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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2004
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Information Sharing for Homeland Security: A Brief Overview

Information Sharing for Homeland Security: A Brief Overview

Date: September 22, 2004
Creator: Relyea, Harold C. & Seifert, Jeffrey W.
Description: This report reviews some of the principal existing homeland security information sharing arrangements, as well as some projected arrangements in this regard, and discusses related policy, evaluations, and proposed legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Financial Aid for Students: Print and Web Guides

Financial Aid for Students: Print and Web Guides

Date: November 2, 2004
Creator: Mages, Lisa
Description: This report provides a list of books and Web addresses intended to help students locate financial aid. This list includes both general and comprehensive works, as well as ones targeted toward specific types of aid and circumstances (e.g., non-need-based scholarships, female and minority students, or students studying abroad).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Social Security: The Government Pension Offset (GPO)

Social Security: The Government Pension Offset (GPO)

Date: July 6, 2004
Creator: Haltzel, Laura
Description: This report discusses the social security benefits and the spousal benefits of individuals who are not financially dependent on their spouses because they receive benefits based on their own work records.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: U.S. Military Operations

Iraq: U.S. Military Operations

Date: March 9, 2004
Creator: Bowman, Steve
Description: This report discusses US military operations in Iraq. Iraq's chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons programs, together with Iraqi long-range missile development and support for al-Queda terrorism, were the primary justifications put forward for military action.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Private Bills: Procedure in the House

Private Bills: Procedure in the House

Date: October 21, 2004
Creator: Beth, Richard S.
Description: This report briefly discusses private bills, which are bills providing benefits to specified individuals (including corporate bodies). Individuals sometimes request relief through private law when administrative or legal remedies are exhausted, but Congress seems more often to view private legislation as appropriate when no other remedy is available, and when enactment would, in a broad sense, afford equity.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Proposed Change to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) under S. 113

Proposed Change to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) under S. 113

Date: August 9, 2004
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer
Description: This report discusses S. 113, a bill to extend the coverage of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act ("FISA") to non-U.S. persons who engage in international terrorism or activities in preparation for terrorist acts, without a showing of membership in or affiliation with an international terrorist group.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Amendments in the Senate: Types and Forms

Amendments in the Senate: Types and Forms

Date: November 2, 2004
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Description: This report briefly describes the various types of amendments that take place in the Senate. It has sections describing distinctions among amendments, degrees of amendments, forms of amendments, and the scope of amendments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Automatic Enrollment in Section 401(k) Plans

Automatic Enrollment in Section 401(k) Plans

Date: October 14, 2004
Creator: Purcell, Patrick
Description: This report discusses enrollment practices for 401k retirement plans. Historically, most employers that have sponsored retirement savings plans under §401(k) of the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) have required employees to decide whether to enroll in the plan. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) has issued rulings to inform employers that current law allows them to enroll employees automatically, provided that the employee is notified in advance and is permitted to leave the plan.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Basic Federal Budgeting Terminology

Basic Federal Budgeting Terminology

Date: November 22, 2004
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the basic terminology and concepts used in the federal budget process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Health Care Spending: Past Trends and Projections

Health Care Spending: Past Trends and Projections

Date: April 8, 2004
Creator: Morgan, Paulette C.
Description: This report focuses on trends in personal health care spending, which includes spending on health care goods and services provided to individuals and excludes expenditures for administrative costs, research, and public health activities. Personal health care expenditures have grown considerably over the past 40 years. It is estimated that personal health spending will exceed $2.9 trillion in 2013.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Retirement Savings Tax Credit: A Fact Sheet

The Retirement Savings Tax Credit: A Fact Sheet

Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: Purcell, Patrick
Description: This report discusses the saver's tax credit, under which eligible individuals receive a non-refundable tax credit of up to $1,000 for contributing to a traditional IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement plan that is qualified under §401, §403 or §457 of the Internal Revenue Code. The credit was first available in 2002 but will expire after 2006 unless extended by Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Student Loans: Terms and Conditions for Borrowers

Federal Student Loans: Terms and Conditions for Borrowers

Date: November 16, 2004
Creator: Stoll, Adam
Description: This report discusses major provisions of the law pertaining to federal student loan borrowers who receive loans through the Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) and William D. Ford Direct Loan (DL) programs. The primary emphasis is placed on discussing provisions related to borrower eligibility, loan terms and conditions, borrower repayment relief, and loan default and its consequences for borrowers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential Vetoes, 1789-Present: A Summary Overview

Presidential Vetoes, 1789-Present: A Summary Overview

Date: April 7, 2004
Creator: Sollenberger, Mitchel A.
Description: This report discusses the veto power vested in the President by Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution. It provides a general overview and a table of presidential vetoes from 1789-2004, listing the coincident Congresses, regular vetoes, pocket vetoes, total vetoes, and vetoes overridden for each president.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fairness in Asbestos Injury Resolution Act of 2004 (S. 2290, 108th Congress)

Fairness in Asbestos Injury Resolution Act of 2004 (S. 2290, 108th Congress)

Date: April 14, 2004
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: This report provides an overview of S. 2290, 108th Congress, the Fairness in Asbestos Injury Resolution Act of 2004 (or FAIR Act of 2004). The bill is a revised version of S. 1125, 108th Congress, and would create the Office of Asbestos Disease Compensation to award damages to asbestos claimants on a no-fault basis. Asbestos claims could no longer be filed or pursued under state law, except for the enforcement of judgments no longer subject to any appeal or judicial review before the date of enactment of the bill.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bills and Resolutions: Examples of How Each Kind Is Used

Bills and Resolutions: Examples of How Each Kind Is Used

Date: December 7, 2004
Creator: Beth, Richard S.
Description: This report briefly describes the process by which Congress seeks to pass a law. During this process Congress uses a bill or joint resolution, which must be passed by both houses in identical form, that is then presented to the President for his approval or disapproval.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Presidential Veto and Congressional Procedure

The Presidential Veto and Congressional Procedure

Date: February 27, 2004
Creator: Sollenberger, Mitchel A.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of procedures involved in vetoing a bill and the ways Congress can respond to a presidential veto. Presidential vetoes are a rejection of legislation approved by majorities in both houses of Congress. Vetoes and congressional efforts to override them are often the reason for, or a reflection of, conflict between Congress and the President. The threat of a presidential veto can prompt the modification of bills moving through the legislative process. Tabular data are provided on the number of presidential vetoes exercised by each President from George Washington to William Clinton.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Gender Wage Gap and Pay Equity: Is Comparable Worth the Next Step?

The Gender Wage Gap and Pay Equity: Is Comparable Worth the Next Step?

Date: December 20, 2004
Creator: Levine, Linda
Description: This report examines the trend in the male-female wage gap and the explanations offered for its existence. Remedies proposed for the gender wage gap's amelioration are addressed, with an in-depth focus on the comparable worth approach to achieving "pay equity" or "fair pay" between women and men.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Endangered Species: Difficult Choices

Endangered Species: Difficult Choices

Date: June 14, 2004
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.; Corn, M. L. & Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report discusses various measures being considered by Congress that propose to amend the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). Major issues in recent years have focused on whether to incorporate further protection for property owners and reduce regulatory impacts, whether to increase the protection afforded listed species, or whether to modify various aspects of the ESA, such as the role of science in decision-making.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Amendments in Disagreement

Amendments in Disagreement

Date: November 3, 2004
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Description: This report briefly summarizes the process of amendments between the House of Representatives and the Senate, which occurs if the House and Senate approve differing versions of a measure. The House and Senate must approve an identical version of a measure before it may be presented for the President's approval or veto. If the House and Senate approve differing versions of a measure, the differences must first be resolved.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The President Pro Tempore of the Senate: History and Authority of the Office

The President Pro Tempore of the Senate: History and Authority of the Office

Date: July 26, 2004
Creator: Sachs, Richard C.
Description: This report traces the constitutional origins and development of the office of President pro tempore of the Senate, reviews its current role and authority, and provides information on Senators who have held this office -- and the more recently-created subsidiary offices -- over the past two centuries.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Stem Cell Research

Stem Cell Research

Date: August 13, 2004
Creator: Johnson, Judith A. & Williams, Erin
Description: This report provides background on the research and potential applications of research that uses embryonic and adult stem cells. It also provides information about the current federal and state regulatory landscape, related Congressional and international actions, and relevant ethical concerns.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Sponsorship and Cosponsorship of Senate Bills

Sponsorship and Cosponsorship of Senate Bills

Date: June 21, 2004
Creator: Sachs, Richard C.
Description: This report discusses the sponsorship and co-sponsorship of Senate bills. A Senator who introduces a bill or other measure in the Senate is called its sponsor. Senators may together submit a bill, but the first-named Senator is considered the chief sponsor; the others are considered cosponsors.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Missile Defense: The Current Debate

Missile Defense: The Current Debate

Date: December 7, 2004
Creator: Hildreth, Steven A.
Description: This report provides background information on the Bush Administration's proposed approach toward the development and deployment of missile defense. It also discusses key related issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
President Clinton's Vetoes

President Clinton's Vetoes

Date: April 7, 2004
Creator: Sollenberger, Mitchel A.
Description: This report provides a table outlining the bills vetoed by President William Jefferson Clinton's two terms in office. It includes an overview and the bill number, date, title, and override attempts for each veto.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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