You limited your search to:

 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The American Steel Industry: A Changing Profile

The American Steel Industry: A Changing Profile

Date: February 14, 2003
Creator: Cooney, Stephen
Description: The U.S. steel industry has faced increasing difficulties since the late 1990s. More than 30 U.S. steel producers have gone into bankruptcy. While different companies and parts of the industry have been affected to different degrees, the two types of domestic producers of raw steel, integrated mills and minimills, have both supported restrictions on imports, which they say have undermined the ability of the U.S. industry to produce steel economically. This report reviews industry developments and the economic situation of the steel industry, including legacy cost aspects of its problems.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The American Steel Industry: A Changing Profile

The American Steel Industry: A Changing Profile

Date: November 10, 2003
Creator: Cooney, Stephen
Description: The U.S. steel industry has faced increasing difficulties since the late 1990s. About 40 U.S. steel producers have gone into bankruptcy. While different companies and parts of the industry have been affected to different degrees, the two types of domestic producers of raw steel, integrated mills and minimills, have both supported restrictions on imports, which they say have undermined the ability of the U.S. industry to produce steel economically. This report reviews industry developments and the economic situation of the steel industry, including legacy cost aspects of its problems.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cybersecurity and Information Sharing: Legal Challenges and Solutions

Cybersecurity and Information Sharing: Legal Challenges and Solutions

Date: March 16, 2015
Creator: Nolan, Andrew
Description: While considerable debate exists with regard to the best strategies for protecting America’s various cyber-systems and promoting cybersecurity, one point of general agreement amongst cyber-analysts is the perceived need for enhanced and timely exchange of cyber-threat intelligence both within the private sector and between the private sector and the government. This report examines the various legal issues that arise with respect to the sharing of cybersecurity intelligence, with a special focus on two distinct concepts: (1) sharing of cyberinformation within the government’s possession and (2) sharing of cyber-information within the possession of the private sector.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Small Business Administration and Job Creation

Small Business Administration and Job Creation

Date: January 29, 2015
Creator: Dilger, Robert J.
Description: The Small Business Administration (SBA) administers several programs to support small businesses, including loan guaranty programs, disaster loan programs, management and technical assistance training programs, and federal contracting programs. Congressional interest in these programs has increased in recent years, primarily because they are viewed as a means to stimulate economic activity, create jobs, and assist in the national economic recovery. This report examines the economic research on net job creation to identify the types of businesses that appear to create the most jobs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Small Business Administration and Job Creation

Small Business Administration and Job Creation

Date: January 30, 2013
Creator: Dilger, Robert J.
Description: The Small Business Administration (SBA) administers several programs to support small businesses, including loan guaranty programs; disaster loan programs; management and technical assistance training programs; and federal contracting programs. Congressional interest in these programs has increased in recent years, primarily because they are viewed as a means to stimulate economic activity, create jobs, and assist in the national economic recovery. This report examines the economic research on net job creation to identify the types of businesses that appear to create the most jobs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Small Business: Access to Capital and Job Creation

Small Business: Access to Capital and Job Creation

Date: January 13, 2011
Creator: Dilger, Robert J. & Gonzales, Oscar R.
Description: This report addresses a core issue facing Congress during the 112th Congress: what, if any, additional action should the federal government take to enhance small business access to capital? After briefly discussing the role of small business in job creation and retention, this report provides an assessment of the supply and demand for small business loans. It also examines selected laws enacted during the 110th and 111th Congresses that were designed to enhance small business access to capital by increasing the supply of small business loans and/or the demand for small business loans. This report also includes empirical evidence concerning small business lending and borrowing, including the number and amount of small business loans guaranteed by the SBA.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act, H.R. 1036 and S. 659, 108th Congress: Legal Analysis

Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act, H.R. 1036 and S. 659, 108th Congress: Legal Analysis

Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: This report examines H.R. 1036, 108th Congress, as ordered to be reported by the House Committee on the Judiciary on April 3, 2003, and passed by the House without amendment on April 9, 2003. H.R. 1036, titled the “Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act,” would prohibit lawsuits, except in specified circumstances, against a manufacturer or seller of a firearm or ammunition, or a trade association, for damages resulting from the criminal or unlawful misuse of a firearm or ammunition.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Business and Labor Spending in U.S. Elections

Business and Labor Spending in U.S. Elections

Date: October 28, 1997
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E.
Description: Federal election law has long prohibited corporate and union spending in federal elections, but distinctions in statutes and judicial rulings have opened avenues by which these groups have been able to spend money in the electoral process. Business groups make particular use of political action committee (PAC) donations to candidates and soft money donations to parties. Unions made prominent use of issue advocacy in 1996, but labor’s political strength lies in exempt activity communications with members. This report explains these tools and their use in today’s elections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Small Business Administration Microloan Program

Small Business Administration Microloan Program

Date: May 28, 2015
Creator: Dilger, Robert Jay
Description: The Small Business Administration’s (SBA’s) Microloan program provides direct loans to qualified nonprofit intermediary lenders who, in turn, provide “microloans” of up to $50,000 to small businesses and nonprofit child care centers. It also provides marketing, management, and technical assistance to microloan borrowers and potential borrowers. This report opens with a discussion of the rationale provided for having a Microloan program, describes the program’s eligibility standards and operating requirements for lenders and borrowers, and examines the arguments presented by the program’s critics and advocates. It then discusses P.L. 111-240, the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010, which increased the Microloan program’s loan limit for borrowers from $35,000 to $50,000, and the aggregate loan limit for intermediaries after their first year of participation in the program from $3.5 million to $5 million.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Why Has the Economy Become Less Volatile?

Why Has the Economy Become Less Volatile?

Date: April 11, 2007
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: The 2001 recession was unusually mild and brief by historical standards. At 120 months, the expansion that preceded it had been the longest in U.S. history. Is this a coincidence? A body of research concludes that it is not. This report discusses several theories for what caused this phenomenon.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Small Business: Access to Capital and Job Creation

Small Business: Access to Capital and Job Creation

Date: September 1, 2010
Creator: Dilger, Robert J. & Gonzales, Oscar R.
Description: The Small Business Administration’s (SBA) authorization is due to expire on September 30, 2010. The SBA administers several programs to support small businesses, including loan guarantees to help small businesses gain access to capital. This report addresses a core issue facing Congress during the SBA’s reauthorization process: what, if any, additional action should the federal government take to enhance small business access to capital?
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: A Legal Overview

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: A Legal Overview

Date: September 2, 2004
Creator: Seitzinger, Michael V.
Description: This report examines the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 was enacted principally to prevent corporate bribery of foreign officials. This act had three major parts: 1. It required the keeping by corporations of accurate books, records, and accounts; 2. It required issuers registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission to maintain a responsible internal accounting control system; and 3. It prohibited bribery by American corporations of foreign officials.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Reporting Requirements in the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008

Reporting Requirements in the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008

Date: November 13, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Curtis W.
Description: This report describes the various reporting requirements in the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (EESA) and is organized according to the entities required to prepare and submit the reports. The report also provides some concluding observations regarding those requirements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Financial Market Intervention

Financial Market Intervention

Date: January 29, 2009
Creator: Murphy, Edward V. & Webel, Baird
Description: This report provides answers to some frequently asked questions concerning ongoing financial disruptions and the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP). It also summarizes legislation in the 111th Congress such as H.R. 384, the TARP Reform and Accountability Act of 2009 and H.R. 703, "Promoting Bank Liquidity and Lending Through Deposit Insurance, Hope for Homeowners, and other Enhancements."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Selected Legal Mechanisms Whereby the Government Can Hold Contractors Accountable for Failure to Perform or Other Misconduct

Selected Legal Mechanisms Whereby the Government Can Hold Contractors Accountable for Failure to Perform or Other Misconduct

Date: September 23, 2015
Creator: Manuel, Kate M. & Perry, Rodney M.
Description: This report provides an overview of selected legal mechanisms that the federal government could rely upon in holding contractors accountable for deficiencies in their performance under the contract, or for other misconduct.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Small Business: Access to Capital and Job Creation

Small Business: Access to Capital and Job Creation

Date: November 25, 2015
Creator: Dilger, Robert J.
Description: This report discusses the role of small business in job creation and retention, then provides an assessment of the supply and demand for small business loans and recently enacted laws designed to enhance small business access to capital. It also examines recent actions concerning the SBA's budget and concludes with a brief overview of legislative options available to address small business access to capital issues during the 114th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Running Deficits: Positives and Pitfalls

Running Deficits: Positives and Pitfalls

Date: September 20, 2006
Creator: Austin, D. A.
Description: This report discusses how deficit finance can help governments manage their economies and how large and persistent deficits can lead to severe economic problems.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agriculture, Nutrition, and Rural Provisions in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009

Agriculture, Nutrition, and Rural Provisions in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009

Date: February 23, 2009
Creator: Monke, Jim; Richardson, Joe; Stubbs, Megan; Cowan, Tadlock; Chite, Ralph M.; Becker, Geoffrey S. et al.
Description: This report analyzes the agriculture, nutrition, and rural provisions in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA, P.L. 111-5). The ARRA boosts government spending on various infrastructure programs and government benefits programs, and offers individual and business tax benefits.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Using Business Tax Cuts to Stimulate the Economy

Using Business Tax Cuts to Stimulate the Economy

Date: January 29, 2009
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Description: This report discusses issues associated with the use of business tax subsidies. First, is fiscal policy appropriate? Second, how successful are subsidies likely to be and what form might they take to be most effective? Finally, what other consequences might flow from the use of business tax subsidies, especially if they are to be permanent?
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: Overview and Issues for Congress

Multilateral Development Banks: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: December 2, 2015
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.
Description: This report provides an overview of Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) and highlights major issues for Congress. The first section discusses how the MDBs operate, and the second section discusses the role of Congress in the MDBs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Loans to the Auto Industry Under the Energy Independence and Security Act

Federal Loans to the Auto Industry Under the Energy Independence and Security Act

Date: November 13, 2008
Creator: Cooney, Stephen & Yacobucci, Brent D.
Description: This report examines various programs considered by Congress, including grants and loans, to help automakers with the increased cost of compliance with higher fuel economy standards.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Internet Tax Freedom Act: In Brief

The Internet Tax Freedom Act: In Brief

Date: October 5, 2015
Creator: Stupak, Jeffrey M.
Description: This report discusses the Internet Tax Freedom Act (ITFA; P.L. 105-277), which enacted in 1998, implemented a three-year moratorium preventing state and local governments from taxing Internet access, or imposing multiple or discriminatory taxes on electronic commerce.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases

The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases

Date: October 1, 2015
Creator: Austin, D. A.
Description: This report discusses congressional restrictions on federal debt. The statutory debt limit applies to almost all federal debt. The limit applies to federal debt held by the public (that is, debt held outside the federal government itself) and to federal debt held by the government's own accounts.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Reporting Requirements in the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008

Reporting Requirements in the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008

Date: January 13, 2009
Creator: Copeland, Curtis W.
Description: This report describes the various reporting requirements in the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (EESA) and is organized according to the entities required to prepare and submit the reports. It also provides some concluding observations regarding those requirements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department