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 Resource Type: Report
 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Recess Appointments: Frequently Asked Questions

Recess Appointments: Frequently Asked Questions

Date: August 25, 2006
Creator: Hogue, Henry B.
Description: This report supplies brief answers to some frequently asked questions regarding recess appointments. When the Senate is in recess, the President may make a temporary appointment, called a recess appointment, to any such position without Senate approval (Article II, Section 2, Clause 3).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential Vetoes, 1789-Present: A Summary Overview

Presidential Vetoes, 1789-Present: A Summary Overview

Date: April 7, 2004
Creator: Sollenberger, Mitchel A.
Description: This report discusses the veto power vested in the President by Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution. It provides a general overview and a table of presidential vetoes from 1789-2004, listing the coincident Congresses, regular vetoes, pocket vetoes, total vetoes, and vetoes overridden for each president.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Presidential Veto and Congressional Procedure

The Presidential Veto and Congressional Procedure

Date: February 27, 2004
Creator: Sollenberger, Mitchel A.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of procedures involved in vetoing a bill and the ways Congress can respond to a presidential veto. Presidential vetoes are a rejection of legislation approved by majorities in both houses of Congress. Vetoes and congressional efforts to override them are often the reason for, or a reflection of, conflict between Congress and the President. The threat of a presidential veto can prompt the modification of bills moving through the legislative process. Tabular data are provided on the number of presidential vetoes exercised by each President from George Washington to William Clinton.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
President Clinton's Vetoes

President Clinton's Vetoes

Date: April 7, 2004
Creator: Sollenberger, Mitchel A.
Description: This report provides a table outlining the bills vetoed by President William Jefferson Clinton's two terms in office. It includes an overview and the bill number, date, title, and override attempts for each veto.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential Directives: Background and Overview

Presidential Directives: Background and Overview

Date: January 7, 2005
Creator: Relyea, Harold C.
Description: This report provides an overview of the different kinds of directives that have primarily been utilized by twentieth-century Presidents. It includes background on the historical development, accounting, use, and effect of such directives.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Overrides of Presidential Vetoes

Congressional Overrides of Presidential Vetoes

Date: April 7, 2004
Creator: Sollenberger, Mitchel A.
Description: This report discusses Congress' power to override presidential vetoes. The President's veto authority is among his most significant tools in legislative dealings with Congress. It is effective not only in preventing the passage of legislation undesirable to the President, but also as a threat, sometimes forcing Congress to modify legislation before it is presented to the President.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Recess Judges

Federal Recess Judges

Date: February 2, 2005
Creator: Fisher, Louis
Description: This report discusses the recess clause and takes a look at the history of recess appointments. Under Article II of the Constitution, the President is empowered "to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session." Presidents have used the recess appointment power on more than 300 occasions to place judges on the district, appellate, and U.S. Supreme Court level. This practice slowed after the 1950s, but recent recess appointments to federal appellate courts (the Fourth, Fifth, and Eleventh Circuits) have revived a number of constitutional issues.
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Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals

Date: November 22, 2004
Creator: McMurtry, Virginia A.
Description: This report provides a brief history of impoundment and discusses the debate surrounding the line item veto, particularly in relation to federal spending and the budget process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process

Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Effects, and Process

Date: September 20, 2004
Creator: Kosar, Kevin R.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the causes and effects of federal government shutdowns. This report provides a brief overview of the causes and effects of federal government shutdowns. When federal agencies and programs lack appropriated funding, they must cease operations, except in emergency situations. The failure of the President and Congress to reach agreement on funding measures has caused government shutdowns. It is necessary either to enact temporary funding legislation at the close of the fiscal year or to shut down the activities that are not funded at that time.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential Directives: Background and Overview

Presidential Directives: Background and Overview

Date: November 26, 2008
Creator: Relyea, Harold C.
Description: This report provides an overview of the different kinds of directives that have been utilized primarily by twentieth century Presidents. It presents background on their historical development, accounting, use, and effect.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
President Clinton’s Vetoes

President Clinton’s Vetoes

Date: October 7, 2000
Creator: Galemore, Gary L.
Description: This report provides a table outlining the bills vetoed by President William Jefferson Clinton's two terms in office. It includes an overview and the bill number, date, title, and override attempts for each veto.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Speed of Presidential and Senate Actions on Supreme Court Nominations, 1900-2005

Speed of Presidential and Senate Actions on Supreme Court Nominations, 1900-2005

Date: November 7, 2005
Creator: Garrett, R. Sam; Rutkus, Denis Steven & Copeland, Curtis W.
Description: This report provides information on the amount of time taken to act on all Supreme Court nominations occurring between 1900 and the present. It focuses on the actual amounts of time that Presidents and the Senate have taken to act (as opposed to the elapsed time between official points in the process).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
President of the United States: Compensation

President of the United States: Compensation

Date: August 6, 2008
Creator: Schwemle, Barbara L.
Description: This report discusses the President’s compensation and the three most recent increases to the salary enacted in 1949 (81st Congress), 1969 (91st Congress), and 1999 (106th Congress).
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The President’s Reorganization Authority: Review and Analysis

The President’s Reorganization Authority: Review and Analysis

Date: March 8, 2001
Creator: Moe, Ronald C.
Description: This report addresses three specific issues: (1) the historical basis and use of the President’s reorganization authority; (2) the factors contributing to the lapse of the President’s reorganization authority in 1984,1 and (3) thoughts on the future of reorganization in the executive branch.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential Transitions: Background and  Federal Support

Presidential Transitions: Background and Federal Support

Date: February 11, 2008
Creator: Smith, Stephanie
Description: This report discusses the Presidential Transition Act, which authorizes funding for the General Services Administration (GSA) to provide suitable office space, staff compensation and other services associated with the transition process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Counting Electoral Votes: An Overview of Procedures at the Joint Session, Including Objections by Members of Congress

Counting Electoral Votes: An Overview of Procedures at the Joint Session, Including Objections by Members of Congress

Date: December 8, 2008
Creator: Maskell, Jack & Rybicki, Elizabeth
Description: This report describes the steps which precede the joint session and the procedures set in the Constitution and statute by which the House and Senate jointly certify the results of the electoral vote. It also discusses the procedures set in law governing challenges to the validity of an electoral vote, and makes reference to the procedures followed during the joint session in 2005 by which the election of George W. Bush was certified.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Overview of the Impeachment Process

An Overview of the Impeachment Process

Date: April 20, 2005
Creator: Halstead, T.J.
Description: The Constitution sets forth the general principles which control the procedural aspects of impeachment, vesting the power to impeach in the House of Representatives, while imbuing the Senate with the power to try impeachments. Both the Senate and the House have designed procedures to implement these general principles in dealing with a wide range of impeachment issues. This report provides a brief overview of the impeachment process, reflecting the roles of both the House and the Senate during the course of an impeachment inquiry and trial.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Senate Executive Business and the Executive Calendar

Senate Executive Business and the Executive Calendar

Date: May 19, 2008
Creator: Oleszek, Walter J.
Description: The Senate has responsibilities under both Article I (outlining legislative prerogatives) and Article II of the Constitution. As a result, the upper body handles legislative and executive business differently. This report discusses the Senate’s lawmaking responsibilities under Article I; executive business, which consists of treaties and nominations.
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Evolution of the Senate's Role in the Nomination and Confirmation Process: A Brief History

Evolution of the Senate's Role in the Nomination and Confirmation Process: A Brief History

Date: July 2, 2008
Creator: Palmer, Betsy
Description: This report discusses the process of Advice and Consent in the Senate. Article II, Section 2 of the Constitution states that the President "shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other Public Ministers and Counsels, Judges of the Supreme Court, and all Other Officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law…."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential Records: Issues for the 111th Congress

Presidential Records: Issues for the 111th Congress

Date: February 17, 2009
Creator: Ginsberg, Wendy R.
Description: This report analyzes President Barack Obama's first executive order (E.O. 13489), which rescinded E.O. 13233, and discusses its departure from the policies of the previous administration. Additionally, this report examines H.R. 35 and its possible legislative effects on the presidential records policies of the Obama Administration.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Recess Appointments Made by President George W. Bush, January 20, 2001- October 31, 2008

Recess Appointments Made by President George W. Bush, January 20, 2001- October 31, 2008

Date: November 3, 2008
Creator: Hogue, Henry B. & Bearden, Maureen
Description: This report identifies recess appointments made by President George W. Bush from the time he took office on January 20, 2001, through October 31, 2008. Basic descriptive statistics regarding these appointments are also provided.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential Claims of Executive Privilege: History, Law, Practice and Recent Developments

Presidential Claims of Executive Privilege: History, Law, Practice and Recent Developments

Date: August 21, 2008
Creator: Rosenberg, Morton
Description: This report discusses the background of claims of executive privilege, a right to preserve the confidentiality of information and documents in the face of legislative demands, ending with a look into how President George W. Bush has used them.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Presidential Transitions: Issues Involving Outgoing and Incoming Administrations

Presidential Transitions: Issues Involving Outgoing and Incoming Administrations

Date: October 23, 2008
Creator: Halchin, L. E.
Description: This report discusses the issues involving transfer of power from one administration to the other. The smooth and orderly transfer of power can be a notable feature of presidential transitions, and a testament to the legitimacy and durability of the electoral and democratic processes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Stafford Act Disaster Assistance: Presidential Declarations, Eligible Activities, and Funding

Federal Stafford Act Disaster Assistance: Presidential Declarations, Eligible Activities, and Funding

Date: August 15, 2008
Creator: Bea, Keith
Description: This report discusses the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (the Stafford Act) that authorizes the President to issue major disaster, emergency, and fire management declarations, which in turn enable federal agencies to provide assistance to state and local governments overwhelmed by catastrophes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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