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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations

Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations

Date: February 2, 2012
Creator: Zanotti, Jim
Description: Congress has an active role to play in shaping and overseeing U.S. relations with Turkey, and several Turkish domestic and foreign policy issues have significant relevance for U.S. interests. This report provides background information on Turkey and discusses possible policy options for Members of Congress and the Obama Administration. U.S. relations with Turkey—a longtime North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) ally—have evolved over time as global challenges to U.S. interests have changed. Turkey's economic dynamism and geopolitical importance—it straddles Europe, the Middle East, and Central Asia and now has the world's 16th-largest economy—have increased its influence regionally and globally.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress

Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: February 7, 2012
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report gives an overview of the situation in the Arctic region. The diminishment of Arctic sea ice has led to increased human activities in the Arctic, and has heightened interest in, and concerns about, the region's future. The United States, by virtue of Alaska, is an Arctic country and has substantial interests in the region. The Arctic has increasingly become a subject of discussion among political leaders of the nations in the region. In varying degrees, the Arctic coastal states have indicated a willingness to establish and maintain a military presence in the high north. U.S. military forces, particularly the Navy and Coast Guard, have begun to pay more attention to the region.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Future of the Eurozone and U.S. Interests

The Future of the Eurozone and U.S. Interests

Date: January 17, 2012
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J.
Description: Seventeen of the European Union's 27 member states share an economic and monetary union (EMU) with the euro as a single currency. These countries are effectively referred to as the Eurozone. What has become known as the Eurozone crisis began in early 2010 when financial markets were shaken by heightened concerns that the fiscal positions of a number of Eurozone countries, beginning with Greece, were unsustainable. This report provides background information and analysis on the future of the Eurozone in six parts, including discussions on the origins and design challenges of the Eurozone, proposals to define the Eurozone crisis, possible scenarios for the future of the Eurozone, and the implications of the Eurozone crisis for U.S. economic and political interests.
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The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions

The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions

Date: February 14, 2012
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Description: The United States and Russia signed a new strategic arms reduction treaty - known as New START - on April 8, 2010. This treaty is designed to replace the 1991 Strategic Arms Reductions Treaty (START), which expired, after 15 years of implementation, on December 5, 2009. This report provides an overview of New START, including a comparison to the original START Treaty, the belief of the Obama Administration and outside analysts that New START will enhance U.S. national security, and the criticisms of those who say that New START (and, indeed, the entire issue of U.S.-Russian arms control) is a distraction from more important items on the nonproliferation agenda.
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Cyprus: Reunification Proving Elusive

Cyprus: Reunification Proving Elusive

Date: February 22, 2012
Creator: Morelli, Vincent
Description: Attempts to resolve the political division of Cyprus and reunify the island have undergone various levels of negotiation for over 45 years. The United States Congress continues to maintain its interest in a resolution of the Cyprus issue. Language expressing continued support for the negotiation process had been included in the House FY2012 Foreign Assistance Authorization bill. The chairman of the House Europe Subcommittee also led a delegation to Cyprus during a late 2011 recess to assess the peace process. This report provides a brief overview of the early history of the negotiations, a more detailed review of the negotiations since 2008, and a description of some of the issues involved in the talks.
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Civilian Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act: Federal Contractor Criminal Liability Overseas

Civilian Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act: Federal Contractor Criminal Liability Overseas

Date: February 15, 2012
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Description: The United States government uses hundreds of thousands of civilian contractors and employees overseas. They and their dependents are often subject to local prosecution for the crimes they commit abroad. Whether by agreement, practice, or circumstance—sometimes they are not. This report looks at two bills that would supplement the Military Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act (MEJA), which permits federal persecution of certain crimes commuted abroad by Defense Department civilian employees, contractors, or their dependents. These two bills are the Civilian Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act (CEJA) and S.1145.
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Internet Governance and the Domain Name System: Issues for Congress

Internet Governance and the Domain Name System: Issues for Congress

Date: February 9, 2012
Creator: Kruger, Lennard G.
Description: As the Internet grows and becomes more pervasive in all aspects of modern society, the question of how it should be governed becomes more pressing. Currently, an important aspect of the Internet is governed by a private sector, international organization called the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), which manages and oversees some of the critical technical underpinnings of the Internet such as the domain name system and Internet Protocol (IP) addressing. ICANN makes its policy decisions using a multistakeholder model of governance, whereby a “bottom-up” collaborative process is open to all constituencies of Internet stakeholders. A key issue for Congress is whether and how the U.S. government should continue to maximize U.S. influence over ICANN's multistakeholder Internet governance process, while at the same time effectively resisting proposals for an increased role by international governmental institutions such as the U.N. The outcome of this debate will likely have a significant impact on how other aspects of the Internet may be governed in the future, especially in such areas as intellectual property, privacy, law enforcement, Internet free speech, and cybersecurity. Looking forward, the institutional nature of Internet governance could have far reaching implications on important policy decisions that will ...
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The Project BioShield Act: Issues for the 112th Congress

The Project BioShield Act: Issues for the 112th Congress

Date: February 8, 2012
Creator: Gottron, Frank
Description: This report discusses the Project BioShield Act (P.L. 108-276), In 2004, passed by Congress to encourage the private sector to develop medical countermeasures against chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) terrorism agents and to provide a novel mechanism for federal acquisition of those newly developed countermeasures. This law provides three main authorities: (1) relaxing regulatory requirements for some CBRN terrorism-related spending, including hiring personnel and awarding research grants; (2) guaranteeing a federal market for new CBRN medical countermeasures; and (3) permitting emergency use of unapproved countermeasures.
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The Federal Budget: Issues for FY2013 and Beyond

The Federal Budget: Issues for FY2013 and Beyond

Date: February 17, 2012
Creator: Levit, Mindy R.
Description: The federal budget is central to Congress's ability to exercise its “power of the purse.” Over the last several fiscal years the imbalance between spending and revenues has grown as a result of the economic downturn and policies enacted in response to financial turmoil. This report looks at ways in which Congress and the Obama Administration have acted in order to reduce US budgetary issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Land Ownership: Overview and Data

Federal Land Ownership: Overview and Data

Date: February 8, 2012
Creator: Gorte, Ross W.
Description: Numerous issues affecting federal land management are before Congress. They include the extent of federal ownership, and whether to decrease, maintain, or increase the amount of federal holdings; the condition of currently owned federal infrastructure and lands, and the priority of their maintenance versus new acquisitions; the optimal balance between land use and protection, and whether federal lands should be managed primarily to produce national or local benefits; and border control on federal lands along the southwest border.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department