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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2006
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) in Iraq and Afghanistan: Effects and Countermeasures

Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) in Iraq and Afghanistan: Effects and Countermeasures

Date: September 25, 2006
Creator: Wilson, Clay
Description: Since October 2001, Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs, or roadside bombs) have been responsible for many of the more than 2,000 combat deaths in Iraq, and 178 combat deaths in Afghanistan. IEDs are hidden behind signs and guardrails, under roadside debris, or inside animal carcasses, and encounters with these bombs are becoming more numerous and deadly in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Department of Defense (DOD) efforts to counter IEDs have proven only marginally effective, and U.S. forces continue to be exposed to the threat at military checkpoints, or whenever on patrol. IEDs are increasingly being used in Afghanistan, and DOD reportedly is concerned that they might eventually be more widely used by other insurgents and terrorists worldwide.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Hurricane Katrina Relief

Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Hurricane Katrina Relief

Date: May 16, 2006
Creator: Bea, Keith
Description: In response to the widespread destruction caused by Hurricane Katrina, the 109th Congress enacted two FY2005 emergency supplemental appropriations bills, which together provide $62.3 billion for emergency response and recovery needs. However, the funding streams of these appropriated funds and amounts for disaster recovery have changed and appear likely to undergo further changes, largely at the request of the Administration. This report summarizes federal disaster assistance funding legislation in the 109th Congress and presents some information on federal expenditures and obligations for disaster recovery activities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Hurricane Katrina Relief

Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Hurricane Katrina Relief

Date: August 22, 2006
Creator: Bea, Keith
Description: In response to the widespread destruction caused by Hurricane Katrina, the 109th Congress enacted two FY2005 emergency supplemental appropriations bills, which together provided $62.3 billion for emergency response and recovery needs. This CRS report summarizes federal disaster assistance funding legislation in the 109th Congress and presents some information on federal expenditures and obligations for disaster recovery activities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Use of Federal Troops for Disaster Assistance: Legal Issues

The Use of Federal Troops for Disaster Assistance: Legal Issues

Date: August 14, 2006
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K.
Description: Hurricane Katrina raised questions concerning the President's legal authority to send active duty military forces into a disaster area and the permissible functions the military can perform to protect life and property and maintain order. This report summarizes the possible constitutional and statutory authorities and constraints relevant to the use of armed forces, including National Guard units in federal service, to provide assistance to states when a natural disaster impedes the operation of state and local police. This report also addresses proposed legislation, including H.R. 5122 (S. 2766).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Homeland Security: Establishment and Implementation of the United States Northern Command

Homeland Security: Establishment and Implementation of the United States Northern Command

Date: August 18, 2006
Creator: Bowman, Steve
Description: The Department of Defense (DOD) established U.S. Northern Command (NORTHCOM) to fight terrorism at home. Significant organizational and procedural progress has been made in setting up this organization. However, questions remain concerning interagency relationships and information sharing.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agricultural Disaster Assistance

Agricultural Disaster Assistance

Date: May 8, 2006
Creator: Chite, Ralph M.
Description: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) offers several permanently authorized programs to help farmers recover financially from a natural disaster, including federal crop insurance, the noninsured assistance program, and emergency disaster loans. Since 1988, Congress regularly has made supplemental financial assistance available to farmers and ranchers, primarily in the form of crop disaster payments and emergency livestock assistance. The Senate-passed version of a pending FY2006 supplemental appropriations bill (H.R. 4939) contains an adopted committee amendment that would provide an estimated additional $3.9 billion in various forms of farm assistance, including payments for major crop and livestock losses caused by any 2005 disaster, such as the drought in portions of the Midwest and Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in the Gulf.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
2005 Gulf Coast Hurricanes: The Public Health and Medical Response

2005 Gulf Coast Hurricanes: The Public Health and Medical Response

Date: January 20, 2006
Creator: Lister, Sarah A.
Description: In response to a series of disasters (namely, the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita) and terrorist attacks (namely, the 2001 terror attacks) over the past decade, Congress, the Administration, state and local governments, and the private sector have made investments to improve disaster preparedness and response. New federal authorities and programs to strengthen the nation's public health system were introduced in comprehensive legislation in 2002. Congress also created the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in 2002, and a new National Response Plan (NRP) was launched by DHS in December 2004. This report discusses the NRP and its components for public health and medical response, provides information on key response activities carried out by agencies in the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and DHS, and discusses certain issues in public health and medical preparedness that have been raised by the response to the 2005 Gulf Coast hurricanes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
State and Local Homeland Security: Unresolved Issues for the 109th Congress

State and Local Homeland Security: Unresolved Issues for the 109th Congress

Date: August 3, 2006
Creator: Reese, Shawn
Description: Arguably, the three most important homeland security public laws enacted following the terrorist attacks on September 2001 are the USA PATRIOT Act, the Homeland Security Act of 2002, and the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004. This report describes each of these pieces of legislation and their respective domestic security enhancements. Many important state and local homeland security policy issues remain, separate from these three laws, which the 109th Congress might address. This report also describes these such issues, which include unmet emergency responder needs, absence of emergency responder equipment standards, and the development of state and local homeland security strategies, among others.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Emergency Communications Safety Net: Integrating 911 and Other Services

An Emergency Communications Safety Net: Integrating 911 and Other Services

Date: June 12, 2006
Creator: Moore, Linda K.
Description: The present capability and future effectiveness of America's network of emergency telecommunications services are among the issues under review by Congress and other entities. As technologies that can support 911 improve, many are seeing the possibility of integrating 911 into a wider safety net of emergency communications and alerts. One of the intents of Congress in passing the Wireless Communications and Public Safety Act of 1999, and of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in implementing the act, is to make 911 technology universally available throughout the United States. Legislation in the 109th Congress covering 911 or call centers all focus on assuring access to 911 call centers for users of Voice over Internet protocol (VOIP) telephone service and on improving the delivery of 911 services nationwide. This report reviews key points about the implementation of 911.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Counter-Terrorism Training: Issues for Congressional Oversight

Federal Counter-Terrorism Training: Issues for Congressional Oversight

Date: August 31, 2006
Creator: Reese, Shawn
Description: This report is an overview of the major training activities and facilities of the federal departments and agencies that provide counter-terrorism training. It identifies some of the issues associated with the training, including the following: (1) possible duplication of federal counter-terrorism training programs; (2) determination of Department of Homeland Security (DHS) counter-terrorism training priorities; and (3) possible redundancy and coordination of DHS counter-terrorism training programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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