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 Resource Type: Report
 Decade: 2010-2019
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
GAO Bid Protests: An Overview of Time Frames and Procedures

GAO Bid Protests: An Overview of Time Frames and Procedures

Date: January 19, 2016
Creator: Manuel, Kate M. & Schwartz, Moshe
Description: This report provides an overview of the time frames and procedures in a Government Accountability Office (GAO) bid protest, including (1) what issues can be protested with GAO; (2) who can file or be a party to a GAO protest; (3) the procedures for bringing and resolving GAO protests; (4) the time frames involved in GAO protests; (5) the automatic stay of contract award or performance triggered by a GAO protest, as well as the basis for agency overrides of automatic stays and judicial review of agency override determinations; (6) the basis and effects of GAO decisions; and (7) reconsideration and "appeal" of GAO decisions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
What Does the Gig Economy Mean for Workers?

What Does the Gig Economy Mean for Workers?

Date: February 5, 2016
Creator: Donovan, Sarah A.; Bradley, David H. & Shimabukuro, Jon O.
Description: This report provides an overview of the gig economy -- i.e., the collection of markets that match providers to consumers on a gig (or job) basis in support of on-demand commerce (e.g., Uber, TaskRabbit) -- and identifies legal and policy questions relevant to its workforce.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Research Tax Credit: Current Law and Policy Issues for the 114th Congress

Research Tax Credit: Current Law and Policy Issues for the 114th Congress

Date: May 22, 2015
Creator: Guenther, Gary
Description: Technological innovation is a primary engine of long-term economic growth, and research and development (R&D) serves as the lifeblood of innovation. The federal government encourages businesses to invest more in R&D than they otherwise would in several ways, including a tax credit for increases in spending on qualified research above a base amount. This report describes the current status of the credit, summarizes its legislative history, discusses policy issues it raises, and describes legislation to modify and extend it.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Small Business Administration Microloan Program

Small Business Administration Microloan Program

Date: August 9, 2011
Creator: Dilger, Robert J.
Description: This report describes the Microloan program's eligibility standards and operating requirements for lenders and borrowers and examines the arguments presented by the program's critics and advocates. It also examines changes to the program authorized by P.L. 111-240, the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Economic Recovery: Sustaining U.S. Economic Growth in a Post-Crisis Economy

Economic Recovery: Sustaining U.S. Economic Growth in a Post-Crisis Economy

Date: April 18, 2013
Creator: Elwell, Craig K.
Description: The 2007-2009 recession was long and deep, and according to several indicators was the most severe economic contraction since the 1930s (but still much less severe than the Great Depression). This report examines the state of the economy in light of the recession.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Economic Downturns and Crime

Economic Downturns and Crime

Date: December 19, 2011
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Description: This report examines the relationships between selected variables of economic strength and crime. It begins with an overview of crime rates during times of economic recession in the United States. It then reviews the existing literature in the field analyzing various data sets that examine whether the unemployment rate and foreclosures can be related to increases in the national crime rate.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legal Authorities Governing Federal Contracting and Subcontracting with Small Businesses

Legal Authorities Governing Federal Contracting and Subcontracting with Small Businesses

Date: February 23, 2015
Creator: Manuel, Kate M. & Lunder, Erika K.
Description: This report provides an overview of the various legal authorities governing small business contracting and subcontracting, as well as the relationship between them. It also explains the roles of the Small Business Administration (SBA), procuring activities, Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA), Government Accountability Office (GAO), and other tribunals in implementing and construing the law governing federal contracting and subcontracting with small businesses.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cybersecurity and Information Sharing: Legal Challenges and Solutions

Cybersecurity and Information Sharing: Legal Challenges and Solutions

Date: March 16, 2015
Creator: Nolan, Andrew
Description: While considerable debate exists with regard to the best strategies for protecting America’s various cyber-systems and promoting cybersecurity, one point of general agreement amongst cyber-analysts is the perceived need for enhanced and timely exchange of cyber-threat intelligence both within the private sector and between the private sector and the government. This report examines the various legal issues that arise with respect to the sharing of cybersecurity intelligence, with a special focus on two distinct concepts: (1) sharing of cyberinformation within the government’s possession and (2) sharing of cyber-information within the possession of the private sector.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Small Business Administration and Job Creation

Small Business Administration and Job Creation

Date: January 29, 2015
Creator: Dilger, Robert J.
Description: The Small Business Administration (SBA) administers several programs to support small businesses, including loan guaranty programs, disaster loan programs, management and technical assistance training programs, and federal contracting programs. Congressional interest in these programs has increased in recent years, primarily because they are viewed as a means to stimulate economic activity, create jobs, and assist in the national economic recovery. This report examines the economic research on net job creation to identify the types of businesses that appear to create the most jobs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Small Business Administration and Job Creation

Small Business Administration and Job Creation

Date: January 30, 2013
Creator: Dilger, Robert J.
Description: The Small Business Administration (SBA) administers several programs to support small businesses, including loan guaranty programs; disaster loan programs; management and technical assistance training programs; and federal contracting programs. Congressional interest in these programs has increased in recent years, primarily because they are viewed as a means to stimulate economic activity, create jobs, and assist in the national economic recovery. This report examines the economic research on net job creation to identify the types of businesses that appear to create the most jobs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Small Business: Access to Capital and Job Creation

Small Business: Access to Capital and Job Creation

Date: January 13, 2011
Creator: Dilger, Robert J. & Gonzales, Oscar R.
Description: This report addresses a core issue facing Congress during the 112th Congress: what, if any, additional action should the federal government take to enhance small business access to capital? After briefly discussing the role of small business in job creation and retention, this report provides an assessment of the supply and demand for small business loans. It also examines selected laws enacted during the 110th and 111th Congresses that were designed to enhance small business access to capital by increasing the supply of small business loans and/or the demand for small business loans. This report also includes empirical evidence concerning small business lending and borrowing, including the number and amount of small business loans guaranteed by the SBA.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Small Business Administration Microloan Program

Small Business Administration Microloan Program

Date: May 28, 2015
Creator: Dilger, Robert Jay
Description: The Small Business Administration’s (SBA’s) Microloan program provides direct loans to qualified nonprofit intermediary lenders who, in turn, provide “microloans” of up to $50,000 to small businesses and nonprofit child care centers. It also provides marketing, management, and technical assistance to microloan borrowers and potential borrowers. This report opens with a discussion of the rationale provided for having a Microloan program, describes the program’s eligibility standards and operating requirements for lenders and borrowers, and examines the arguments presented by the program’s critics and advocates. It then discusses P.L. 111-240, the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010, which increased the Microloan program’s loan limit for borrowers from $35,000 to $50,000, and the aggregate loan limit for intermediaries after their first year of participation in the program from $3.5 million to $5 million.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Small Business: Access to Capital and Job Creation

Small Business: Access to Capital and Job Creation

Date: September 1, 2010
Creator: Dilger, Robert J. & Gonzales, Oscar R.
Description: The Small Business Administration’s (SBA) authorization is due to expire on September 30, 2010. The SBA administers several programs to support small businesses, including loan guarantees to help small businesses gain access to capital. This report addresses a core issue facing Congress during the SBA’s reauthorization process: what, if any, additional action should the federal government take to enhance small business access to capital?
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Selected Legal Mechanisms Whereby the Government Can Hold Contractors Accountable for Failure to Perform or Other Misconduct

Selected Legal Mechanisms Whereby the Government Can Hold Contractors Accountable for Failure to Perform or Other Misconduct

Date: September 23, 2015
Creator: Manuel, Kate M. & Perry, Rodney M.
Description: This report provides an overview of selected legal mechanisms that the federal government could rely upon in holding contractors accountable for deficiencies in their performance under the contract, or for other misconduct.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Small Business: Access to Capital and Job Creation

Small Business: Access to Capital and Job Creation

Date: November 25, 2015
Creator: Dilger, Robert J.
Description: This report discusses the role of small business in job creation and retention, then provides an assessment of the supply and demand for small business loans and recently enacted laws designed to enhance small business access to capital. It also examines recent actions concerning the SBA's budget and concludes with a brief overview of legislative options available to address small business access to capital issues during the 114th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: Overview and Issues for Congress

Multilateral Development Banks: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: December 2, 2015
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.
Description: This report provides an overview of Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) and highlights major issues for Congress. The first section discusses how the MDBs operate, and the second section discusses the role of Congress in the MDBs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Internet Tax Freedom Act: In Brief

The Internet Tax Freedom Act: In Brief

Date: October 5, 2015
Creator: Stupak, Jeffrey M.
Description: This report discusses the Internet Tax Freedom Act (ITFA; P.L. 105-277), which enacted in 1998, implemented a three-year moratorium preventing state and local governments from taxing Internet access, or imposing multiple or discriminatory taxes on electronic commerce.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases

The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases

Date: October 1, 2015
Creator: Austin, D. A.
Description: This report discusses congressional restrictions on federal debt. The statutory debt limit applies to almost all federal debt. The limit applies to federal debt held by the public (that is, debt held outside the federal government itself) and to federal debt held by the government's own accounts.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
SBA Veterans Assistance Programs: An Analysis of Contemporary Issues

SBA Veterans Assistance Programs: An Analysis of Contemporary Issues

Date: October 23, 2014
Creator: Dilger, Robert J. & Lowry, Sean
Description: This report opens with an examination of the current economic circumstances of veteran-owned businesses drawn from the Bureau of the Census 2007 Survey of Business Owners, which was administered in 2008 and 2009, and released on May 17, 2011. It also provides a brief overview of veteran employment experiences, describes the employment assistance programs offered by several federal agencies to assist veterans in their transition from the military to the civilian labor force, and examines related Small Business Administration (SBA) initiatives such as business development programs, efforts to assist veterans' access to capital, and veteran contracting programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
GAO Bid Protests: Trends and Analysis

GAO Bid Protests: Trends and Analysis

Date: July 21, 2015
Creator: Schwartz, Moshe & Manuel, Kate M.
Description: This report is one of two providing Congress with background on the GAO bid-protest process. It analyzes trends in bid protests filed with GAO, why companies protest, the impact bid protests have on acquisitions, the most common grounds for GAO to sustain a protest, and trends in bid protests filed against DOD.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
SBA Veterans Assistance Programs: An Analysis of Contemporary Issues

SBA Veterans Assistance Programs: An Analysis of Contemporary Issues

Date: June 5, 2014
Creator: Dilger, Robert J. & Lowry, Sean
Description: This report opens with an examination of the current economic circumstances of veteran-owned businesses drawn from the Bureau of the Census 2007 Survey of Business Owners, which was administered in 2008 and 2009, and released on May 17, 2011. It also provides a brief overview of veteran employment experiences, describes the employment assistance programs offered by several federal agencies to assist veterans in their transition from the military to the civilian labor force, and examines related Small Business Administration (SBA) initiatives such as business development programs, efforts to assist veterans' access to capital, and veteran contracting programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Reform of U.S. International Taxation: Alternatives

Reform of U.S. International Taxation: Alternatives

Date: June 3, 2015
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Description: This report describes and assesses the principal prescriptions that have been offered for broad reform of the international system. It begins with an overview of current law and possible revisions. It then sets the framework for considering economic efficiency as well as tax shelter activities. Finally, it reviews alternative approaches to revision in light of those issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Land Ownership: Acquisition and Disposal Authorities

Federal Land Ownership: Acquisition and Disposal Authorities

Date: May 19, 2015
Creator: Vincent, Carol H.; Corn, M. L.; Comay, Laura B. & Hoover, Katie
Description: This report describes the primary authorities of the following agencies for acquiring and disposing of federal land. These four federal agencies--the National Park Service (NPS), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), and Bureau of Land Management (BLM), all in the Department of the Interior (DOI), and the U.S. Forest Service (FS) in the Department of Agriculture--administer about 95% of those lands.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Internet Tax Freedom Act: In Brief

The Internet Tax Freedom Act: In Brief

Date: June 11, 2015
Creator: Stupak, Jeffrey M.
Description: This report discusses the Internet Tax Freedom Act (ITFA; P.L. 105-277), which enacted in 1998, implemented a three-year moratorium preventing state and local governments from taxing Internet access, or imposing multiple or discriminatory taxes on electronic commerce.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department