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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Multiyear Procurement (MYP) and Block Buy Contracting in Defense Acquisition: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on multiyear procurement (MYP) and block buy contracting (BBC), which are special contracting mechanisms that Congress permits the Department of Defense (DOD) to use for a limited number of defense acquisition programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503643/
F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF), also called the Lighting II, which is a new strike fighter being procured in different versions by the Air Force, Marine Corps, and Navy. It details the Obama Administration's proposed FY2010 defense budget requests for F-35 program funding and outlines the issues that Congress must consider when deciding whether to approve, reject, or modify the administration's funding requests. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503660/
Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses issues Congress faces regarding the Navy's proposed FY2011 budget, particularly as relating to destroyer procurement plans and programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503618/
The Federal Budget: Overview and Issues for FY2016 and Beyond
This report provides an overview of federal budget issues, focusing on recent fiscal policy changes. It also discusses the major policy proposals contained in the President's FY2016 budget and the House and Senate budget resolutions. Finally, it also addresses major short- and long-term fiscal challenges. This report tracks legislative events related to the federal budget and will be updated as budgetary legislation moves through Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503616/
The Technology Innovation Program
This report discusses the Technology Innovation Program (TIP) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), which is designed "to support, promote, and accelerate innovation in the United States through high-risk, high-reward research in areas of critical national need," according to the authorizing legislation. Grants are provided to small and medium-sized firms for individual projects or joint ventures with other research organizations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503627/
The Economics of the Federal Budget Deficit
This report examines the economics the budget deficit. Topics include recent budgetary history, the differences made by deficits and surpluses, and fiscal policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503707/
Navy LX(R) Amphibious Ship Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the LX(R) amphibious ship program, a Navy program to build a new class of 11 amphibious ships. The Navy wants to procure the first LX(R) in FY2020. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503710/
The FY2011 Federal Budget
This report provides an historical overview of the budget trends through the most recently completed fiscal year (2009). It discusses major budgetary challenges over the past several fiscal years given the current economic conditions and provides an in-depth discussion of the FY2011 budget process. Finally, it provides context for the issues facing the country's federal budget over the long term. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503701/
Is the U.S. Current Account Deficit Sustainable?
This report reviews studies on the America's current account (CA) deficit's sustainability. Some of the studies suggest that a large dollar depreciation could eventually be required to restore sustainability. But the inflation-adjusted 25% depreciation of the dollar from 2002-2008 had little effect on the CA deficit, which kept growing until 2007. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503717/
Earmarks Disclosed by Congress: FY2008-FY2010 Regular Appropriations Bills
This report summarizes the earmarks disclosed for the 12 regular, annual appropriations bills for each of FY2008, FY2009, and FY2010 and analyzes the data without additions or deletions. For individual earmarks, the disclosures typically identify the federal agency, project name, amount, and requester. In some cases, other information also has been included, such as an account within an agency, or the purpose or location of the earmark. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503721/
The Global Climate Change Initiative (GCCI): Budget Authority and Request, FY2010-FY2016
This report serves as a brief overview of the Global Climate Change Initiative (GCCI) and its structure, intents, and funding history. The GCCI aims to integrate climate change considerations into U.S. foreign assistance through a range of bilateral, multilateral, and private sector mechanisms to promote sustainable and climate-resilient societies, foster low-carbon economic growth, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and land degradation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503718/
FY2011 Budget Documents: Internet and GPO Availability
This report provides brief descriptions of the budget volumes and related documents, together with Internet addresses, Government Printing Office (GPO) stock numbers, and prices to obtain these publications. It also tells how to find locations of government depository libraries, which can provide both printed copies for reference use and Internet access to the text. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503453/
Navy F/A-18E/F and EA-18G Aircraft Procurement and Strike Fighter Shortfall: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the Navy's proposed FY2011 budget requests (about $1.8 billion) for the procurement of 22 F/A- 18E/F Super Hornet strike fighters and about $1.0 billion for the procurement of 12 EA-18G Growler electric attack aircraft. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503467/
Defense Authorization and Appropriations Bills: FY1970-FY2015
This report is a research aid which lists the Department of Defense authorization bills and appropriations bills for FY1970-FY2015. This report includes all the pertinent information on the passage of these bills through the legislative process: bill numbers, report numbers, dates reported and passed, recorded vote numbers and vote tallies, dates of passage of the conference reports with their numbers and votes, vetoes, substitutions, dates of final passage, and public law numbers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503495/
Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt
This report presents current data on estimated ownership of U.S. Treasury securities and major holders of federal debt by country. Federal debt represents the accumulated balance of borrowing by the federal government. To finance federal borrowing, U.S. Treasury securities are sold to investors, directly from the Treasury or on the secondary market to individual private investors, financial institutions in the United States or overseas, and foreign, state, or local governments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503401/
Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) and Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC): Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses issues surrounding the funding for development of Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) and Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC). A potential issue for Congress is the Marines' new MPC/ACV acquisition strategy and its associated challenges and risks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503442/
Interim Continuing Resolutions (CRs): Potential Impacts on Agency Operations
This report discusses how an interim continuing resolutions (CRs), provisions and requirements may impact directly upon an agency. Second, the report analyzes Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and agency documents that have provided guidance or requirements for how an agency should navigate through periods of interim CRs. Third, the report analyzes brief mentions of claims of impact contained in Government Accountability Office (GAO) reports from a 20-year span. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503515/
Congressional Action on FY2015 Appropriations Measures
This report provides information on the budget enforcement framework for the consideration of FY2015 appropriations measures, the status of the FY2015 regular appropriations bills as of the beginning of the fiscal year, and the enactment of FY2015 continuing appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503576/
The Nunn-McCurdy Act: Background, Analysis, and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the debate regarding the effectiveness of the Nunn-McCurdy Act, which requires the Department of Defense (DOD) to report to Congress whenever a major defense acquisition program experiences cost overruns that exceed certain thresholds. The purpose of the act was to help control cost growth in major defense systems by holding the appropriate Pentagon officials and defense contractors publicly accountable and responsible for managing costs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503557/
Economic Effects of a Budget Deficit Exceeding $1 Trillion
This report evaluates questions regarding whether the current deficit is manageable and what effects it will have on the economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503296/
Interest Payments on the Federal Debt: A Primer
This report provides a brief overview of the federal debt and net interest payments. Of the three broad categories of federal spending, the only category that cannot be reduced by legislative action is net interest payments. The report provides information about federal debt, interest payments on the federal dept, and determinants of net interest payments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503578/
Biennial Budgeting: Options, Issues, and Previous Congressional Action
This report provides background on options, issues, and previous congressional action related to biennial budgeting. It includes descriptions of the types of biennial budgeting, general arguments favoring and opposing biennial budgeting, biennial budgeting at the state level, and relevant Congressional actions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503554/
Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses issues Congress faces regarding the Navy's proposed FY2011 budget, particularly as relating to destroyer procurement plans and programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503533/
House Committee Funding Requests and Authorizations, 104th-113th Congresses
This report describes the House Committee funding process provides tables for each of the Congresses from the 104th through the 113th containing committee funding requests and authorizations as adopted pursuant to primary expense authorizations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503529/
Defense Logistical Support Contracts in Iraq and Afghanistan: Issues for Congress
This report examines logistical support contracts for troop support services (also known as service contracts) in Iraq and Afghanistan, primarily administered through a smaller program, the United States Air Force Contract Augmentation Program (AFCAP) and a larger program, the United States Army's Logistics Civil Augmentation Program (LOGCAP). It focuses on contracts involving Department of Defense (DOD) appropriated funds, although some projects involve a blending of funds from other agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503596/
Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Navy's Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) and Zumwalt (DDG-1000) class destroyer programs. The Navy's proposed FY2015 budget requests funding for the procurement of two DDG-51s. Decisions that Congress makes concerning these programs could substantially affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503597/
The Economics of the Federal Budget Deficit
This report examines the economics the budget deficit. Topics include recent budgetary history, the differences made by deficits and surpluses, and fiscal policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503559/
Limiting Central Government Budget Deficits: International Experiences
This report focuses on how major developed and emerging-market country governments, particularly the G-20 and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, limit their fiscal deficits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503498/
Mandatory Spending Since 1962
This report looks at mandatory spending and how it has grown over time relative to total federal spending and the size of the U.S. economy. It also analyzes future mandatory spending levels and how they are projected to impact the federal budget. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503489/
Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA): Issues and Options for Congress
This report provides background information about the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) system, describes the major issues WMATA currently faces, and discusses possible approaches for addressing these issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503459/
Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Virginia-class nuclear-powered attack submarine (SSN) program. The Navy's proposed FY2015 budget requests $5,883.6 million in procurement, advance procurement (AP), and Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) funding for the program. Decisions that Congress makes on procurement of Virginia-class boats could substantially affect U.S. Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503402/
Federal Grants to State and Local Governments: A Historical Perspective on Contemporary Issues
This report provides a historical synopsis of the evolving nature of the federal grants-in-aid system, focusing on the role Congress has played in defining the system's scope and nature. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503336/
Air Force KC-X Tanker Aircraft Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses issues for Congress in FY2011, which are whether to approve, reject, or modify DOD's new KC-X competition strategy, and whether to approve, reject, or modify the Air Force's request for FY2011 research and development funding for the new KC-X program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503323/
Interest Payments on the Federal Debt: A Primer
This report provides a brief overview of the federal debt and net interest payments. Of the three broad categories of federal spending, the only category that cannot be reduced by legislative action is net interest payments. The report provides information about federal debt, interest payments on the federal dept, and determinants of net interest payments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503358/
Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process
This report summarizes the points of order currently in effect under the Congressional Budget Act of 1974, as amended, as well as related points of order established in various other measures that have a direct impact on budget enforcement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503373/
USCIS Funding and Accountability to Congress
This report briefly discusses funding for U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), an agency within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). USCIS handles many immigration administration functions, the most prominent of which is processing and adjudicating immigrant petitions and applications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503353/
Climate Change Adaptation by Federal Agencies: An Analysis of Plans and Issues for Congress
This report reviews current actions (as of January 2015) of selected federal departments and agencies to adapt their own missions, infrastructure, operations, and personnel to projected climate change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503379/
Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview
This report presents figures showing trends in discretionary budget authority as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) by subfunction within each of 17 budget function categories, using data from President Obama's FY2016 budget submission. This report provides a graphical overview of historical trends in discretionary budget authority from FY1977 through FY2014, estimates for FY2015 spending, and the levels consistent with the President's proposals for FY2016 through FY2020. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503380/
Points of Order Limiting the Contents of Reconciliation Legislation: In Brief
This report discusses the Budget Act that provides an optional expedited procedure for considering legislation in the Senate, called reconciliation, which was first used in 1980. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503399/
The Technology Innovation Program
This report discusses the Technology Innovation Program (TIP) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), which is designed "to support, promote, and accelerate innovation in the United States through high-risk, high-reward research in areas of critical national need," according to the authorizing legislation. Grants are provided to small and medium-sized firms for individual projects or joint ventures with other research organizations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503312/
Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential issues for Congress on the Navy's irregular warfare (IW) and counterterrorism (CT) operations. The Navy's IW and CT activities pose a number of potential oversight issues for Congress, including the definition of Navy IW activities and how much emphasis to place on IW and CT activities in future Navy budgets. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503342/
The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases
This report discusses how the total debt of the federal government can increase, an historical overview of debt limits, and how the current economic slowdown has led to higher deficits and thereby a series of debt limit increases, as well as legislation related to these increases. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503326/
FY2011 Budget Proposals and Projections
This report provides an overview of major budget estimates and projections for the FY2011 federal budget cycle. The report presents and compares budget projections calculated by the Obama Administration's Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the Congressional Budget Office (CBO). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503314/
Military Base Closures: Socioeconomic Impacts
The most recent Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission submitted its final report to the Administration on September 8, 2005. In the report, the commission rejected 13 of the initial Department of Defense recommendations, significantly modified the recommendations for 13 other installations, and approved 22 major closures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503364/
The Magnitude of Changes That Would Be Required to Balance the FY2011 Budget
This report lays out generic scenarios for balancing the budget in the next fiscal year. Although these are not policy options that are likely to be enacted, they are meant to offer simple examples to gauge the scope of tradeoffs that would be required if policymakers eventually decide to bring the budget back to balance. If changes are postponed or stretched over a longer time period, they would need to be larger because of higher debt service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503317/
The Federal Government Debt: Its Size and Economic Significance
This report explains the different measures of the U.S. government debt, discusses the historical growth in the debt, identifies the current owners of the debt, presents comparisons with government debt in other countries, and examines the potential economic risks associated with a growing federal debt. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503316/
Defense Logistical Support Contracts in Iraq and Afghanistan: Issues for Congress
This report examines logistical support contracts for troop support services in Iraq and Afghanistan administered through the U.S. Army's Logistics Civil Augmentation Program (LOGCAP). LOGCAP is an initiative designed to manage the use of civilian contractors that perform services during times of war and other military mobilizations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503327/
Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund: Programs and Policy Issues
This report begins by describing the Community Development Financial Institutions Fund's (Fund's) history, current appropriations, and each of its programs. The next section of the report analyzes four policy considerations of congressional interest, regarding the Fund and the effective use of federal resources to promote economic development. Lastly, this report examines the Fund's programs and management to see if they represent an effective and efficient government effort to promote economic development in low-income and distressed communities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503507/
Trends in Discretionary Spending
This report discusses historical, current, and projected discretionary spending trends. It also describes how current discretionary spending trends reflect national priorities. Discretionary spending is provided in, and controlled by, annual appropriations acts, which fund many of the routine activities commonly associated with such federal government functions as running executive branch agencies, congressional offices and agencies, and international operations of the government. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503575/
Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Navy's Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate program, a program to procure 52 LCSs and frigates. The first ship in the program was procured in FY2005, and a total of 23 have been procured through FY2015. The Navy's proposed FY2016 budget requests $1,437.0 million for the procurement of three more LCSs, or an average of $479.0 million each. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503509/