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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
FY2017 Defense Budget Request: In Brief
This report discusses the Obama Administration's FY2017 budget request, which includes $619.5 billion for national defense of which $590.6 billion is for the Department of Defense (DOD). It includes an overview of the defense budget structure including defense and budget caps, the base budget request, funding over overseas contingency operations, and other selected budget issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824759/
Basic Federal Budgeting Terminology
This report provides a brief overview of the basic terminology and concepts used in the federal budget process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824767/
Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) and Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC): Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses issues surrounding the funding for development of Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) and Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC). The Marines are required by law to have the necessary equipment to conduct amphibious operations and land operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824788/
Social Security and the Federal Budget: What Does Social Security's Being "Off Budget" Mean?
This report discusses social security and its place in the federal budget. As a result of a series of laws enacted in 1983, 1985 and 1990, Social Security is considered to be "off budget" for federal budget purposes. While the meaning of this might seem obvious--that Social Security is not to be considered as part of the federal budget--many people are confused by the continued use of aggregate budget figures that include Social Security's receipts and expenditures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824792/
Intelligence Spending: In Brief
This report examines intelligence funding over the past several decades, with an emphasis on the period from 2007-2017--the period in which total national and military intelligence program spending dollars have been publicly disclosed on an annual basis. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824797/
Child Welfare: Program Reauthorizations and Recent and FY2006 Proposed Funding Levels
This report discusses current funding levels for child welfare programs, intended to protect children from abuse and neglect and to ensure their well-being. In FY2005 the federal government appropriated $7.8 billion for these purposes. Most of this funding is made available to states through open-ended entitlement programs or as formula grants and is authorized under Title IV-E and Title IV-B of the Social Security Act or under the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824809/
Deficits and Debt: Economic Effects and Other Issues
This report explores distinctions in the concept and composition of deficits and debt, explains how these two measures interact, and discusses their possible effects on the economy. The combination of persistent budget deficits and a large and increasing federal debt has generated discussions over the long-term sustainability of current budget projections. Federal debt totaled $18.922 trillion at the end of calendar year 2015, and as a percentage of GDP is at its highest value since the end of World War II; $13.673 trillion of that debt was held by the public. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824664/
Appropriations for FY2002: U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies
This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Agriculture by summarizing the current legislative status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related legislative activity. The report also lists the key CRS staff relevant to the issues covered and related CRS products. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824665/
K-12 Education Programs: Appropriations Summary
This report summarizes the amount of federal appropriations for K-12 education, including total elementary and secondary funding, recent increases, and the major components counted in the K-12 total. K-12 components include: the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA), as amended by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLBA), P.L. 107-110; the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA); the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1998; and the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824666/
Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Navy's Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate program, a program to procure a large number of LCSs and modified LCSs (frigates). The Navy's execution of the program has been a matter of congressional oversight attention for several years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824668/
Ocean Energy Agency Appropriations, FY2016
This report discusses FY2016 appropriations for the Department of the Interior's (DOI's) Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE), and Office of Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR)--the three agencies that collectively administer federal ocean energy resources covering more than 1.7 billion acres on the U.S. outer continental shelf (OCS). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824669/
Congress and the Budget: 2016 Actions and Events
This report seeks to assist in (1) anticipating what federal budget-related actions might occur within the year 2016, and (2) staying abreast of budget actions that occur this year. It provides a general description of the recurrent types of budgetary actions, and reflects on current events that unfold in each category during 2016. In addition, it includes information on certain events that may affect Congress's work on the budget, such as the President's budget request and the Congressional Budget Office's budget and economic outlook. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824676/
The Spending Pipeline: Stages of Federal Spending
This report briefly outlines the process for federal government spending, a multi-step process in which budget authority is enacted and obligated, and outlays are generated. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824680/
The Higher Education Act: Reauthorization Status and Issues
This report provides an overview of postsecondary education (institutions and students), an overview of the Higher Education Act (HEA) with a focus on its most significant programs and provisions, and a discussion of major issues that have been, or may be, of interest to the Congress during the HEA reauthorization process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824697/
Omnibus Appropriations Acts: Overview of Recent Practices
This report provides pertinent background information, reviews the recent enactment of omnibus appropriation measures, and briefly addresses several issues raised by their use. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824703/
Congress and the Budget: 2016 Actions and Events
The Constitution grants Congress the power of the purse, but does not dictate how Congress must fulfill this constitutional duty. Congress has, therefore, developed certain types of budgetary legislation, along with rules and practices that govern its content and consideration. This set of budgetary legislation, rules, and practices is often referred to as the congressional budget process. This report seeks to assist in anticipating what budget-related actions might occur within the upcoming year, and staying abreast of budget actions that occur this year. It provides a general description of the recurrent types of budgetary actions, and reflects on current events that unfold in each category during 2016. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824708/
Amtrak: Budget and Reauthorizaton
This issue brief discusses reform proposals from both the Administration and Amtrak in the 109th Congress. It addresses the appropriations requested by Amtrak, the reluctance of the Administration to provide aid, and its willingness to let Amtrak enter bankruptcy, resulting in restructuring and reform of inefficient operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824722/
Revenue Legislation in the Congressional Budget Process
This report discusses revenue legislation, which may include changes to individual and corporate income taxes, social insurance taxes, excise taxes, or tariffs and duties. Congressional consideration of revenue legislation is governed by various constitutional provisions and procedural rules. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824731/
An Examination of Federal Disaster Relief Under the Budget Control Act
The first section of this report addresses the pre-BCA (Budget Control Act) funding mechanism for major disaster declarations, including the role of the President's Disaster Relief Fund (DRF). Next, this report provides a basic overview of how that funding mechanism has evolved under the BCA, and how Hurricane Sandy was addressed under that mechanism. Finally, the report explores a number of other issues pertinent to disaster relief funding in the BCA-regulated environment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824737/
FY2017 State, Foreign Operations and Related Programs Budget Request: In Brief
This report provides an overview and highlights of budget requests for the State Department, Foreign Operations, and Related Appropriations (SFOPS). It includes information from the previous fiscal years with an account-by-account comparison of the FY2017 request to the FY2016 estimates and FY2015 actuals in Appendix A. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824741/
What If the National Debt Were Eliminated? Some Economic Consequences
This report examines various aspects of the national debt and explains what would happen if the debt were eliminated. The national debt currently held by the public stands at $3.4 trillion, or about 35% of gross domestic product (GDP). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824747/
Combating Terrorism: First Emergency Supplemental Appropriations - Distribution of Funds to Departments and Agencies
This report provides background on the 2001 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States, P.L. 107-38 (H.R. 2888) as well as the criteria for use of the funds developed by The Office of Management and Budget (OMB). It also outlines information about supplemental fund distributions in three tables. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824750/
Trends in the Timing and Size of DHS Appropriations: In Brief
This report examines trends in the timing and size of homeland security appropriations measures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824584/
Federal Health Centers: An Overview
This report provides an overview of the federal Health Center Program, including its statutory authority, program requirements, and appropriation levels. It then describes health centers in general, including where they are located, their patient population, and outcomes associated with health center use. The report also describes federal programs available to assist health center operations, including the federally qualified health center (FQHC) designation for Medicare and Medicaid payments. The report concludes with two appendices that describe FQHC payments for Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries served at health centers and programs that are similar to health centers but not authorized in Section 330 of the Public Health Service Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824594/
War on Drugs: The National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign
This report discusses the authorization of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, a multi-media federal program to persuade America's youth not to use drugs, which expired at the end of FY2002. H.R. 2829 (passed by the House on March 13, 2006) and S. 2560 (reported by the Senate Judiciary Committee on May 25, 2006) would reauthorize the media campaign, along with the other programs run by the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) during FY2007. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824468/
The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016: Effects on Budgetary Trends
This report discusses recent changes to the federal budget outlook and the effects of these amendments on recent budgetary trends using the CBO and JCT cost estimates for the legislation, the CBO budget forecast released in August 2015, and OMB historical data. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824474/
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and issues for Congress concerning the Navy's ship force-structure goals and shipbuilding plans. The planned size of the Navy, the rate of Navy ship procurement, and the prospective affordability of the Navy's shipbuilding plans have been matters of concern for the congressional defense committees for the past several years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824498/
Navy LX(R) Amphibious Ship Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress regarding the LX(R) ships meant to replase the Whidbey Island/Harpers Ferry (LSD-41/49) class amphibious ships. In particular, issues focus on funding for the research and development of the ships and their procurement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824623/
Functional Categories of the Federal Budget
This report presents a list of the 20 functional categories currently included in the federal budget, as well as the sub-functions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824636/
Comparing DHS Appropriations by Component, FY2016: Fact Sheet
This report provides a table and figure that compare homeland security appropriations enacted in FY2015 to those requested for FY2016. Generally, the homeland security appropriations bill includes all annual appropriations for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), providing resources to every departmental component. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824514/
Transit Reauthorization in the 109th Congress
This report reviews the current structure and financing of federal transit programs, and briefly examines the financing issues and program changes proposed in the reauthorization bills for surface transportation programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824531/
Techniques for Preventing a Budget Sequester
This report briefly describes the budget sequestration process, including the ways in which a sequester could be avoided under the regular process, and then discusses in more detail various techniques that have been used since FY1991 to prevent a sequester by intervening in the regular process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824535/
Budget Resolution Enforcement
This report briefly discusses the annual budget resolution, which sets forth Congress's budget plan for a period of at least five fiscal years. It includes total levels of new budget authority, outlays, revenues, the deficit, and the public debt for each of the fiscal years covered. Once a budget resolution is adopted, Congress may enforce its provisions, through points of order, at several levels: the total levels of spending and revenues, the level of resources allocated to committees, and the level of resources allocated to the appropriations subcommittees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824536/
The Budget Reconciliation Process: Timing of Legislative Action
This report discusses the budget reconciliation process that has been one of the chief tools used by Congress during the period covering from 1980 to the present to implement major changes in budget policy. Following a brief overview of the budget reconciliation process, this report provides information on the timing of House and Senate action on reconciliation measures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824545/
Legislative Branch: FY2016 Appropriations
This report provides an overview of the consideration of FY2016 legislative branch appropriations, with subsections covering each action. It also addresses the FY2016 budget requests, hearings, and requested administrative language or other major funding issues for individual legislative branch agencies and entities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824546/
Budget Reconciliation Process: Timing of Committee Responses to Reconciliation Directives
This report examines the timing of certain stages of the budget reconciliation process and the extent to which the submission due date included in a reconciliation instruction is a predictor for the timing of committee response. Specifically, it provides information on the dates by which committees have been directed to respond to reconciliation directives and the timing of House and Senate committees in responding to such directives in the past 14 Congresses (101st-114th Congresses). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824422/
Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Virginia-class nuclear-powered attack submarine (SSN) program. The Navy's proposed FY2017 budget requests $4,955.2 million in procurement and advance procurement (AP) funding for the program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824430/
Justice and Mental Health Collaboration Program: Fact Sheet
This report discusses the federal government funding for mental illness and surrounding issues, such as mental health courts and mental health collaboration programs. People with mental illness comprise a significant proportion of the population involved with the criminal justice system. The Bureau of Justice Statistics reports that at midyear 2005, over half of state prison and local jail inmates had a mental health problem. Mental health courts were developed to respond to the large number of people in the criminal justice systems with mental illness. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824432/
Financing Issues and Economic Effects of American Wars
This report examines financing and economic issues in World War II, the Korean Conflict, the Vietnam Conflict, the Reagan Military Buildup, and the 1991 and 2003 wars in Iraq. It examines tax policy, non-military outlays, the budget balance, economic growth, inflation, and interest rates during these periods. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824440/
Navy John Lewis (TAO-205) Class Oiler Shipbuilding Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the John Lewis (TAO-205) class oiler shipbuilding program, previously known as the TAO(X) program, a program to build a new class of 17 fleet oilers for the Navy. The Navy wants to procure the first TAO-205 in FY2016. The Navy's proposed FY2016 budget requested $674.2 million to fully fund the procurement of the first TAO-205. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824442/
Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals
This report provides a brief history of impoundment and discusses the debate surrounding the line item veto, particularly in relation to federal spending and the budget process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824443/
Public Aid to Faith-Based Organizations (Charitable Choice): Background and Selected Legal Issues
This report provides background on ten selected questions related to public aid for faith-based organization. Despite the ongoing controversy about charitable choice, not until the 107th Congress were there full hearings and extended debates on its constitutionality, efficacy, and public policy implications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824455/
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process
This report provides a brief overview of the causes and effects of federal government shutdowns. This report provides a brief overview of the causes and effects of federal government shutdowns. When federal agencies and programs lack appropriated funding, they must cease operations, except in emergency situations. The failure of the President and Congress to reach agreement on funding measures has caused government shutdowns. It is necessary either to enact temporary funding legislation at the close of the fiscal year or to shut down the activities that are not funded at that time. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824456/
Broadband Internet Access and the Digital Divide: Federal Assistance Programs
This report discusses the "digital divide," a term that has been used to characterize a gap between those Americans who use or have access to telecommunications technologies (e.g., telephones, computers, the Internet) and those who do not. It particularly discusses one important subset of the digital divide debate concerns high speed Internet access or broadband. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824461/
Discretionary Spending Limits for FY2002: A Procedural Assessment
This report discusses discretionary spending, which is provided in annual appropriations acts, is constrained in part by limits set in the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, as amended. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821689/
Sea-Based Ballistic Missile Defense — Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the global ballistic missile defense (BMD) system developed by the Department of Defense (DOD). The overall issue for Congress discussed in this report is: What should be the role of seabased systems in U.S. ballistic missile defense, and are DOD’s programs for seabased BMD capabilities appropriately structured and funded? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc810766/
The Jones Act: An Overview
This report discuses the Jones Act, which purpose is to ensure that the nation has a sufficient merchant marine and shipbuilding base to protect the nation’s defense and commercial interests. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821665/
Defense Program Issue: Global Information Grid, Bandwidth Expansion (GIG-BE)
This report discusses the Global Information Grid (GIG), which is the enabling infrastructure for Network Centric Warfare (NCW), a concept that relies on communications technology to link together U.S. military personnel, ground vehicles, aircraft, and naval vessels through integrated wide and local area networks to provide improved battle space awareness for joint military forces digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821704/
Selected Interior and Related Agencies Budget Requests for I T 1995
This report reviews the FY 1995 budget request of the Department of the Interior with brief analyses of the budget requests of selected agencies within the department that principally are involved in natural resources programs or activities. This report also provides an overview of the mission of the Department of the Interior, its organization, and its major budget initiatives for FY 1995 . digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822588/
Agricultural Issues in the 109th Congress
This report discusses a number of issues affecting U.S. agriculture have been or are being addressed by the 109th Congress. The Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 (P.L. 109-171), enacted in February 2006, included a net reduction in spending on U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) mandatory programs of $2.7 billion over five years, and the reauthorization of a dairy income support program. Other issues of importance to agriculture during the second session of the 109th Congress include the consideration of emergency farm disaster assistance; multilateral and bilateral trade negotiations; concerns about agroterrorism, food safety, and animal and plant diseases (e.g., “mad cow” disease and avian flu); high energy costs; environmental issues; agricultural marketing matters; the reauthorization of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission; and farm labor issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822378/
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