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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Reconciliation and the Deficit in FY2006 and Through FY2010: Fact Sheet
This report discusses the budget resolution for FY2006 (H.Con.Res. 95), adopted by Congress on April 28, 2005, which included reconciliation instructions for three bills. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7598/
Deficit Impact of Reconciliation Legislation Enacted in 1990, 1993, and 1997
The budget reconciliation process is an optional procedure that operates as an adjunct to the annual budget resolution process. The FY2006 budget resolution, H.Con.Res. 95, includes reconciliation instructions affecting mandatory spending and revenues. For the first time since 1997, reconciliation is proposed to reduce mandatory spending as part of a deficit-reduction plan. As background on past efforts in this regard, the deficit impact of three major reconciliation acts enacted in the 1990s is briefly summarized. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7597/
Agriculture and FY2006 Budget Reconciliation
On April 29, 2005, Congress completed action on the FY2006 budget resolution (H.Con.Res. 95, H.Rept. 109-62). This measure contains reconciliation instructions that require authorizing committees to report legislation to reduce spending on mandatory programs within each committee’s jurisdiction. To reduce spending in mandatory U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs, conferees instructed the House and Senate Agriculture Committees to reduce mandatory spending by $173 million in FY2006 and $3.0 billion over five years (FY2006-FY2010). The Bush Administration earlier proposed changes to several mandatory USDA programs, which it said would save $5.7 billion over five years (and which the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) subsequently scored at $9.4 billion in reductions). The agriculture committees must determine how to divide the cuts among the various programs under their jurisdiction by September 16, 2005. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7596/
Climate Change: Federal Expenditures for Science and Technology
This report identifies and discusses direct climate-focused scientific and research programs of the federal government, as well as an array of energy programs that relate indirectly to climate change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7595/
Transit Program Reauthorization in the 108th Congress
This report discusses the re authorization of transit programs funded by the Federal Transit Administration’s (FTA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7577/
An Overview of the Administration's Strengthening America's Communities Initiative
This report discusses administration’s proposed base program called strengthening America’s communities initiative intended to award funds in support of job creation and economic development. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7593/
An Overview of the Administration's Strengthening America's Communities Initiative
This report discusses administration’s proposed base program called strengthening America’s communities initiative intended to award funds in support of job creation and economic development. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7592/
Medicaid and SCHIP: The President's FY2006 Budget Proposals
This report describes the proposal and provides an estimate of the cost or savings based on publicly available information. The report provides a brief background for the proposal and provides a listing of current Congressional Research Service (CRS) reports related to the proposal. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7591/
Potential Humanitarian Issues in Post-War Iraq: An Overview for Congress
This report discusses the Oil For Food Program (OFFP) has alleviated some of the worst effects of the 1991 Gulf-War international sanctions regime. While some improvements have been seen in nutrition, health services, water supply and sanitation, there is greater dependence on government services, and observers of the Iraq situation have identified disturbing health and nutrition problems affecting the civilian population. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7574/
Initial Federal Budget Response to the 1941 Attack on Pearl Harbor
This report discusses initial federal budget response to attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, which occurred as the federal government was half way through FY1942. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7567/
Everglades Restoration: The Federal Role in Funding
In 2000, Congress approved a 30-year, $7.8 billion restoration plan, termed the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP), for the Everglades ecosystem in southern Florida, and authorized an initial set of projects at a cost of $1.4 billion. This report provides information on federal appropriations for Everglades restoration, and discusses some issues related to the authorization and appropriations for restoration projects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7566/
Repairing and Reconstructing Disaster-Damaged Roads and Bridges: The Role of Federal-Aid Highway Assistance
This report describes Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) assistance for the repair and reconstruction of disaster damaged highways and bridges. It begins with a brief discussion of the legislative origins of federal assistance and describes the ER program in its current form. The report then discusses eligibility issues and program operation. Finally, the report discusses a number of issues, including funding, that may be of interest to Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7563/
The Federal Budget Deficit: A Discussion of Recent Trends
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The Corporation for Public Broadcasting: Federal Funding Facts and Status
Congressional policymakers are closely examining federal funding for the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB). Overall, 15.6% of all public television and radio broadcasting funding comes from the federal appropriations that CPB distributes. The CPB’s appropriation is allocated through a distribution formula established in its authorizing legislation. It has historically received two-year advanced appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7550/
The Corporation for Public Broadcasting: Federal Funding Facts and Status
The Corporation for Public Broadcasting, created in 1967, receives approximately 15% of its annual funding from federal appropriations. In turn, the CPB, acting as an umbrella agency, is required to spend 89 percent of the appropriations in grants to members of Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), National Public Radio (NPR), Public Radio International (PRI), and other affiliated public television and radio broadcasters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7549/
Fiscal Year 2005 Homeland Security Grant Program: State Allocations and Issues for Congressional Oversight
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Appropriations for FY2005: Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This Report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Foreign Operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7535/
The FY2006 Budget Request for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
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FY2006 Appropriations for the Department of Transportation
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The President's Management Agenda: A Brief Introduction
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Performance Management and Budgeting in the Federal Government: Brief History and Recent Developments
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Federal Stafford Act Disaster Assistance: Presidential Declarations, Eligible Activities, and Funding
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Federal Stafford Act Disaster Assistance: Presidential Declarations, Eligible Activities, and Funding
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Federal Stafford Act Disaster Assistance: Presidential Declarations, Eligible Activities, and Funding
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Federal Disaster Recovery Programs: Brief Summaries
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House Committee Funding Requests and Authorizations, 104th-109th Congresses
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Senate Committee Funding Resolutions, 109th Congress, and Funding Authorizations 104th-109th Congresses
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Appropriations Subcommittee Structure: History of Changes from 1920-2005
This report details the evolution of the House and Senate Appropriations Committees’ subcommittee structure from the 1920s to the present. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7508/
Hurricanes Katrina
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Impact on States of Revised Redistribution of Unspent FY2002 SCHIP Allotments
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The Emergency Food and Shelter Program
The Emergency Food and Shelter (EFS) Program allocates funds to local communities to fund homeless programs including soup kitchens, food banks, shelters, and homeless prevention services. The EFS program is part of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and after Hurricane Katrina struck, some questions have arisen about the use of EFS program funds for Presidentially-declared disasters. This report describes how the EFS program operates through a National Board, local boards, and local recipient organizations. It further discusses the use of EFS program funds during disasters, and recent attempts to move the program from FEMA to the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7504/
Selected Federal Crime Control Assistance to State and Local Governments
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The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Block Grant: Responses to Frequently Asked Questions
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Omnibus Appropriations Act: Overview of Recent Practices
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Benefits for the Aged and the Federal Budget: Short- and Long-Term Projections
As the 108th Congress addresses short-term budget decisions, it may also want to consider the long-run impacts of those decisions and the major shifts in budget composition that are underway. Congress may be pressed to add new benefits in response to population aging, such as improved support for long-term care and broader Medicare drug coverage. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7483/
Biennial Budgeting: Issues and Options
Biennial budgeting is a concept that may include several variations. It may involve multiyear authorizations, two-year budget resolutions, or two-year appropriations, or some combination of the three. Most proposals incorporate all three factors. This report presents the view of proponent and critics of biennial budgeting. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7495/
Debt-Limit Legislation in the Congressional Budget Process
The gross federal debt consists of the debt held by the public plus the debt held by government accounts. Almost all of the gross federal debt is subject to a public debt limit, as set forth in statute (31 U.S.C. 3101).This report considers legislation needed to change the public debt limit. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7499/
Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Hurricane Katrina Relief
This CRS report summarizes federal disaster assistance funding legislation in the 109th Congress and presents some information on federal expenditures and obligations for disaster recovery activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7479/
Discretionary Spending: Prospects and History
Federal spending has changed, both in size and composition over the last 40 years. Total federal spending is now a larger percentage of the economy (as measured by gross domestic product — GDP) than it was in 1965 (19.8% of GDP vs 17.2% of GDP). Mandatory spending (generally spending that result from laws other than appropriations acts, such as Social Security and Medicare), has grown substantially, both as a percentage of GDP and as a percentage of total spending to become, today, the largest component of federal spending. Mandatory spending, without significant changes to the programs composing it, will continue growing as a percentage of GDP and as a percentage of total outlays into the future. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7473/
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Budget for FY2006: President's Request, Congressional Appropriations, and Related issues
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Environmental Protection Agency: FY2006 Appropriations and Highlights
Title II of the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act for FY2006 (P.L. 109-54, H.R. 2361) provides $7.73 billion for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), subject to an across-the-board rescission of 0.476%. Section 439 of Title IV indicates that the rescission is to be applied proportionately among each account, program, project, and activity specified in the law, accompanying reports, and the President’s budget request. The total FY2006 EPA appropriation includes an additional $80 million in unobligated funds “rescinded” from past appropriations, as noted in the following table. P.L. 109-54 provides more funding for EPA than the Administration’s FY2006 request of $7.52 billion, but less than the FY2005 appropriation of $8.03 billion. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7469/
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Overview, FY2006 Budget in Brief, and Key Issues for Congress
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Baseline Budget Projections Under Alternative Assumptions
The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) estimates a baseline budget based on simple rules prescribed by law. Statute requires CBO to project a baseline of revenues and outlays under current law over the next 10 years. Arguably, a “better guess” of the probable path of the federal budget under current policy might be achieved by modifying four assumptions in the CBO baseline. First, that discretionary spending will remain constant as a share of GDP rather than growing at the rate of inflation. Second, that military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan will continue and should be counted in the baseline rather than omitted. Third, that recent tax reduction will be extended rather than allowed to expire. Fourth, that the alternative minimum tax (AMT) relief will be extended rather than allowing the AMT to “take back” the reductions in regular income tax. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7466/
House Rules Changes Affecting the Congressional Budget Process in the 109th Congress (H.Res.5)
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Federal Spending for Older Americans
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A Presidential Item Veto
During a news conference on November 4, 2004, President George W. Bush stated that he “would like to see the President have a line-item veto again, one that passed constitutional muster. I think it would help the executive branch work with the legislative branch to make sure that we’re able to maintain budget discipline.” The Supreme Court struck down an earlier version of item-veto authority (the Line Item Veto Act of 1996) in Clinton v. City of New York, 524 U.S. 417 (1998), but several statutory alternatives are available. Options to the Line Item Veto Act have been proposed over the years, including an amendment to the Constitution to grant the President item-veto authority. The line-item veto is listed among several budget reform proposals included in the FY2005 budget, but a more specific recommendation is expected to be developed by the Administration and submitted to Congress at the start of the 109th Congress. This report analyzes the statutory and constitutional alternatives that are likely to be considered and will be updated as necessary. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7400/
Federal Budget Process Reform: A Brief Overview
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Revenue Reconciliation Directives to the Senate Finance Committee in Congressional Budget Resolutions
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Revenue Reconciliation Directives to the Senate Finance Committee in Congressional Budget Resolutions
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The Congressional Budget Process: A Brief Overview
The term “budget process,” when applied to the federal government, actually refers to a number of processes that have evolved separately and that occur with varying degrees of coordination. This overview, and the accompanying flow chart, are intended to describe in brief each of the parts of the budget process that involve Congress, clarify the role played by each, and explain how they operate together. They include the President’s budget submission, the budget resolution, reconciliation, sequestration, authorizations, and appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7396/