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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Women in the United States Congress, 1917-2013: Biographical and Committee Assignment Information, and Listings by State and Congress
This report includes biographical information, including the names, committee assignments, dates of service, listings by Congress and state, and (for Representatives) congressional districts of the 297 women who have served in Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272077/
Members' Representational Allowance: History and Usage
This report provides a history and overview of the Members' Representational Allowance (MRA) and examines spending patterns over three years--2005, 2006, and 2007. The data exclude non-voting Members, including Delegates and the Resident Commissioner. Members who were not in Congress for all of the first session of a Congress, whether the Member left Congress prior to the end of the year or entered any time after the beginning of the session, were also excluded. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272003/
Women in the United States Congress: Historical Overview, Tables, and Discussion
This report includes a discussion of the impact of women in Congress as well as historical information, including the number and percentage of women in Congress over time, means of entry to Congress, comparisons to international and state legislatures, records for tenure, firsts for women in Congress, women in leadership, and African American and Asian Pacific American women in Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272056/
Legislative Branch: FY2014 Appropriations
This report provides an overview of the current status of FY2014 legislative branch appropriations as well as figures and tables detailing prior year funding, and more detailed information about legislative branch funding issues for the Senate, House of Representatives, and government agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272051/
Membership of the 113th Congress: A Profile
This report presents a profile of the membership of the 113th Congress (2013-2014). Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age, occupation, education, length of congressional service, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272039/
Presidential Appointee Positions Requiring Senate Confirmation and Committees Handling Nominations
This report identifies, by Senate committee, presidentially appointed positions requiring Senate confirmation based on referrals as of the date of passage of S. 679, which became P.L. 112-166 on August 10, 2012. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272082/
Senate Consideration of Presidential Nominations: Committee and Floor Procedure
This report describes the process by which the Senate provides advice and consent on presidential nominations, including receipt and referral of nominations, committee practices, and floor procedure. The report was updated to reflect the changes resulting from Senate actions on November 21, 2013. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272087/
How Measures Are Brought to the Senate Floor: A Brief Introduction
This report discusses two basic methods that are used by the Senate to bring legislation to the floor for consideration. The Senate, at the majority leader's request, grants unanimous consent to take up a matter or agrees to his motion to proceed to consider it. Because the motion to proceed is subject to debate in most circumstances, it is less frequently used. Both methods are derived from the basic premise that the Senate as a body may decide what matters it considers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272118/
Medal of Honor: History and Issues
This report describes the history of the Medal of Honor and the laws and regulations pertaining to the award. The report discusses the privileges/benefits available to the recipients are discussed. Finally, this report analyzes efforts to have the Medal of Honor awarded to certain individuals outside of the normal procedures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc271984/
Congressional Member Organizations: Their Purpose and Activities, History, and Formation
This report examines the purpose and activities of Committee on House Administration as congressional Member organizations (CMO) and the reasons Members form them. It also identifies and describes seven CMO types, and it provides an overview of the historical development of informal Member organizations since the first Congress, focusing on their regulation in the House by the Committee on House Oversight/Committee on House Administration, the rise and fall of legislative service organizations (LSOs), and the House's decision in 1995 to issue regulations for establishing CMOs and governing their behavior. It concludes with a step-by-step guide for House Members and staff who might be interested in forming a CMO. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc271999/
Salaries of Members of Congress: Recent Actions and Historical Tables
The report contains information on congressional pay procedure and recent adjustments. It includes historical information on pay rates since 1789; the adjustments projected by the Ethics Reform Act as compared to actual adjustments in Member pay; details on past legislation enacted with language prohibiting the annual pay adjustment; and Member pay in constant and current dollars since 1992. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc271985/
Invoking Cloture in the Senate
This report discusses cloture, the only procedure by which the Senate can vote to set an end to a debate without also rejecting the bill, amendment, conference report, motion, or other matter it has been debating. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc271990/
House Committee on Ethics: A Brief History of Its Evolution and Jurisdiction
This report examines the history and evolution of the House Committee on Ethics, including the committee's jurisdiction and investigative procedure. It does not deal with changes to federal or state criminal law or with criminal prosecutions of Members of Congress or with the specifics of disciplinary cases in the House. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc271989/
Salaries of Members of Congress: Congressional Votes, 1990-2013
The report contains information on the pay procedure of members of Congress and recent adjustments. It provides information on previous actions and votes by year, from 1990-2010. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc271987/
Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights
This report discusses the state of Iraqi politics, governance, and human rights, including the worsening relations between local Sunni and Shiite populations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272126/
In Brief: CRS Resources on the FY2014 Funding Gap, Shutdown, and Status of Appropriations
This report provides an annotated list of Congressional Research Service (CRS) resources and analyses relevant to the funding gap that commenced on October 1, 2013, and terminated on October 17, 2013, with the enactment of P.L. 113-46, a continuing appropriations measure providing appropriations through January 15, 2014; historical funding gaps; and continuing appropriations measures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267840/
Women in the United States Congress, 1917-2013: Biographical and Committee Assignment Information, and Listings by State and Congress
This report includes biographical information, including the names, committee assignments, dates of service, listings by Congress and state, and (for Representatives) congressional districts of the 297 women who have served in Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267886/
Amendments on the House Floor: Summary of Major Restrictions
This report discusses the opportunities for Representatives to offer floor amendments to a bill or resolution procedures by which the House considers the measure. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267800/
House Rules Manual: Summary of Contents
This report provides a description of house rules and manuals. The first section of the House Manual identifies the more substantive rules changes made by the House resolution adopting the rules of the current Congress. Also identified are citations to volumes of precedents referenced in the parliamentarian's annotations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267875/
Sovereign Debt in Advanced Economies: Overview and Issues for Congress
This report discusses sovereign debt, which is also called public debt or government debt, and refers to debt incurred by governments. The first section provides background information on sovereign debt, including why governments borrow, how sovereign debt differs from private debt, why governments repay their debt (or not), and how sovereign debt is measured. The second section examines the shift of concerns over sovereign debt sustainability from emerging markets in the 1990s and 2000s to advanced economies following the global financial crisis of 2008-2009, and the challenges posed by high debt levels. The third section analyzes the different policy options governments have for lowering debt levels. It also discusses the current strategy being used by most advanced economies -- fiscal austerity -- and concerns that have been raised about its global impact. Finally, the fourth section analyzes issues of particular interest to Congress, including comparisons between U.S. and European debt levels, how efforts to reduce debt levels could impact the U.S. economy, and policy options available to Congress for engaging on this issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267837/
Army Drawdown and Restructuring: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the new defense strategy, which was unveiled by senior DOD leadership based on a review of potential future security challenges, current defense strategy, and budgetary constraints. This strategy will rebalance the Army's global posture and presence, emphasizing where potential problems are likely to arise, such as the Asia-Pacific region and the Middle East digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267856/
Congressional Redistricting and the Voting Rights Act: A Legal Overview
This report provides a legal overview of Section 2 of the VRA, a key provision affecting congressional redistricting, and selected Supreme Court case law. It discusses Sections 4 and 5, and the recent Supreme Court decision holding Section 4(b) unconstitutional, Shelby County v. Holder. Section 4 contained a coverage formula that identified states and jurisdictions that were required to gain federal approval or "preclearance" to proposed redistricting plans under Section 5. The report also provides an overview of selected legislation in the 112th and 113th Congresses that would establish additional requirements and standards for congressional redistricting. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267810/
Health Benefits for Members of Congress and Certain Congressional Staff
This report summarizes the provisions of the final rule and describes how it affects current and retired Members and congressional staff. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) has indicated that Members and congressional staff will be eligible for other health benefits related to federal employment, including: FSAFEDS, the Federal Employees Dental and Vision Insurance Program (FEDVIP), the Federal Long Term Care Insurance Program (FLTCIP), the Office of the Attending Physician, and treatment in military facilities. This report also discusses Members' and staff's eligibility for Medicare, which does not appear to be affected by the final rule. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267826/
Women in the United States Congress: Historical Overview, Tables, and Discussion
This report includes a discussion of the impact of women in Congress as well as historical information, including the number and percentage of women in Congress over time, means of entry to Congress, comparisons to international and state legislatures, records for tenure, firsts for women in Congress, women in leadership, and African American and Asian Pacific American women in Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267839/
Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights
This report discusses the state of Iraqi politics, governance, and human rights. Topics include the worsening relations between local Sunni and Shiite populations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267882/
Automatic Continuing Resolutions: Background and Overview of Recent Proposals
This report begins by providing background on the historic frequency of federal funding gaps. Then, four major features of automatic continuing resolution (ACR) proposals since the 1980s -- time frame, funding level, activities, and duration -- are explained. This is followed by a summary of the major arguments for and against the enactment of an ACR. Finally, the last three sections of the report review congressional action that has taken place on ACR proposals, describe ACR proposals that have been introduced but not enacted during the 112th and 113th Congresses, and provide brief analysis of P.L. 113-39. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267815/
Membership of the 112th Congress: A Profile
Report that presents a profile of the membership of the 112th Congress (2011-2012). Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age, occupation, education, length of congressional service, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227710/
Presidential Appointee Positions Requiring Senate Confirmation and Committees Handling Nominations
Report that identifies, by Senate committee, presidentially appointed positions requiring Senate confirmation based on referrals as of the date of passage of S. 679, which became P.L. 112-166 on August 10, 2012. It begins with a brief description of the referral process and identify, for each committee to which referrals have been made, the positions that fall within the committee's jurisdiction. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227967/
In Brief: CRS Resources on the FY2014 Funding Gap, Shutdown, and Status of Appropriations
This report provides an annotated list of Congressional Research Service (CRS) resources and analyses relevant tothe funding gap that commenced on October 1, 2013, and terminated on October 17, 2013, with the enactment of P.L. 113-46, a continuing appropriations measure providing appropriations through January 15, 2014; historical funding gaps; and continuing appropriations measures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227946/
Filibusters and Cloture in the Senate
Report that discusses major aspects of Senate procedure related to filibusters and cloture. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227956/
Congressional Salaries and Allowances
Report that provides basic information on congressional salaries and allowances. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227951/
Continuing Resolutions: Latest Action and Brief Overview of Recent Practices
Report that is divided into two segments. The first section provides the most recent information on the Fiscal Year 2011 continuing resolution (or CRs). The second segment focuses on: the history and recent trends, including the nature, scope, and duration of CRs during the past 35 years; CR types by duration; major substantive legislative provisions included in some CRs; and funding gaps. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227955/
Retirement Benefits for Members of Congress
Report that covers the logistics and background of the Congressional Pension program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227962/
Federalism, State Sovereignty, and the Constitution: Basis and Limits of Congressional Power
This report discusses state and federal legislative power generally and focuses on a number of these "federalism" cases. The report discusses state and federal legislative power generally, and focuses on a number of these "federalism" cases.1 Issues addressed include congressional power under the Commerce Clause and the Fourteenth Amendment; limits on congressional powers, such as the Tenth Amendment; state sovereign immunity under the Eleventh Amendment; and grant condition imposed under the Spending Clause. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227952/
Department of Defense Energy Initiatives: Background and Issues for Congress
Report that provides background information and identifies issues for Congress on Department of Defense (DOD) energy initiatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227770/
Sexual Assaults Under the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ): Selected Legislative Proposals
This report discusses the military-related cases involving sexual assaults by U.S. service members that have resulted in increased public and congressional interest in military discipline and the military justice system. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227923/
Murder or Attempted Murder of a Member of Congress and Other Federal Officials and Employees: Implications in Federal Criminal Law and Procedure of Events in Tucson
Report describing the federal procedures and attendant legal provisions generally associated with the prosecution of cases regarding the killing and attempted killing of federal officers and employees in the performance of their official duties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227706/
Monuments and Memorials in the District of Columbia: Analysis and Options for Proposed Exemptions to the Commemorative Works Act
This report focuses on options for Congress for three types of exemptions to the Commemorative Works Act (CWA, 40 U.S.C. §§8901-8909): siting works, donor recognition, and the placement and status of museums, which are generally not considered commemorative works. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227940/
Congressional Nominations to U.S. Service Academies: An Overview and Resources for Outreach and Management
Report that describes statutory requirements for allocating congressional nominations to service academies. It also identifies the qualifications that must be met by potential nominees. Includes a sample document. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228020/
Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies
Report that offer a list of 200 congressional liaison offices. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227623/
Congressional Member Organizations: Their Purpose and Activities, History, and Formation
This report examines the purpose and activities of Committee on House Administration as congressional Member organizations (CMO) and the reasons Members form them. It also identifies and describes seven CMO types, and it provides an overview of the historical development of informal Member organizations since the first Congress, focusing on their regulation in the House by the Committee on House Oversight/Committee on House Administration, the rise and fall of legislative service organizations (LSOs), and the House's decision in 1995 to issue regulations for establishing CMOs and governing their behavior. It concludes with a step-by-step guide for House Members and staff who might be interested in forming a CMO. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227647/
Salaries of Members of Congress: Recent Actions and Historical Tables
Report that contains information on congressional pay procedure and recent adjustments. It includes historical information on pay rates since 1789; the adjustments projected by the Ethics Reform Act as compared to actual adjustments in Member pay; details on past legislation enacted with language prohibiting the annual pay adjustment; and Member pay in constant and current dollars since 1992. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227612/
House Committee Hearings: Preparation
Report containing a checklist that identifies many of the tasks that need to be performed for committee hearings. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227624/
Committee on the Budget in the House of Representatives: Structure and Responsibilities
Report describing the structure and responsibilities of the Committee on the Budget in the House of Representatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227652/
Salaries of Members of Congress: Congressional Votes, 1990-2013
Report that contains information on the pay procedure of members of Congress and recent adjustments. It provides information on previous actions and votes by year, from 1990-2010. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227617/
House Committee Chairs: Considerations, Decisions, and Actions as One Congress Ends and a New Congress Begins
Report that addresses some of the critical matters a House committee chair confronts from the time of the early organization meetings in November to approximately the spring district work-period in March or April. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228082/
Casework in a Congressional Office: Background, Rules, Laws, and Resources
Report that discusses House and Senate rules and guidelines, laws, and regulations affecting congressional casework, as well as the role of caseworkers. It also provides sample outlines and document templates for implementing and managing congressional casework. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228019/
How Measures Are Brought to the House Floor: A Brief Introduction
Report that presents a brief description of the five parliamentary methods used to bring proposed legislation to the House floor for consideration. These methods allow for consideration as a privileged matter, under the limited privilege of a special calendar or day, under suspension of the rules, under the terms of a special rule, or by unanimous consent. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228087/
Membership of the 113th Congress: A Profile
This report presents a profile of the membership of the 113th Congress (2013-2014). Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age, occupation, education, length of congressional service, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227848/
Introduction to the Legislative Process in the U.S. Congress
Report that introduces the main steps through which a bill (or other item of business) may travel in the legislative process, from introduction to committee and floor consideration to possible presidential consideration. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227835/