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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Year: 2010
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Congressional Member Organizations: Their Purpose and Activities, History, and Formation

Congressional Member Organizations: Their Purpose and Activities, History, and Formation

Date: June 28, 2010
Creator: Dilger, Robert Jay
Description: This report examines the purpose and activities of CMOs and the reasons Members form them. It also identifies and describes seven CMO types, and it provides an overview of the historical development of informal Member organizations since the first Congress, focusing on their regulation in the House by the Committee on House Oversight/Committee on House Administration, the rise and fall of legislative service organizations, and the House’s decision in 1995 to issue regulations for establishing CMOs and governing their behavior. It concludes with a step-by-step guide for House Members and staff who might be interested in forming a CMO. Many of the steps in the guide may be of interest to Senators and their staff who are considering forming an informal Member group in the Senate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Party Leaders in the House: Election, Duties, and Responsibilities

Party Leaders in the House: Election, Duties, and Responsibilities

Date: July 14, 2010
Creator: Heitshusen, Valerie
Description: Each major party in the House has a leadership hierarchy. This report summarizes the election, duties, and responsibilities of the Speaker of the House, the majority and minority leaders, and the whips and whip system.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Salaries of Members of Congress: Recent Actions and Historical Tables

Salaries of Members of Congress: Recent Actions and Historical Tables

Date: January 12, 2010
Creator: Brudnick, Ida A.
Description: This report contains information on the pay procedure and recent adjustments. It also contains historical information on the rate of pay for Members of Congress since 1789; the adjustments projected by the Ethics Reform Act as compared to actual adjustments in Member pay; details on past legislation enacted with language prohibiting the annual pay adjustment; and Member pay in constant and current dollars since 1992.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Salaries of Members of Congress: Congressional Votes, 1990-2010

Salaries of Members of Congress: Congressional Votes, 1990-2010

Date: February 22, 2010
Creator: Brudnick, Ida A.
Description: The U.S. Constitution, in Article I, Section 6, authorizes compensation for Members of Congress "ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States." Throughout American history, Congress has relied on three different methods in adjusting salaries for Members. Standalone legislation was last used to provide increases in 1990 and 1991. It was the only method used by Congress for many years. The second method, under which annual adjustments took effect automatically unless disapproved by Congress, was established in 1975. A third method for adjusting Member pay is congressional action pursuant to recommendations from the President, based on the recommendations of the Citizens' Commission on Public Service and Compensation established in the 1989 Ethics Reform Act.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Amendments Between the Houses: Procedural Options and Effects

Amendments Between the Houses: Procedural Options and Effects

Date: January 4, 2010
Creator: Rybicki, Elizabeth
Description: This report explains the procedural options for resolving differences through amendments between the houses, and to discuss the procedural effects of resolving differences through this process as an alternative to conference committee.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2009

African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2009

Date: February 2, 2010
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E. & Shogan, Colleen J.
Description: This report discusses the history and current status of African Americans in Congress. There are 42 African American Members serving in the 111th Congress, 41 in the House of Representatives and one in the Senate. There have been 125 African American Members of Congress: 119 have been elected to the House; five have been elected to the Senate; and one has been appointed to the Senate. There have been 98 Democrats: 95 in the House, three in the Senate; and 27 Republicans: 24 in the House, three in the Senate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Budget Enforcement Procedures: Senate Pay- As-You-Go (PAYGO) Rule

Budget Enforcement Procedures: Senate Pay- As-You-Go (PAYGO) Rule

Date: January 12, 2010
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Description: This report discusses the Senate pay-as-you-go, or PAYGO, rule which generally requires that any legislation projected to increase direct spending or reduce revenues must also include equivalent amounts of direct spending cuts, revenue increases, or a combination of the two, so that the legislation does not increase the on-budget deficit over a six-year period and an 11-year period.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
NATO Enlargement: Senate Advice and Consent

NATO Enlargement: Senate Advice and Consent

Date: January 15, 2010
Creator: Garcia, Michael John
Description: This report describes the provisions of the North Atlantic Treaty and of the original Senate debate in 1949 pertinent to enlargement and the procedures that have been followed for each subsequent enlargement proposal. It also discusses what the Senate did with respect to the reunification of Germany in 1990 and the implications of that event for Germany's membership in NATO.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Oversight of Intelligence: Current Structure and Alternatives

Congressional Oversight of Intelligence: Current Structure and Alternatives

Date: January 25, 2010
Creator: Kaiser, Frederick M.
Description: This report describes the current select committees on intelligence; characteristics and a model for a possible joint committee; recent actions by Congress; and obstacles affecting legislative oversight in the field.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies: FY2010 Appropriations

Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies: FY2010 Appropriations

Date: February 4, 2010
Creator: Else, Daniel H.; Scott, Christine & Panangala, Sidath V.
Description: This report discusses the President's Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 budget request for the Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies appropriations bill, which provides funding for the planning, design, construction, alteration, and improvement of facilities used by active and reserve military components worldwide.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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