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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Year: 2010
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Congressional Member Organizations: Their Purpose and Activities, History, and Formation

Congressional Member Organizations: Their Purpose and Activities, History, and Formation

Date: June 28, 2010
Creator: Dilger, Robert Jay
Description: This report examines the purpose and activities of CMOs and the reasons Members form them. It also identifies and describes seven CMO types, and it provides an overview of the historical development of informal Member organizations since the first Congress, focusing on their regulation in the House by the Committee on House Oversight/Committee on House Administration, the rise and fall of legislative service organizations, and the House’s decision in 1995 to issue regulations for establishing CMOs and governing their behavior. It concludes with a step-by-step guide for House Members and staff who might be interested in forming a CMO. Many of the steps in the guide may be of interest to Senators and their staff who are considering forming an informal Member group in the Senate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Party Leaders in the House: Election, Duties, and Responsibilities

Party Leaders in the House: Election, Duties, and Responsibilities

Date: July 14, 2010
Creator: Heitshusen, Valerie
Description: Each major party in the House has a leadership hierarchy. This report summarizes the election, duties, and responsibilities of the Speaker of the House, the majority and minority leaders, and the whips and whip system.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Salaries of Members of Congress: Congressional Votes, 1990-2010

Salaries of Members of Congress: Congressional Votes, 1990-2010

Date: February 22, 2010
Creator: Brudnick, Ida A.
Description: The U.S. Constitution, in Article I, Section 6, authorizes compensation for Members of Congress "ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States." Throughout American history, Congress has relied on three different methods in adjusting salaries for Members. Standalone legislation was last used to provide increases in 1990 and 1991. It was the only method used by Congress for many years. The second method, under which annual adjustments took effect automatically unless disapproved by Congress, was established in 1975. A third method for adjusting Member pay is congressional action pursuant to recommendations from the President, based on the recommendations of the Citizens' Commission on Public Service and Compensation established in the 1989 Ethics Reform Act.
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Salaries of Members of Congress: Recent Actions and Historical Tables

Salaries of Members of Congress: Recent Actions and Historical Tables

Date: January 12, 2010
Creator: Brudnick, Ida A.
Description: This report contains information on the pay procedure and recent adjustments. It also contains historical information on the rate of pay for Members of Congress since 1789; the adjustments projected by the Ethics Reform Act as compared to actual adjustments in Member pay; details on past legislation enacted with language prohibiting the annual pay adjustment; and Member pay in constant and current dollars since 1992.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Membership of the 111th Congress: A Profile

Membership of the 111th Congress: A Profile

Date: December 27, 2010
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E.
Description: This report presents a profile of the membership of the 111th Congress. Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age and length of service, occupation, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service.
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Membership of the 111th Congress: A Profile

Membership of the 111th Congress: A Profile

Date: February 12, 2010
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E.
Description: This report presents a profile of the membership of the 111th Congress. Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age and length of service, occupation, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Impeachment: An Overview of Constitutional Provisions, Procedure, and Practice

Impeachment: An Overview of Constitutional Provisions, Procedure, and Practice

Date: December 9, 2010
Creator: Bazan, Elizabeth B.
Description: The American impeachment process places in the legislative branch the authority to remove the President, Vice President, and other federal civil officers in the executive and judicial branches upon a determination that such officers have engaged in treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. It is one of the checks and balances grounded in the American constitutional structure. This report summarizes impeachment proceedings in the 111th Congress, examines relevant constitutional provisions, and provides a brief historical overview.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Finance: Potential Legislative and Policy Issues for the 111th Congress

Campaign Finance: Potential Legislative and Policy Issues for the 111th Congress

Date: November 3, 2010
Creator: Garrett, R. S.
Description: This report provides an overview of selected campaign finance policy issues that have received recent legislative attention, or have otherwise been prominent, and which could receive attention during the 111th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Amendments Between the Houses: Procedural Options and Effects

Amendments Between the Houses: Procedural Options and Effects

Date: January 4, 2010
Creator: Rybicki, Elizabeth
Description: This report explains the procedural options for resolving differences through amendments between the houses, and to discuss the procedural effects of resolving differences through this process as an alternative to conference committee.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2009

African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2009

Date: February 2, 2010
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E. & Shogan, Colleen J.
Description: This report discusses the history and current status of African Americans in Congress. There are 42 African American Members serving in the 111th Congress, 41 in the House of Representatives and one in the Senate. There have been 125 African American Members of Congress: 119 have been elected to the House; five have been elected to the Senate; and one has been appointed to the Senate. There have been 98 Democrats: 95 in the House, three in the Senate; and 27 Republicans: 24 in the House, three in the Senate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Budget Enforcement Procedures: Senate Pay- As-You-Go (PAYGO) Rule

Budget Enforcement Procedures: Senate Pay- As-You-Go (PAYGO) Rule

Date: January 12, 2010
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Description: This report discusses the Senate pay-as-you-go, or PAYGO, rule which generally requires that any legislation projected to increase direct spending or reduce revenues must also include equivalent amounts of direct spending cuts, revenue increases, or a combination of the two, so that the legislation does not increase the on-budget deficit over a six-year period and an 11-year period.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
NATO Enlargement: Senate Advice and Consent

NATO Enlargement: Senate Advice and Consent

Date: January 15, 2010
Creator: Garcia, Michael John
Description: This report describes the provisions of the North Atlantic Treaty and of the original Senate debate in 1949 pertinent to enlargement and the procedures that have been followed for each subsequent enlargement proposal. It also discusses what the Senate did with respect to the reunification of Germany in 1990 and the implications of that event for Germany's membership in NATO.
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Congressional Oversight of Intelligence: Current Structure and Alternatives

Congressional Oversight of Intelligence: Current Structure and Alternatives

Date: January 25, 2010
Creator: Kaiser, Frederick M.
Description: This report describes the current select committees on intelligence; characteristics and a model for a possible joint committee; recent actions by Congress; and obstacles affecting legislative oversight in the field.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies: FY2010 Appropriations

Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies: FY2010 Appropriations

Date: February 4, 2010
Creator: Else, Daniel H.; Scott, Christine & Panangala, Sidath V.
Description: This report discusses the President's Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 budget request for the Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies appropriations bill, which provides funding for the planning, design, construction, alteration, and improvement of facilities used by active and reserve military components worldwide.
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Department of Defense "Section 1207" Security and Stabilization Assistance: Background and Congressional Concerns

Department of Defense "Section 1207" Security and Stabilization Assistance: Background and Congressional Concerns

Date: February 4, 2010
Creator: Serafino, Nina M.
Description: This report discusses the section 1207 of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2006 that provides authority for the Department of Defense (DOD) to transfer to the State Department up to $100 million per fiscal year in defense articles, services, training, or other support for reconstruction, stabilization, and security activities in foreign countries. The 111th Congress must decide whether to extend Section 1207, which expires on September 30, 2009. This report discusses what issues Congress must take into consideration when making this decision.
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The Role of the Senate in Judicial Impeachment Proceedings: Procedure, Practice, and Data

The Role of the Senate in Judicial Impeachment Proceedings: Procedure, Practice, and Data

Date: April 9, 2010
Creator: Navarro Smelcer, Susan
Description: This report examines the history, practice, and procedures of the Senate in fulfilling its constitutional obligation to try and to vote whether to convict and impose judgment upon judges impeached by the House of Representatives. It includes an overview of the process, and sections that discuss rules governing Senate impeachment proceedings, organizing the Senate for trial, the role of the Presiding Officer, the use of an impeachment trial committee, deliberation and judgment by the full senate, length of Senate impeachment trials, and concluding observations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Oversight of Intelligence: Current Structure and Alternatives

Congressional Oversight of Intelligence: Current Structure and Alternatives

Date: March 29, 2010
Creator: Kaiser, Frederick M.
Description: This report describes the Select Committees on Intelligence and then the former Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, often cited as a model for a counterpart on intelligence. The study also sets forth proposed characteristics for a joint committee on intelligence, differences among these, and their pros and cons.
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Speed of Presidential and Senate Actions on Supreme Court Nominations, 1900-2010

Speed of Presidential and Senate Actions on Supreme Court Nominations, 1900-2010

Date: April 21, 2010
Creator: Garrett, R. Sam & Rutkus, Denis Steven
Description: This report provides information on the amount of time taken to act on all Supreme Court nominations occurring between 1900 and 2010. It focuses on the actual amounts of time that Presidents and the Senate have taken to act after learning about vacancies, selections, etc. (as opposed to the elapsed time between official points in the process).
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House Committee Markups: Manual of Procedures and Procedural Strategies

House Committee Markups: Manual of Procedures and Procedural Strategies

Date: February 25, 2010
Creator: Koempel, Michael L. & Schneider, Judy
Description: This manual examines procedures and strategy related to committee markups and provides sample procedural scripts.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Protection of Classified Information by Congress: Practices and Proposals

Protection of Classified Information by Congress: Practices and Proposals

Date: January 27, 2010
Creator: Kaiser, Frederick M.
Description: This report discusses safeguards in place to protect controlled information and proposals for change of some of the mechanisms in place. Congress uses classified national security and other controlled information to fulfill its constitutional responsibilities, particularly overseeing the executive, appropriating funds, and legislating public policy.
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Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress

Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress

Date: February 18, 2010
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report discusses the Navy's plans regarding the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS). The LCS is a relatively inexpensive Navy surface combatant equipped with modular "plug-and-fight" mission packages. The Navy wants to field a force of 55 LCSs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nigeria

Nigeria

Date: February 12, 2010
Creator: Ploch, Lauren
Description: This report discusses the political climate, development challenges and reform in Nigeria. The report also considers the social issues and security concerns of Nigeria. In addition, other issues are mentioned, as Congress provides oversight for over $600 million in U.S. foreign assistance programs to Nigeria.
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The Military Commissions Act of 2009: Overview and Legal Issues

The Military Commissions Act of 2009: Overview and Legal Issues

Date: April 6, 2010
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K.
Description: This report provides a background and analysis comparing military commissions as envisioned under the revised Military Commissions Act (MCA) to those established in 2006. After reviewing the history of the implementation of military commissions in the "global war on terrorism," the report provides an overview of the procedural safeguards provided in the MCA. Finally, the report provides two tables comparing the MCA as amended by the MCA 2009 to the original MCA enacted in 2006 and to general courts-martial.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress

Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress

Date: April 8, 2010
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report provides background information and potential issues for Congress on the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS), a relatively inexpensive Navy surface combatant equipped with modular "plug-and-fight" mission packages. The Navy's proposed FY2012 budget requests funding for the procurement of four LCSs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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