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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2006
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) in Iraq and Afghanistan: Effects and Countermeasures

Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) in Iraq and Afghanistan: Effects and Countermeasures

Date: September 25, 2006
Creator: Wilson, Clay
Description: Since October 2001, Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs, or roadside bombs) have been responsible for many of the more than 2,000 combat deaths in Iraq, and 178 combat deaths in Afghanistan. IEDs are hidden behind signs and guardrails, under roadside debris, or inside animal carcasses, and encounters with these bombs are becoming more numerous and deadly in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Department of Defense (DOD) efforts to counter IEDs have proven only marginally effective, and U.S. forces continue to be exposed to the threat at military checkpoints, or whenever on patrol. IEDs are increasingly being used in Afghanistan, and DOD reportedly is concerned that they might eventually be more widely used by other insurgents and terrorists worldwide.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Balkan Cooperation on War Crimes Issues

Balkan Cooperation on War Crimes Issues

Date: June 16, 2006
Creator: Kim, Julie
Description: In early May 2006, assessments of insufficient Serbian cooperation with the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) led the European Union (EU) to suspend association talks with Serbia. Later that month, the U.S. Secretary of State withheld certification of full Serbian cooperation with ICTY, leading to a partial suspension of U.S. bilateral assistance to Serbia. From late 2004 through early 2005, a combination of intensified international pressure and deadlines associated with Euro-Atlantic integration processes prompted a spate of transfers of indicted persons to the tribunal. Full cooperation with ICTY is a key prerequisite to further progress toward a shared long-term goal for the western Balkan countries: closer association with and eventual membership in the European Union and NATO.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Northern Ireland: The Peace Process

Northern Ireland: The Peace Process

Date: September 27, 2006
Creator: Archick, Kristin & Morelli, Vince L.
Description: For years, the British and Irish governments have sought to facilitate a peaceful settlement to the conflict in Northern Ireland. After many ups and downs, the two government and the parties participating in the peace talks announced an agreement on April 10, 1998. The implementation of the resulting Good Friday Agreement continues to be difficult. A political stalemate in Northern Ireland since 2002 has halted the peace process and forced London to suspend the devolved government and to resume governance of the province. British and Irish leaders have set a November 24, 2006, deadline to revive talks on governance in Northern Ireland.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Latin America: Terrorism Issues

Latin America: Terrorism Issues

Date: June 30, 2006
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Description: In the aftermath of the September 2001 terrorist attacks on New York and Washington, D.C., U.S. attention to terrorism in Latin America intensified, with an increase in bilateral and regional cooperation. Latin American nations strongly condemned the attacks. This report outlines the U.S.-Latin American relationship in regards to terrorism, including several pieces of international counterterrorism legislation, including the Inter-American Convention Against Terrorism and the Organization of American States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Immigration: S Visas for Criminal and Terrorist Informants

Immigration: S Visas for Criminal and Terrorist Informants

Date: May 17, 2006
Creator: Ester, Karma
Description: In response to the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001, Congress passed legislation making permanent a provision that allows aliens with critical information on criminal or terrorist organizations to come into the United States to provide information to law enforcement officials. The law (S. 1424, and then P.L. 107-45) amended the Immigration and Nationality Act to provide permanent authority for the administration of the "S" visa, which was scheduled to expire on September 13, 2001. On November 29, 2001, then-Attorney General John Ashcroft announced the "Responsible Cooperators Program" to reach out to persons who may be eligible for the S visa. Up to 200 criminal informants and 50 terrorist informants may be admitted annually. Since FY2005, more than 500 informants and their accompanying family members have entered on S visas. No terrorist informants have been admitted into the U.S. since 1996.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Trade Promotion Authority and Fast-Track Negotiating Authority for Trade Agreements: Major Votes

Trade Promotion Authority and Fast-Track Negotiating Authority for Trade Agreements: Major Votes

Date: September 29, 2006
Creator: Smith, Carolyn C.
Description: This report profiles significant legislation, from 1974 to the present, concerning presidential trade promotion authority (also referred to as TPA) for trade agreements. TPA was previously known as fast-track trade negotiating authority for the President. This report identifies significant bills and resolutions that had floor votes. Also included is a list of floor votes on implementing legislation for trade agreements, from 1979 to the present; these bills were passed under expedited procedures by Congress and signed by the President. For further discussions of TPA or fast-track legislative activity, the report lists CRS reports and Internet resources.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Interrogation of Detainees: Overview of the McCain Amendment

Interrogation of Detainees: Overview of the McCain Amendment

Date: September 25, 2006
Creator: Garcia, Michael John
Description: Controversy has arisen regarding U.S. treatment of enemy combatants and terrorist suspects detained in Iraq, Afghanistan, and other locations, and whether such treatment complies with related U.S. statutes and treaties. Certain provisions of the Detainee Treatment Act (DTA), first introduced by Senator John McCain, have popularly been referred to as the "McCain Amendment." This report discusses the McCain amendment and also discusses the application of the McCain Amendment by the DOD in the updated 2006 version of the Army Field Manual.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Interrogation of Detainees: Overview of the McCain Amendment

Interrogation of Detainees: Overview of the McCain Amendment

Date: September 20, 2006
Creator: Garcia, Michael John
Description: Controversy has arisen regarding U.S. treatment of enemy combatants and terrorist suspects detained in Iraq, Afghanistan, and other locations, and whether such treatment complies with related U.S. statutes and treaties. Certain provisions of the Detainee Treatment Act (DTA), first introduced by Senator John McCain, have popularly been referred to as the "McCain Amendment." This report discusses the McCain amendment and the application of the McCain amendment by the Department of Defense (DOD) in the updated 2006 version of the Army Field Manual.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
United Nations System Funding: Congressional Issues

United Nations System Funding: Congressional Issues

Date: August 10, 2006
Creator: Browne, Marjorie Ann
Description: This report tracks the process by which Congress provides the funding for U.S. assessed contributions to the regular budgets of the United Nations, its agencies, and U.N. peacekeeping operation accounts, as well as for U.S. voluntary contributions to U.N. system programs and funds. It includes information on the President's request and the congressional response, as well as congressional initiatives during this legislative process. Basic information is provided to help the reader understand this process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Interrogation of Detainees: Overview of the McCain Amendment

Interrogation of Detainees: Overview of the McCain Amendment

Date: October 2, 2006
Creator: Garcia, Michael John
Description: Controversy has arisen regarding U.S. treatment of enemy combatants and terrorist suspects detained in Iraq, Afghanistan, and other locations, and whether such treatment complies with related U.S. statutes and treaties. Certain provisions of the Detainee Treatment Act (DTA), first introduced by Senator John McCain, have popularly been referred to as the "McCain Amendment." This report discusses the McCain amendment and also discusses the application of the McCain Amendment by the DOD in the updated 2006 version of the Army Field Manual.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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