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 Country: Russia
 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Nuclear Arms Control: The Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty

Nuclear Arms Control: The Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty

Date: January 18, 2008
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Description: This report provides background information regarding the Nuclear Arms Control negotiations between U.S. and Russia. In addition it discusses treaties, the content and form of the agreements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)

The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)

Date: June 4, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the increasing international pressure on Iran to curb its nuclear program and how that pressure discourages foreign firms from investing in Iran's energy sector, hindering Iran's efforts to expand oil production. This report discusses the history and progress of the formal U.S. effort to curb energy investment in Iran, which began with the Iran Sanctions Act (ISA) in 1996. This report also discusses U.S. concerns that other nations, e.g., U.S. allies, Russia, and China, are not as strict with their economic sanctions against Iran, and how U.S. policymakers are combating this reticence with various pieces of legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Moldova: Basic Facts

Moldova: Basic Facts

Date: June 26, 2001
Creator: Woehrel, Steven
Description: Moldova was incorporated into the Soviet Union June 1940, and regained its independence on August 27, 1991. Shortly thereafter, Moldova faced challenges from Turkic-speaking Gagauz and ethnic Russians, both residing in Moldova's Dniestr valley, who proclaimed separatist "republics." Other challenges facing Moldovans include pursuing economic reform and choosing between potential reunification with their ethnic cohorts in Romania and forging an independent identity.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Russia's Economic Performance and Policies and Their Implications for the United States

Russia's Economic Performance and Policies and Their Implications for the United States

Date: June 29, 2009
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: As has been the case with most of the world's economies, the Russian economy has been hit hard by the current global financial crisis. Even before the financial crisis, however, Russia was showing signs of economic problems. Russian economic policies and performance raise important policy questions for the United States and the U.S.-Russian relationship which this report addresses. Might Russia's robust economic growth return? Is an economically strong Russia a threat or benefit to the United States? Is Russia following economic strategies that promote a market economy that underlies the international trade system manifested in the World Trade Organization?
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S.-Russia Meat and Poultry Trade Issues

U.S.-Russia Meat and Poultry Trade Issues

Date: September 11, 2008
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.
Description: Russia announced on August 29, 2008, that it was banning poultry imports from 19 U.S. establishments due to safety concerns, and that 29 others could lose approval if they do not improve their standards. Russian officials also signaled that they might reduce U.S. permits to import poultry and pork under that country's quota system. The economic stakes of Russian import actions are high for U.S. poultry producers - 29% of their exports went to that market in 2007 - and red meat producers, who also are experiencing strong growth in the Russian market. In Congress, any potential options likely would be reviewed within the context of the broader geopolitical situation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S.-Russian Civilian Nuclear Cooperation Agreement: Issues for Congress

U.S.-Russian Civilian Nuclear Cooperation Agreement: Issues for Congress

Date: July 30, 2008
Creator: Nikitin, Mary Beth
Description: The United States and Russia signed a civilian nuclear cooperation agreement on May 6, 2008. President Bush submitted the agreement to Congress on May 13. This report discusses key policy issues related to that agreement, including future nuclear energy cooperation with Russia, U.S.-Russian bilateral relations, nonproliferation cooperation and Russia's policies toward Iran.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S.-Russian Civilian Nuclear Cooperation Agreement: Issues for Congress

U.S.-Russian Civilian Nuclear Cooperation Agreement: Issues for Congress

Date: June 26, 2008
Creator: Nikitin, Mary Beth
Description: The United States and Russia signed a civilian nuclear cooperation agreement on May 6, 2008. President Bush submitted the agreement to Congress on May 13. This report discusses key policy issues related to that agreement, including future nuclear energy cooperation with Russia, U.S.-Russian bilateral relations, nonproliferation cooperation, and Russia's policies toward Iran.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Kosovo's Independence and U.S. Policy

Kosovo's Independence and U.S. Policy

Date: June 17, 2008
Creator: Woehrel, Steven
Description: On February 17, 2008, Kosovo declared its independence from Serbia. On February 18, the United States recognized Kosovo as an independent state. Britain, France, Germany, Italy, and most other European Union countries have also recognized Kosovo. Serbia and Russia have heatedly objected to the recognition of Kosovo's independence. Independent Kosovo faces many challenges, including its relations with Serbia and Serbs in Kosovo, as well as weak institutions and an underdeveloped economy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Date: July 18, 2006
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: At several meetings with Russian President Vladimir Putin, President George W. Bush stated that his administration will work with the Congress to grant Russia permanent 'normal trade relations" (PNTR) status. The change in Russia's trade status will require legislation to lift the restrictions currently applied to Russia under Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974, which includes the "freedom-of-emigration" requirements of the Jackson-Vanik amendment. The Bush Administration requested the 108th Congress to act. Two bills were introduced in the Senate and one in the House but none of them received further congressional action.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Democracy in Russia: Trends and Implications for U.S. Interests

Democracy in Russia: Trends and Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: August 29, 2006
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: U.S. attention has focused on Russia's fitful democratization since Russia emerged in 1991 from the collapse of the Soviet Union. Many observers have argued that a democratic Russia with free markets would be a cooperative bilateral and multilateral partner rather than an insular and hostile national security threat. President Putin's 2004 proposal to restructure the government has been supported by international observers. The U.S. Administration and Congress have welcomed some cooperation with Russia on vital U.S. national security concerns, including the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, among other issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Arms Control: The Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty

Nuclear Arms Control: The Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty

Date: October 12, 2006
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Description: On May 24, 2002, President Bush and Russia's President Putin signed the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (known as the Treaty of Moscow) that will reduce strategic nuclear weapons to between 1,700 and 2,200 warheads by December 31, 2012. Russia convinced the United States to sign a legally binding treaty, but the United States rejected any limits and counting rules that would require the elimination of delivery vehicles and warheads removed from service. It wanted the flexibility to reduce its forces at its own pace, and to restore warheads to deployed forces if conditions warranted. Russian officials have hailed the success of Russia's diplomacy in convincing the United States to sign a legally binding Treaty that casts Russia as an equal partner in the arms control process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance in 1992: The Role of Congress

The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance in 1992: The Role of Congress

Date: May 20, 2004
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt
Description: This report discusses the key role Congress played in formulating an aid program for the former Soviet Union in 1992.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Democracy in Russia: Trends and Implications for U.S. Interests

Democracy in Russia: Trends and Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: August 29, 2006
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: U.S. attention has focused on Russia's fitful democratization since Russia emerged in 1991 from the collapse of the Soviet Union. Many observers have argued that a democratic Russia with free markets would be a cooperative bilateral and multilateral partner rather than an insular and hostile national security threat. President Putin's 2004 proposal to restructure the government has been supported by international observers. The U.S. Administration and Congress have welcomed some cooperation with Russia on vital U.S. national security concerns, including the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, among other issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Date: July 18, 2006
Creator: Cooper, William H
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Date: July 18, 2006
Creator: Cooper, William H
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Democracy in Russia: Trends and Implications for U.S. Interests

Democracy in Russia: Trends and Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: August 29, 2006
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: U.S. attention has focused on Russia's fitful democratization since Russia emerged in 1991 from the collapse of the Soviet Union. Many observers have argued that a democratic Russia with free markets would be a cooperative bilateral and multilateral partner rather than an insular and hostile national security threat. President Putin's 2004 proposal to restructure the government has been supported by international observers. The U.S. Administration and Congress have welcomed some cooperation with Russia on vital U.S. national security concerns, including the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, among other issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Russia's Cutoff of Natural Gas to Ukraine: Context and Implications

Russia's Cutoff of Natural Gas to Ukraine: Context and Implications

Date: February 15, 2006
Creator: Nichol, Jim; Woehrel, Steven & Gelb, Bernard A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Russia's Accession to the WTO

Russia's Accession to the WTO

Date: April 20, 2006
Creator: Cooper, William H
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Russia

Russia

Date: May 8, 2006
Creator: Goldman, Stuart D
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Russia

Russia

Date: May 4, 2006
Creator: Goldman, Stuart D
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Russia

Russia

Date: March 22, 2006
Creator: Goldman, Stuart D
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Russia

Russia

Date: March 23, 2005
Creator: Goldman, Stuart D
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Russia

Russia

Date: January 5, 2005
Creator: Goldman, Stuart D
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Russia

Russia

Date: November 18, 2004
Creator: Goldman, Stuart D
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department