additionally, issues have been raised about the amount of detention space available to house DHS detainees. Another area of uncertainty is the Attorney General’s role in the detention of noncitizens, since the creation of DHS.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Death Penalty: Capital Punishment Legislation in the 109th Congress

The Death Penalty: Capital Punishment Legislation in the 109th Congress

Date: December 11, 2006
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: This report discusses legislation regarding the death penalty in the 109th Congress. The USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act (Reauthorization Act) contains a number of death penalty related provisions. Some create new federal capital offenses; some add the death penalty as a sentencing option in the case of preexisting federal crimes; some alter the procedural attributes of federal capital cases. Other proposals offered during the 109th Congress would have followed the same pattern: some new crimes; some new penalties for old crimes; and some procedural adjustments. Only one of the other proposals, the Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act, passed, although at least one House approved several others. Three proposals do not fit the pattern; they either would have abolished the death penalty as a federal sentencing alternative or would have imposed a moratorium upon executions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Death Penalty: Capital Punishment Legislation in the 109th Congress

The Death Penalty: Capital Punishment Legislation in the 109th Congress

Date: April 26, 2006
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: This report discusses legislation regarding the death penalty in the 109th Congress. The USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act (Reauthorization Act) contains a number of death penalty related provisions. Some create new federal capital offenses; some add the death penalty as a sentencing option in the case of preexisting federal crimes; some alter the procedural attributes of federal capital cases. Other proposals offered during the 109th Congress would have followed the same pattern: some new crimes; some new penalties for old crimes; and some procedural adjustments. Only one of the other proposals, the Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act, passed, although at least one House approved several others. Three proposals do not fit the pattern; they either would have abolished the death penalty as a federal sentencing alternative or would have imposed a moratorium upon executions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Gangs in Central America

Gangs in Central America

Date: March 27, 2008
Creator: Seelke, Clare Ribando
Description: This report describes the gang problem in Central America, discusses country and regional approaches to deal with the gangs, and analyzes U.S. policy with respect to gangs in Central America.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Missing Adults: Background, Federal Programs, and Issues for Congress

Missing Adults: Background, Federal Programs, and Issues for Congress

Date: October 15, 2008
Creator: Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L.
Description: The first section of this report discusses demographics and record keeping of missing adults and unidentified remains, and some of the factors that may contribute to the disappearance of adults. This section also discusses federally funded databases that are used to track data on missing adults and unidentified individuals. The second section of the report describes the federal programs and initiatives to assist in locating missing adults, including funding data for FY2002 through FY2008, where applicable.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Botswana: The San (Bushmen) Rights Case

Botswana: The San (Bushmen) Rights Case

Date: October 19, 2004
Creator: Townsend, Jeff
Description: This report discusses the case of San people of Botswana against the government of Botswana.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Water Act and Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) of Pollutants

Clean Water Act and Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) of Pollutants

Date: October 25, 2006
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses the section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act, which requires states to identify waters that are impaired by pollution, even after application of pollution controls. For those waters, states must establish a total maximum daily load (TMDL) of pollutants to ensure that water quality standards can be attained. Implementation of this provision has been dormant until recently, when states and EPA were prodded by numerous lawsuits. The TMDL issue has become controversial, in part because of requirements and costs now facing states to implement a 25-year-old provision of the law. Congressional activity to reauthorize the Act, a possibility in the 2nd Session of the 105th Congress, could include TMDL issues, but the direction for any such action is unclear at this time.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Obscenity and Indecency: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes

Obscenity and Indecency: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes

Date: May 2, 2003
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: This report examines federal law regarding obscenity and indecency. The First Amendment provides: “Congress shall make no law... abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press.” In general, the First Amendment protects pornography, with this term being used to mean any erotic material. The Supreme Court, however, has held that the First Amendment does not protect two types of pornography: obscenity and child pornography. Consequently, they may be banned on the basis of their content, and federal law prohibits the mailing of obscenity, as well as its transport or receipt in interstate or foreign commerce.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Trafficking in Persons in Latin America and the Caribbean

Trafficking in Persons in Latin America and the Caribbean

Date: December 15, 2005
Creator: Ribando, Clare
Description: This report describes the nature and scope of the problem of trafficking in persons in Latin America and the Caribbean. The report then describes U.S. efforts to deal with trafficking in persons in the region, as well as discusses the successes and failures of some recent country and regional anti-trafficking efforts. The report concludes by raising several issues for policy consideration that may be helpful as the 109th Congress continues to address human trafficking as part of its authorization, appropriations, and oversight activities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Violence Against Women Act: History, Federal Funding, and Reauthorizing Legislation

Violence Against Women Act: History, Federal Funding, and Reauthorizing Legislation

Date: July 15, 2004
Creator: Laney, Garrine P.
Description: This report discusses the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) of 2000 which reauthorized most of the original act’s programs and created new grant programs to prevent sexual assaults on campuses, assist victims of violence with civil legal concerns, create transitional housing for victims of domestic abuse (administered by HHS), and enhance protections for elderly and disabled victims of domestic violence. VAWA 2000, also, created a pilot program for safe custody exchange for families of domestic violence.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Science, State, Justice, Commerce and Related Agencies (House)/ Commerce, Justice, Science and Related Agencies (Senate): FY2006 Appropriations

Science, State, Justice, Commerce and Related Agencies (House)/ Commerce, Justice, Science and Related Agencies (Senate): FY2006 Appropriations

Date: December 23, 2005
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F. & Epstein, Susan B.
Description: This report monitors actions taken by the 109th Congress for the House’s Science, State, Justice, Commerce, and Related Agencies (SSJC) and the Senate’s Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies (CJS) FY2006 appropriations legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Identity Theft Laws: State Penalties and Remedies and Pending Federal Bills

Identity Theft Laws: State Penalties and Remedies and Pending Federal Bills

Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: Rainson, Tara A.
Description: This report provides an overview of state laws on identity theft. It discusses state laws that penalize identity theft, as well as state laws that assist identity theft victims, including those that permit consumers to block unauthorized persons from obtaining their credit information, known as “security freezes.” The report also includes a survey of state “credit freeze” statutes. The report concludes with summaries of federal identity theft legislation pending in the 110th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
First Responder Initiative: Policy Issues and Options

First Responder Initiative: Policy Issues and Options

Date: June 4, 2003
Creator: Canada, Ben
Description: This report provides background information and policy analysis pertinent to proposals to restructure first responder assistance programs. Specifically, this report provides information on existing programs, appropriations, legislation in the 107th and 108th Congress, and selected policy issues. This report does not discuss all relevant policy issues, but, rather, those issues that may be germane to any significant restructuring of existing programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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