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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2004
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 108th Congress

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 108th Congress

Date: November 1, 2004
Creator: Corn, M. L.; Gelb, Bernard A. & Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report discusses one major element of the energy debate in the 108th Congress, which has been whether to approve energy development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in northeastern Alaska, and if so, under what conditions, or whether to continue to prohibit development to protect the area's biological resources. The Refuge is an area rich in fauna, flora, and commercial oil potential. Current law forbids energy leasing in the Refuge.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Appropriations for FY2004: Energy and Water Development

Appropriations for FY2004: Energy and Water Development

Date: January 30, 2004
Creator: Behrens, Carl & Humphries, Marc
Description: This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year, related to energy and water development. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Energy and Water Development. It summarizes the status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity, and is updated as events warrant.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy Policy: The Continuing Debate and Omnibus Energy Legislation

Energy Policy: The Continuing Debate and Omnibus Energy Legislation

Date: November 24, 2004
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L.
Description: This report discusses a variety of issues pertaining to energy policy. It includes information about most recent developments, background and analysis broken down into major categories, and relevant legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Date: November 4, 2004
Creator: Bamberger, Robert
Description: This report discusses energy legislation pertaining to fuel standards. The current corporate average fuel economy standard (CAFE) is 27.5 miles per gallon (mpg) for passenger automobiles and 20.7 mpg for light trucks (scheduled to increase to 22.2 mpg in model year [MY] 2007), a classification that also includes sport utility vehicles (SUVs). Congress had included language in the FY1996-FY2001 Transportation Appropriations prohibiting the use of appropriated funds for any rulemaking on CAFE, effectively freezing the standards.
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Renewable Energy: Tax Credit, Budget, and Electricity Production Issues

Renewable Energy: Tax Credit, Budget, and Electricity Production Issues

Date: December 1, 2004
Creator: Sissine, Fred
Description: This report discusses budget issues regarding renewable energy programs. In the 108th Congress, debate over renewable energy programs has focused on tax credits, incentives, budget, and provisions of the omnibus energy policy bill H.R. 6.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Gas to Liquids Industry and Natural Gas Markets

The Gas to Liquids Industry and Natural Gas Markets

Date: November 8, 2004
Creator: Pirog, Robert
Description: This report provides and analyzes basic information concerning the gas to liquids industry (GTL) industry to inform debate on broad energy legislation, as well as more specific natural gas legislation on supply issues including an Alaskan natural gas pipeline as well as LNG facility development.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Alternative Transportation Fuels and Vehicles: Energy, Environment, and Development Issues

Alternative Transportation Fuels and Vehicles: Energy, Environment, and Development Issues

Date: January 9, 2004
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D.
Description: This report reviews several issues relating to alternative fuels and vehicles, mainly to combat dependence on petroleum imports and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The report discusses the advantages and drawbacks of various alternative fuels and vehicles, as well as related legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Electric Reliability: Options for Electric Transmission Infrastructure Improvements

Electric Reliability: Options for Electric Transmission Infrastructure Improvements

Date: December 23, 2004
Creator: Abel, Amy
Description: The electric utility industry is inherently capital intensive. At the same time, the industry must operate under a changing and sometimes unpredictable regulatory system at both the federal and state level. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 has set in place government activities intended to relieve congestion on the transmission system. Several factors have contributed to the lack of new transmission capacity; these are outlined within this report. This report also discusses earlier pieces of energy legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy Policy: The Continuing Debate and Omnibus Energy Legislation

Energy Policy: The Continuing Debate and Omnibus Energy Legislation

Date: June 14, 2004
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L
Description: The history of omnibus energy legislation in the 108th Congress has been protracted. The House passed the conference version of H.R. 6 on November 18, 2003. On November 21, a cloture motion to limit debate in the Senate on the H.R. 6 conference report failed (57-40). Efforts to bring the bill back to the Senate floor early in the second session were unsuccessful. Some argued that any major changes to the legislation would not be viable because of the careful regional and political compromises that were reached to get a bill out of conference and through the House. The closest consensus was that the cost of the bill had to be reduced.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Gasoline Price Surge Revisited: Crude Oil and Refingery Issues

Gasoline Price Surge Revisited: Crude Oil and Refingery Issues

Date: May 17, 2004
Creator: Kumins, Lawrence & Bamberger, Robert L.
Description: Gasoline prices have been extremely volatile for well over a year, with three significant price spikes focusing the attention of consumers and policy makers on the gas pump. This report discusses the issue of gas price fluctuations, focusing on crude oil inventory and other factors.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Strategic Petroleum Reserve

Strategic Petroleum Reserve

Date: September 3, 2004
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L
Description: None
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Strategic Petroleum Reserve

Strategic Petroleum Reserve

Date: November 4, 2004
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Energy Policy

Nuclear Energy Policy

Date: July 12, 2004
Creator: Holt, Mark & Behrens, Carl E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy Efficiency: Budget, Oil Conservation, and Electricity Conservation Issues

Energy Efficiency: Budget, Oil Conservation, and Electricity Conservation Issues

Date: July 15, 2004
Creator: Sissine, Fred
Description: In the 108th Congress, debate over energy efficiency programs has focused on budget, oil, natural gas, and electricity issues, and provisions in the omnibus energy policy bill, S. 2095, H.R. 6, and S. 14/S. 1149. The Bush Administration’s FY2005 budget request for the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Energy Efficiency Program sought $875.9 million, including $543.9 for R&D and $332.0 million for grants. In the first session, the omnibus energy bill (H.R. 6) had several significant tax and regulatory measures for energy efficiency. It did not pass the Senate due to concerns about cost and an MTBE “safe harbor” provision.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy Efficiency: Budget, Oil Conservation, and Electricity Conservation Issues

Energy Efficiency: Budget, Oil Conservation, and Electricity Conservation Issues

Date: December 1, 2004
Creator: Sissine, Fred
Description: In the 108th Congress, debate over energy efficiency programs has focused on budget, oil, natural gas, and electricity issues, and provisions in the omnibus energy policy bill, S. 2095, H.R. 6, and S. 14/S. 1149. The Bush Administration’s FY2005 budget request for the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Energy Efficiency Program sought $875.9 million, including $543.9 for R&D and $332.0 million for grants. In the first session, the omnibus energy bill (H.R. 6) had several significant tax and regulatory measures for energy efficiency. It did not pass the Senate due to concerns about cost and an MTBE “safe harbor” provision.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Power Plants: Vulnerability to Terrorist Attack

Nuclear Power Plants: Vulnerability to Terrorist Attack

Date: September 17, 2004
Creator: Behrens, Carl E & Holt, Mark
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Alternative Transportation Fuels and Vehicles: Energy, Environment, and Development Issues

Alternative Transportation Fuels and Vehicles: Energy, Environment, and Development Issues

Date: June 30, 2004
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D
Description: This report reviews several issues relating to alternative fuels and vehicles, mainly to combat dependence on petroleum imports and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The report discusses the advantages and drawbacks of various alternative fuels and vehicles, as well as related legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legal Issues Related to Proposed Drilling for Oil and Gas in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)

Legal Issues Related to Proposed Drilling for Oil and Gas in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)

Date: March 9, 2004
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Electricity: The Road Toward Restructuring

Electricity: The Road Toward Restructuring

Date: September 30, 2004
Creator: Abel, Amy & Parker, Larry
Description: The Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (PUHCA) and the Federal Power Act (FPA) were enacted to eliminate unfair practices and other abuses by electricity and gas holding companies by requiring federal control and regulation of interstate public utility holding companies. Comprehensive energy legislation has passed the House and Senate. The House passed H.R. 6 on April 11, 2003. On July 31, 2003, the Senate suspended debate on S. 14, inserted the text of H.R. 4 (107th Congress) as a substitute, and passed H.R. 6. A conference agreement was reached November 17, 2003, and passed by the House the next day. H.R. 6 includes an electricity title that would, in part, repeal PUHCA, would prospectively repeal the mandatory purchase requirement under PURPA, and would create an electric reliability organization. On June 15, 2004, H.R. 4503, a comprehensive energy policy bill, passed the House.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Advanced Vehicle Technologies: Energy, Environment, and Development Issues

Advanced Vehicle Technologies: Energy, Environment, and Development Issues

Date: January 28, 2004
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D.
Description: This report discusses three major vehicle technologies — electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles — as well as advanced component technologies. Each technology is discussed in terms of cost, fueling and maintenance infrastructure, and performance. The report also discusses key legislation in the 108th Congress, as well as federal, state, and local activity relevant to these technologies. This report will be updated as events warrant.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Electric Reliability: Options for Electric Transmission Infrastructure Improvements

Electric Reliability: Options for Electric Transmission Infrastructure Improvements

Date: December 23, 2004
Creator: Abel, Amy
Description: The electric utility industry is inherently capital intensive. At the same time, the industry must operate under a changing and sometimes unpredictable regulatory system at both the federal and state level. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 has set in place government activities intended to relieve congestion on the transmission system. Several factors have contributed to the lack of new transmission capacity; these are outlined within this report. This report also discusses earlier pieces of energy legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy Use in Agriculture: Background and Issues

Energy Use in Agriculture: Background and Issues

Date: November 19, 2004
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Description: This report provides information relevant to the U.S. agricultural sector on energy use, emerging issues, and related legislation. This report provides background on the relationship between energy and agriculture in the United States. The first section provides background information on current and historical energy use in the U.S. agricultural sector and how this fits into the national energy-use picture. Energy’s role in agriculture’s overall cost structure is detailed both for present circumstances and for changes over time. Finally, this section examines how agriculture’s energy-use pattern varies across activities and regions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress

Date: February 17, 2004
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D
Description: This issue brief discusses the increasing attention being paid to alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles, the proponents of which point to their potential to improve urban air quality, decrease dependence on foreign oil, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The brief also discusses the major barriers currently preventing widespread use of such technologies, and discusses these technologies in the particular contexts of the 2005 Gulf Coast hurricanes and the Energy Policy Act of 2005.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy: Useful Facts and Numbers

Energy: Useful Facts and Numbers

Date: November 15, 2004
Creator: Glover, Carol & Behrens, Carl E
Description: Energy supplies and prices are a major economic factor in the United States, and energy markets are volatile and unpredictable. For both these reasons, energy policy is of frequent interest to the Congress. This report presents a statistical view of the supply and consumption of various forms of energy. After an introductory overview of aggregate energy consumption, the report presents detailed analysis of trends and statistics regarding specific energy sources: oil, electricity, natural gas, and coal. A section on trends in energy efficiency is also presented.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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