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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Issues Affecting Tidal, Wave, and In-Stream Generation Projects
This report provides an overview of developments and considerations regarding wave, tidal, and in-stream energy generation technology. It summarizes federal involvement in the regulation of this new industry and highlights current issues in the field. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847620/
Air Quality Issues and Animal Agriculture: EPA's Air Compliance Agreement
This report discusses a plan announced by EPA in January 2005, called the Air Compliance Agreement, intended to produce air quality monitoring data on animal agriculture emissions from a small number of farms, while at the same time protecting all participants (including farms where no monitoring takes place) through a "safe harbor" from liability under certain provisions of federal environmental laws. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847537/
Conservation Reserve Program: Status and Current Issues
This report discusses the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) enacted in 1985, which provides payments to farmers to take highly erodible or environmentally-sensitive cropland out of production for ten years or more to conserve soil and water resources. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847578/
Water Resources Development Act (WRDA): Army Corps of Engineers Authorization Issues in the 109th Congress
The Corps is a federal agency in the Department of Defense with military and civilian responsibilities. At the direction of Congress, the Corps plans, builds, operates, and maintains a wide range of water resources facilities in U.S. states and territories. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847789/
The Endangered Species Act and "Sound Science"
This report provides a context for evaluating legislative proposals through examples of how science has been used in selected cases, a discussion of the nature and role of science in general, and its role in the Endangered Species Act (ESA) process in particular, together with general and agency information quality requirements and policies, and a review of how the courts have viewed agency use of science. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847791/
Recreation on Federal Lands
This report discuses the 109th Congress's considering legislation and conducting oversight on issues involving recreation on federal lands, including traditional recreational pursuits and newer forms of motorized recreation. The Administration is addressing these issues through budgetary, regulatory, and other actions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847545/
Funding Levels for Conservation Programs in the 2007 Farm Bill
This report consists of two tables, preceded by a brief narrative. The first table summarizes the annual funding provisions, by program, in (1) current law, (2) H.R. 2419 as passed, and (3) the Bush Administration's farm bill proposals. The second table compares FY2007 authorized and actual funding levels for programs authorized in the 2002 farm bill with FY2008 and FY2012 funding levels that would be authorized in the 2007 House-passed farm bill. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847546/
The Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program: How are State Allotments Determined?
This report discusses the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP), which is a block grant program under which the federal government provides states annual grants to operate multi-component home energy assistance programs for needy households. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847550/
Wave, Tidal, and In-Stream Energy Projects: Which Federal Agency Has the Lead?
This report describes wave, tidal, and in-stream energy generation technologies -- also referred to as hydrokinetic or marine energy. It discusses the recent changes in law aimed to clarify the federal role in ocean wave and renewable energy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847553/
Polar Bears: Proposed Listing Under the Endangered Species Act
This report discusses the polar bear status and they are affected by climate change, contaminants, and subsistence and sport hunting. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847555/
Entering the Executive Branch of Government: Potential Conflicts of Interest With Previous Employments and Affiliations
This report examines the federal laws and regulations relevant to entering into Government employment from the private sector. It is intended to provide those conducting congressional oversight with an outline of some of the issues, rules, regulations, ad oversight tools that may be available regarding this subject. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847557/
Forestry in the 2007 Farm Bill
This report briefly describes the Agriculture Committees' jurisdiction over forestry, with examples of legislation addressed by the committees. It discusses forestry issues likely to be debated in the upcoming farm bill and presents information on the forestry provisions in the Administration's proposal for the 2007 farm bill, followed by the forestry provisions in the Farm, Nutrition, and Bioenergy Act of 2007 (H.R. 2419). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847560/
The Toxic Substances Control Act: A Summary of the Act and Its Major Requirements
This report summarizes the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and the major regulatory programs dealing with chemical production and distribution in U.S. commerce. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847568/
The Role of the Office of Management and Budget in Budget Development
This report discusses the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), which assists the President in carrying out his budgetary duties. Its primary function is to oversee the development and implementation of the federal budget. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847571/
National Park Management
This report discusses issues in National Park management. The 109th Congress is considering legislation and conducting oversight on National Park Service (NPS) related topics. The Administration is addressing park issues through budgetary, regulatory, and other actions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847572/
Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Review of Fluoridation and Regulation Issues
This report discusses the documented benefits and potential adverse effects associated with the fluoridation of drinking water supplies. It also discusses the regulation of fluoride in drinking water to protect against adverse health effects from exposure to higher levels of fluoride, and it reviews the status of federal efforts to update the health risk assessment for fluoride. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847574/
Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Lands and National Forests
This brief focuses on several issues affecting Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and Forest Service (FS) lands that are of interest to the 109th Congress, and does not comprehensively cover issues primarily affecting other federal lands. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847706/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 109th Congress
Fish and marine mammals are important resources in open ocean and nearshore coastal areas; many federal laws and regulations guide their management. This report discusses a variety of laws and legislation pertaining to this issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847711/
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Legislation in the 110th Congress
This report reviews the status of energy efficiency and renewable energy legislation introduced during the 110th Congress. Action has focused on legislation to increase funding for energy efficiency and renewable energy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847714/
Renewable Energy Policy in the 2007 Farm Bill
This report provides a summary of major legislative proposals for change in the farm bill energy title (Title IX) and compares current law with energy provisions from the recently approved House 2007 farm bill. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847715/
Multinational Species Conservation Fund
The Multinational Species Conservation Fund is a relatively small program within the Fish and Wildlife Service which has generated enormous constituent interest, chiefly concerning its funding levels. This report describes the Fund briefly, and summarizes recent and proposed appropriations levels. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847717/
Derivatives, Risk Management, and Policy in the Energy Markets
This report provides a systematic guide to understanding the use of financial derivative contracts in the energy industry, focusing specifically on the petroleum and natural gas sectors. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847726/
Water Quality Issues in the 110th Congress: Oversight and Implementation
This report discusses issues surrounding the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1972 and programs set up to meet the water quality standards that it outlined. The report focuses specifically on the legislative issues for the 110th Congress in relation to the CWA. It also includes a brief comparison of the expected appropriations for FY2007 and FY2008. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847727/
Federally Supported Water Supply and Wastewater Treatment Programs
This report provides background information on the types of water supply and wastewater treatment projects traditionally funded by the federal government and the several existing programs to assist communities with water supply and wastewater recycling and treatment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847729/
Nuclear Power: Outlook for New U.S. Reactors
This report includes analyses of the potential effect of the tax credit for nuclear power provided by the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and possible competitive effects of various proposals to limit greenhouse gas emissions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847730/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2007
This report discusses federal research and development (R&D) funding. As in the recent past, the FY2007 increase over the FY2006 estimated funding levels is due to significant funding increases in the Department of Defense (DOD) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) space vehicles development program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847734/
Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense: An Overview of Congressional Action
This report discusses the difficulty of assessing the impact of environmental requirements on military readiness, broader exemptions for military activities that Congress has enacted, and DOD's request for additional exemptions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847737/
Drinking Water State Revolving Fund: Program Overview and Issues
This report discusses the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments of 1996, which authorized a drinking water state revolving loan fund (DWSRF) program to help public water systems finance infrastructure projects needed to comply with federal drinking water regulations and to protect public health. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847740/
Wetlands: An Overview of Issues
This report discusses policy topics that involve wetlands. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service released its most recent periodic survey of changes in wetland acreage nationwide in March 2006. Covering 1998 to 2004, it concluded that during this time period there was a small net gain in overall wetland acres for the first time that this survey has been conducted. Others caution, however, that much of this gain was in ponds, rather than natural wetlands. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847747/
Pandemic Flu and Medical Biodefense Countermeasure Liability Limitation
This report analyzes Division C of the Department of Defense Emergency Supplemental Appropriations, P.L. 109-148, which was signed into law on December 30, 2005, and which limits liability with respect to pandemic flu and other public health countermeasures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847748/
Energy Tax Policy: History and Current Issues
This report provides historical context regarding energy tax policy and discusses what may lie ahead. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847751/
Arsenic in Drinking Water: Regulatory Developments and Issues
This report discusses the 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments. These amendments directed the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to update the standard for arsenic in drinking water. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847753/
Charitable Choice Rules and Faith-Based Organizations
This report discusses the Bush administration's "Charitable Choice" agenda aimed at expanding the ability of faith-based organizations to provide federally funded social services. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847754/
Amtrak Issues in the 108th Congress
This report discusses a number of issues connected with Amtrak that Congress may consider. Amtrak does not earn enough revenue, or receive enough assistance, to cover its operating costs and capital needs. As a result, Amtrak is regularly on the verge of insolvency. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847757/
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Budget for FY2007: President's Request, Congressional Appropriations, and Related Issues
This report tracks appropriation action on the President's FY2007 funding request for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Issues of possible congressional concern are summarized, including a Joint Ocean Commission Initiative statement on ocean science and fisheries-related funding. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847760/
Energy Policy: Conceptual Framework and Continuing Issues
This report discusses major policy approaches, provides a conceptual framework for categorizing energy policy proposals, and briefly describes energy issues that remain current in the debate after the enactment of EPACT. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847762/
Leaking Underground Storage Tanks: Prevention and Cleanup
This report reviews the Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) program, related issues, and legislative changes made by the 109th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847764/
United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR): U.S. Membership
This short report provides an overview of the U.N. Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR and Administration and Congressional responses to recent developments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847766/
Stewardship Contracting for the National Forests
This report discusses the advantages and limitations of proposed approaches to stewardship contracting to reduce threats to national forests exacerbated by unnaturally high amounts of biomass. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847768/
Medicare: Enrollment in Medicare Drug Plans
This report discusses the enrollment process for private prescription drug plans (PDPs) or Medicare Advantage prescription drug (MA-PD) plans. At a minimum, these plans offer "standard coverage" or alternative coverage with actuarially equivalent benefits. Beneficiaries are required to enroll in one of these private plans in order to obtain coverage. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847769/
Wave, Tidal, and In-Stream Energy Projects: Which Federal Agency Has the Lead?
This report describes wave, tidal, and in-stream energy generation technologies -- also referred to as hydrokinetic or marine energy. It discusses the recent changes in law aimed to clarify the federal role in ocean wave and renewable energy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847770/
Mountaintop Mining: Background on Current Controversies
This report provides background on regulatory requirements, controversies, and legal challenges to Clean Water Act regulation of mountaintop mining. Congressional attention to these issues also is discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847771/
Health Care Spending: Context and Policy
This report seeks to put health spending in context. Health care costs and spending are persistent concerns for the Congress. On one hand, policymakers worry about access to care and the burden of health costs on household and employer budgets. On the other hand, rising costs put growing pressure on the federal budget from Medicare, Medicaid, and tax expenditures for private health insurance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847772/
Information Sharing for Homeland Security: A Brief Overview
This report reviews some of the principal existing homeland security information sharing arrangements, as well as some projected arrangements in this regard, and discusses related policy, evaluations, and proposed legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847774/
Teacher Recruitment and Retention: Federal, State, and Local Programs
The recruitment and retention of a high-quality teaching force is critical to the future success of our nation's school system. To address this issue, a wide range of programs have been put into place at the federal, state, and local levels in recent years. This report is to review the range of these efforts nationwide and provide a context for the issues that may yet arise during HEA reauthorization. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847775/
Water Infrastructure Financing: History of EPA Appropriations
This report summarizes, in chronological order, congressional activity to fund items in the State and Tribal Assistance Grants (STAG) account since 1987. In appropriations legislation, funding for EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) wastewater assistance is contained in the measure providing funds for the Department of the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847776/
Funding Levels for Conservation Programs in the 2007 Farm Bill
This report consists of two tables, preceded by a brief narrative. The first table summarizes the annual funding provisions, by program, in (1) current law, (2) H.R. 2419 as passed, and (3) the Bush Administration's farm bill proposals. The second table compares FY2007 authorized and actual funding levels for programs authorized in the 2002 farm bill with FY2008 and FY2012 funding levels that would be authorized in the 2007 House-passed farm bill. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847778/
National Environmental Education Act of 1990: Overview, Implementation, and Reauthorization Issues
This report presents an overview of the National Environmental Education Act of 1990, discusses appropriations, examines the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) implementation of the act, and analyzes reauthorization issues relevant to legislation introduced in recent Congresses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847780/
Alaska Natural Gas Pipelines: Interaction of the Natural Gas and Steel Markets
In 1976, Congress approved legislation to establish the regulatory framework for building a pipeline to bring natural gas from the Alaska North Slope to the lower 48 states. This report focuses on two major issues or uncertainties that may serve as economic constraints on a capital investment undertaking of this major scale. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847781/
Humane Treatment of Farm Animals: Overview and Issues
This report provides an overview of the debate and legislation to modify or curtail some practices regarding animal care on the farm, during transport, or at slaughter. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847782/
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