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 Country: United States
 Decade: 2010-2019
 Year: 2010
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC): An Overview

The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC): An Overview

Date: December 15, 2010
Creator: Scott, Christine
Description: This report discusses the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC or EIC) program which began in 1975 as a temporary and small (6.2 million recipients) program to reduce the tax burden on working low-income families.
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Public Health, Workforce, Quality, and Related Provisions in H.R. 3590, as Passed by the Senate

Public Health, Workforce, Quality, and Related Provisions in H.R. 3590, as Passed by the Senate

Date: March 1, 2010
Creator: Redhead, C. Stephen & Williams, Erin D.
Description: This report summarizes the workforce, prevention, quality, and related provisions in H.R. 3590, as passed by the Senate. It begins with some background on health care delivery reform, followed by an overview of the report’s content and organization
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Long-Term Care (LTC): Financing Overview and Issues for Congress

Long-Term Care (LTC): Financing Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: February 1, 2010
Creator: Stone, Julie
Description: This report provides an overview of long-term care (LTC) and an explanation of the nation’s complex financing system of public and private payers. It also describes some of the major challenges facing Congress as it contemplates LTC reform and whether and how to include LTC in health reform legislation.
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Proposed Import Restrictions on Milk Protein Concentrates (MPCs)

Proposed Import Restrictions on Milk Protein Concentrates (MPCs)

Date: January 12, 2010
Creator: Shields, Dennis A. & Hanrahan, Charles E.
Description: Low farm milk prices and declining dairy sector income in 2009 have renewed congressional interest in imposing new import barriers on milk protein concentrates (MPCs), which generally include casein, the main protein found in milk, and caseinates, a soluble form of casein. This report examines proposed import restrictions and potential trade policy implications.
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Oil Spills in U.S. Coastal Waters: Background and Governance

Oil Spills in U.S. Coastal Waters: Background and Governance

Date: September 2, 2010
Creator: Ramseur, Jonathan L.
Description: This report provides background information regarding oil spills in U.S. coastal waters and identifies the legal authorities governing oil spill prevention, response, and cleanup. Based on data between 1973 and 2009, the annual number and volume of oil spills have shown declines- in some cases, dramatic declines.
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Greenhouse Gas Emission Drivers: Population, Economic Development and Growth, and Energy Use

Greenhouse Gas Emission Drivers: Population, Economic Development and Growth, and Energy Use

Date: March 5, 2010
Creator: Blodgett, John & Parker, Larry
Description: The interactions of three variables underlie debates on the issue of climate change and what responses might be justified: the magnitude and rates of change of (1) population growth, (2) incomes, and (3) intensity of greenhouse gas emissions relative to economic activities. This report examines the interrelationships of the variables to explore their implications for policies that address climate change.
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Housing for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS

Housing for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS

Date: January 21, 2010
Creator: Perl, Libby
Description: This report discusses the creation of the Housing Opportunities for Persons with AIDS (HOPWA) Program, which was created to alleviate the difficulties that many individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have finding affordable, stable housing. It also looks at distributions of HOPWA funds, including eligibility and eligible uses for such funding.
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Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY1998-FY2009

Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY1998-FY2009

Date: January 27, 2010
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: This report shows in tabular form how much the Administration requested and how much Congress appropriated during the past 11 years for U.S. payments to the multilateral development banks (MDBs). It also provides a brief description of the MDBs and the ways they fund their operations.
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The State of Campaign Finance Policy: Recent Developments and Issues for Congress

The State of Campaign Finance Policy: Recent Developments and Issues for Congress

Date: December 21, 2010
Creator: Garrett, R. S.
Description: The report discusses selected litigation to demonstrate how those events have changed the campaign finance landscape and affected the policy issues that may confront Congress, but it is not a constitutional or legal analysis. Finally, campaign finance data appear throughout the report.
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Self-Insured Health Insurance Coverage

Self-Insured Health Insurance Coverage

Date: June 25, 2010
Creator: Fernandez, Bernadette
Description: This report provides background information on private health insurance coverage, state and federal regulation of private coverage, and self-insured health plans. It includes data on the prevalence of self-insurance and discusses the employer decision to self-insure. Lastly, it describes selected private health insurance provisions under federal health reform, and application of such provisions on self-insured plans.
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Self-Insured Health Insurance Coverage

Self-Insured Health Insurance Coverage

Date: May 12, 2010
Creator: Fernandez, Bernadette
Description: This report provides background information on private health insurance coverage, state and federal regulation of private coverage, and self-insured health plans. It includes data on the prevalence of self-insurance and discusses the employer decision to self-insure. Lastly, it describes selected private health insurance provisions under federal health reform, and application of such provisions on self-insured plans.
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Mountaintop Mining: Background on Current Controversies

Mountaintop Mining: Background on Current Controversies

Date: April 12, 2010
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report provides background on regulatory requirements, controversies and legal challenges to mountaintop mining, and recent Administration actions. Congressional interest in these issues also is discussed, including legislation in the 111th Congress seeking to restrict the practice of mountaintop mining and other legislation intended to block the Obama Administration’s regulatory actions.
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Congressional Member Organizations: Their Purpose and Activities, History, and Formation

Congressional Member Organizations: Their Purpose and Activities, History, and Formation

Date: June 28, 2010
Creator: Dilger, Robert Jay
Description: This report examines the purpose and activities of CMOs and the reasons Members form them. It also identifies and describes seven CMO types, and it provides an overview of the historical development of informal Member organizations since the first Congress, focusing on their regulation in the House by the Committee on House Oversight/Committee on House Administration, the rise and fall of legislative service organizations, and the House’s decision in 1995 to issue regulations for establishing CMOs and governing their behavior. It concludes with a step-by-step guide for House Members and staff who might be interested in forming a CMO. Many of the steps in the guide may be of interest to Senators and their staff who are considering forming an informal Member group in the Senate.
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Party Leaders in the House: Election, Duties, and Responsibilities

Party Leaders in the House: Election, Duties, and Responsibilities

Date: July 14, 2010
Creator: Heitshusen, Valerie
Description: Each major party in the House has a leadership hierarchy. This report summarizes the election, duties, and responsibilities of the Speaker of the House, the majority and minority leaders, and the whips and whip system.
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Gray Wolves Under the Endangered Species Act: Distinct Population Segments and Experimental Populations

Gray Wolves Under the Endangered Species Act: Distinct Population Segments and Experimental Populations

Date: August 10, 2010
Creator: Alexander, Kristina & Corn, M. L.
Description: This report analyzes the DPS designation process as it is applied to the gray wolf. It also examines experimental populations of wolves under the ESA and their protections. As part of its oversight responsibilities, Congress has conducted hearings on the Fish and Wildlife Service’s application of science to endangered species.
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Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis

Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis

Date: December 16, 2010
Creator: Staman, Jennifer; Brougher, Cynthia; Liu, Edward C.; Lunder, Erika K. & Thomas, Kenneth R.
Description: This report first analyzes the authority of Congress to enact the minimum essential coverage requirement contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), as well as how a court might analyze this provision if challenged based on various provisions of the Fifth and Tenth Amendments. This report discusses whether there must be exceptions to a requirement to purchase health insurance based on First Amendment freedom of religion, and finally, discusses some of the legal challenges to this federal requirement.
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Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis

Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis

Date: May 7, 2010
Creator: Staman, Jennifer; Brougher, Cynthia; Liu, Edward C.; Lunder, Erika K. & Thomas, Kenneth R.
Description: This report first analyzes the authority of Congress to pass a law of this nature, as well as how a court could analyze this provision in light of a constitutional challenge based on various provisions of the Fifth and Tenth Amendments. Finally, this report discusses whether the exceptions to the individual responsibility requirement to purchase health insurance satisfy First Amendment freedom of religion protections.
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Social Security Retirement Earnings Test: How Earnings Affect Benefits

Social Security Retirement Earnings Test: How Earnings Affect Benefits

Date: May 17, 2010
Creator: Nuschler, Dawn & Shelton, Alison M.
Description: Social Security benefits received before a person attains full retirement age (FRA) are subject to an actuarial reduction for early retirement and also may be reduced by the Social Security Retirement Earnings Test (RET) if the beneficiary has earnings that exceed an annual threshold. This report explains how the RET is applied under current law and provides detailed benefit examples to show how the RET affects both the worker beneficiary and any family members (auxiliary beneficiaries) who receive benefits based on the worker beneficiary’s record. The report points out features of the RET that are not widely known or understood, such as the recomputation of benefits when a beneficiary attains FRA to adjust (increase) benefits to take into account months for which no benefit or a partial benefit was paid as a result of the RET. Finally, the report discusses policy issues related to the RET, including recent research on the effect of the RET on work effort and the decision to claim Social Security benefits.
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CRS Issue Statement on Animal Welfare

CRS Issue Statement on Animal Welfare

Date: January 11, 2010
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.
Description: This report discusses the questions whether additional measures are needed to protect the health and well-being of animals.
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USDA Rural Housing Programs: An Overview

USDA Rural Housing Programs: An Overview

Date: October 29, 2010
Creator: Foote, Bruce E.
Description: This report discusses the the Department of Agriculture's (USDA) ability to make loans to farmers to enable them to construct, improve, repair, or replace dwellings and other farm buildings to provide decent, safe, and sanitary living conditions for themselves or their tenants, lessees, sharecroppers, and laborers. USDA was also authorized to make grants or combinations of loans and grants to those farmers who could not qualify to repay the full amount of a loan, but who needed the funds to make the dwellings sanitary or to remove health hazards to the occupants or the community.
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Certain Temporary Tax Provisions Scheduled to Expire in 2009 (“Extenders”)

Certain Temporary Tax Provisions Scheduled to Expire in 2009 (“Extenders”)

Date: September 8, 2010
Creator: Bickley, James M.
Description: This report discusses numerous temporary tax provisions exist in the tax code. Often referred to as “extenders,” these provisions were originally enacted with an expiration date that has then been temporarily extended, in some cases numerous times.
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WTO Doha Round: Implications for U.S. Agriculture

WTO Doha Round: Implications for U.S. Agriculture

Date: January 4, 2010
Creator: Schnepf, Randy & Hanrahan, Charles E.
Description: The Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations began in November 2001. From an agricultural viewpoint, the goal of the negotiations was to make progress simultaneously across the three pillars of the World Trade Organization’s (WTO’s) Agricultural Agreement—domestic support, market access, and export competition—by building on the specific terms and conditions established during the previous Uruguay Round of negotiations. This report reviews the current status of agricultural negotiations for domestic support, market access, and export subsidies, and their potential implications for U.S. agriculture.
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Intelligence Issues for Congress

Intelligence Issues for Congress

Date: August 6, 2010
Creator: Best, Richard A., Jr.
Description: This report discusses the efforts currently underway to improve coordination and encourage better analysis amongst the various agencies within the U.S. Intelligence Community, especially with regard to the ongoing and prominent issue of international terrorism. In particular, this report addresses the false intelligence regarding Iraqi weapons of mass destruction and the current efforts in Iraq and Iran in general.
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The Copyright Registration Requirement and Federal Court Jurisdiction: A Legal Analysis of Reed Elsevier, Inc. v. Muchnick

The Copyright Registration Requirement and Federal Court Jurisdiction: A Legal Analysis of Reed Elsevier, Inc. v. Muchnick

Date: March 18, 2010
Creator: Yeh, Brian T.
Description: In New York Times Co. v. Tasini, six freelance authors who had contributed articles to several publications, including The New York Times, Newsday, and Time, sued when the publishers licensed rights to copy and sell the articles to electronic databases such as Lexis/Nexis. Shortly after the Court decided Tasini, three preexisting class action infringement suits, which had been suspended pending the decision, were activated and consolidated in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York. A fourth, nearly identical action was coordinated with that consolidated action. Together, these claims comprise the litigation discussed in this report.
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