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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Monuments and Memorials in the District of Columbia: Analysis and Options for Proposed Exemptions to the Commemorative Works Act

Monuments and Memorials in the District of Columbia: Analysis and Options for Proposed Exemptions to the Commemorative Works Act

Date: September 24, 2013
Creator: Straus, Jacob R.
Description: This report focuses on options for Congress for three types of exemptions to the Commemorative Works Act (CWA, 40 U.S.C. §§8901-8909): siting works, donor recognition, and the placement and status of museums, which are generally not considered commemorative works.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Purple Heart: Background and Issues for Congress

The Purple Heart: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: September 7, 2012
Creator: Burrelli, David F. & Gilroy, Fenwick
Description: Report that explores the history of the Purple Heart and changes in eligibility over time as well as several current issues facing Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Flag Protection: A Brief History and Summary of Supreme Court Decisions and Proposed Constitutional Amendments

Flag Protection: A Brief History and Summary of Supreme Court Decisions and Proposed Constitutional Amendments

Date: January 20, 2011
Creator: Luckey, John R.
Description: This report is divided into two parts. The first gives a brief history of the flag protection issue, from the enactment of the Flag Protection Act in 1968 through current consideration of a constitutional amendment. The second part briefly summarizes the two decisions of the United States Supreme Court, Texas v. Johnson and United States v. Eichman, that struck down the state and federal flag protection statutes as applied in the context punishing expressive conduct.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Gold Medals, 1776-2010

Congressional Gold Medals, 1776-2010

Date: March 14, 2011
Creator: Glassman, Matthew Eric
Description: Members of Congress and their staff frequently ask questions concerning the nature, history, and contemporary application of the process for awarding Gold Medals. This report responds to congressional inquiries concerning this process, and includes a historical examination and chronological list of these awards. It is intended to assist Members of Congress and staff in their consideration of future Gold Medal proposals, and will be updated as Gold Medals are approved.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The United States Flag: Federal Law Relating to Display and Associated Questions

The United States Flag: Federal Law Relating to Display and Associated Questions

Date: January 24, 2011
Creator: Luckey, John R.
Description: This report presents, verbatim, the United States "Flag Code" as found in Title 4 of the United States Code and the section of Title 36 which designates the Star-Spangled Banner as the national anthem and provides instructions on how to display the flag during its rendition. The report also addresses several of the frequently asked questions concerning the flag.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Flag Protection: A Brief History and Summary of Recent Supreme Court Decisions and Proposed Constitutional Amendments

Flag Protection: A Brief History and Summary of Recent Supreme Court Decisions and Proposed Constitutional Amendments

Date: January 7, 2009
Creator: Luckey, John R.
Description: Many Members of Congress see continued tension between "free speech" decisions of the Supreme Court, which protect flag desecration as expressive conduct under the First Amendment, and the symbolic importance of the United States flag. This report is divided into two parts. The first gives a brief history of the flag protection issue, from the enactment of the Flag Protection Act in 1968 through current consideration of a constitutional amendment. The second part briefly summarizes the two decisions of the United States Supreme Court, Texas v. Johnson and United States v. Eichman, that struck down the state and federal flag protection statutes as applied in the context punishing expressive conduct.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Medal of Honor: History and Issues

Medal of Honor: History and Issues

Date: March 30, 2006
Creator: Burrelli, David F.
Description: This report considers the history of the Medal of Honor. In addition, the laws and regulations pertaining to the award, and the privileges/benefits available to the recipients are discussed. Finally, this report analyzes efforts to have the Medal of Honor awarded to certain individuals outside of the normal procedures.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Memorials: Creating National, State, and Local Memorials

Memorials: Creating National, State, and Local Memorials

Date: May 21, 2008
Creator: Watkins, Zina L.
Description: This report provides information on the mandatory steps to building a memorial on federal property in the District of Columbia. It also provides information on creating memorials in Arlington National Cemetery, within the Department of Veterans Affairs National Cemetery System, and in state veterans' cemeteries. In addition, it discusses public and private initiatives at the state and local levels to create memorials including successful local fund-raising efforts.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Commemorative Observances: A Chronological List

Commemorative Observances: A Chronological List

Date: August 29, 2006
Creator: Frazier-Thompson, Judith B.
Description: Historically, national commemorative observances were often recommended by Congress through the legislative process. This practice was for the most part discontinued by the House of Representatives in January 1995, although the Senate continues to issue sense of the Senate resolutions recommending for special observances to be designated by a proclamation issued by the President. This report is a chronological list of proclamations for the years 2004 through early 2006, indicating the proclamation number and its Federal Register citation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Flag Protection: A Brief History and Summary of Recent Supreme Court Decisions and Proposed Constitutional Amendment

Flag Protection: A Brief History and Summary of Recent Supreme Court Decisions and Proposed Constitutional Amendment

Date: June 28, 2006
Creator: Luckey, John R.
Description: Many Members of Congress see continued tension between "free speech" decisions of the Supreme Court, which protect flag desecration as expressive conduct under the First Amendment, and the symbolic importance of the United States flag. Consequently, every Congress that has convened since those decisions were issued has considered proposals that would permit punishment of those who engage in flag desecration. This report is divided into two parts. The first gives a brief history of the flag protection issue, from the enactment of the Flag Protection Act in 1968 through current consideration of a constitutional amendment. The second part briefly summarizes the two decisions of the United States Supreme Court, Texas v. Johnson and United States v. Eichman, that struck down the state and federal flag protection statutes as applied in the context of punishing expressive conduct.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Commemorative Observances: A Chronological List

Commemorative Observances: A Chronological List

Date: August 29, 2006
Creator: Frazier-Thompson, Judith B
Description: Historically, national commemorative observances were recommended by Congress through the legislative process. This practice was discontinued by the House of Representatives in January 1995, although the Senate continues to issue sense of the Senate resolutions recommending the establishment of commemoratives. It has now become standard practice for special observances to be designated by a proclamation issued by the President. This report is a chronological list of these proclamations for 1997 and 1998, indicating the proclamation number and its Federal Register citation
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Flag Protection: A Brief History and Summary of Recent Supreme Court Decisions and Proposed Constitutional Amendments

Flag Protection: A Brief History and Summary of Recent Supreme Court Decisions and Proposed Constitutional Amendments

Date: June 28, 2006
Creator: Luckey, John R
Description: This report is divided into two parts. The first gives a brief history of the flag protection issue, from the enactment of the Flag Protection Act in 1968 through current consideration of a constitutional amendment. The second part briefly summarizes the two decisions of the United States Supreme Court, Texas v. Johnson and United States v. Eichman, that struck down the state and federal flag protection statutes as applied in the context punishing expressive conduct.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Memorials: Creating National, State, and Local Memorials

Memorials: Creating National, State, and Local Memorials

Date: September 1, 2006
Creator: Watkins, Zina L
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Commemorative Observances: A Chronological List

Commemorative Observances: A Chronological List

Date: August 29, 2006
Creator: Frazier-Thompson, Judith B
Description: Historically, national commemorative observances were recommended by Congress through the legislative process. This practice was discontinued by the House of Representatives in January 1995, although the Senate continues to issue sense of the Senate resolutions recommending the establishment of commemoratives. It has now become standard practice for special observances to be designated by a proclamation issued by the President. This report is a chronological list of these proclamations for 1997 and 1998, indicating the proclamation number and its Federal Register citation
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Speech Material -- Fourth of July

Speech Material -- Fourth of July

Date: June 28, 1983
Creator: Congressional Reference Division
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Selected Bicentennial Celebrations Commemorating the 200th Anniversaries of the U.S. Constitution and of the U.S. Congress

Selected Bicentennial Celebrations Commemorating the 200th Anniversaries of the U.S. Constitution and of the U.S. Congress

Date: November 1, 1986
Creator: Davidson, Roger H & Kephart, Thomas
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
D-Day: The French Jubilee of Liberty Medal and the 60th Anniversary Commemoration on June 6, 2004, and Events for June 6, 2005

D-Day: The French Jubilee of Liberty Medal and the 60th Anniversary Commemoration on June 6, 2004, and Events for June 6, 2005

Date: May 27, 2005
Creator: Torreon, Barbara Salazar
Description: This report details the Jubilee of Liberty Medal awarded to U.S. veterans by the French government to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the invasion of Normandy by the Allied forces on June 6, 1994 (D-Day).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Flag Protection: A Brief History and Summary of Recent Supreme Court Decisions and Proposed Constitutional Amendment

Flag Protection: A Brief History and Summary of Recent Supreme Court Decisions and Proposed Constitutional Amendment

Date: May 19, 2005
Creator: Luckey, John R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Authority of a President to Modify or Eliminate a National Monument

Authority of a President to Modify or Eliminate a National Monument

Date: August 3, 2000
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: President Clinton created a number of new national monuments, using authority given the President under the Antiquities Act of 1906. Many of the designations were controversial and renewed discussion of that Act and whether a President can modify or eliminate a Presidentially created national monument. This report examines that question.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential Authority to Create a National Monument on the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

Presidential Authority to Create a National Monument on the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

Date: June 19, 2000
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legislative History of the World War II Memorial and World War II Commemorative Legislation

Legislative History of the World War II Memorial and World War II Commemorative Legislation

Date: April 16, 2002
Creator: Weimer, Douglas Reid
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Gold Medals, 1776-2003

Congressional Gold Medals, 1776-2003

Date: November 14, 2003
Creator: Stathis, Stephen W
Description: Members of Congress and their staff frequently ask questions concerning the nature, history, and contemporary application of the process for awarding Gold Medals. This report responds to congressional inquiries concerning this process, and includes a historical examination and chronological list of these awards. It is intended to assist Members of Congress and staff in their consideration of future Gold Medal proposals, and will be updated as Gold Medals are approved.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Gold Medals 1776-1999

Congressional Gold Medals 1776-1999

Date: August 9, 1999
Creator: Stathis, Stephen W
Description: Since the American Revolution, Congress has commissioned gold medals as its highest expression of national appreciation for distinguished achievements and contributions. These medals should not be confused with the Medal of Honor, which is presented “in the name of the Congress of the United States,” and is often referred to as the Congressional Medal of Honor. Regulations for the Medal of Honor are established by the armed services. Congressional Gold Medals, conversely, can only be approved by Congress. This report provides a response to such inquiries and includes a historical examination and chronological list of these awards intended to assist Members of Congress in their consideration of future proposals to award Congressional Gold Medals. It will be updated annually.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
National Monument Issues

National Monument Issues

Date: August 22, 2003
Creator: Hardy-Vincent, Carol
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department