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 Country: Iraq
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
U.S. Policies on Iraq: CRS Experts
The following table provides access to names and contact information for CRS experts on policy concerns relating to Iraq. Policy areas identified include: U.S. policies on Iraq; governance in Iraq and U.S. military issues; refugees, internally displaced persons, and humanitarian assistance; prospects for Iraq's economy; resource and funding requirements; and the international context--the regional political and security environment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626961/
Private Security Contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan: Legal Issues
This report discusses the legal framework that applies to private security contractors (PSCs) in Iraq and Afghanistan. After presenting a general description of the types of law applicable, including international humanitarian law and relevant status of forces agreements, the report addresses some implications of international law and a multilateral proposal for the adoption of international "best practices" regarding the use of PSCs. The report follows up with a discussion of jurisdiction over PSC personnel in U.S. courts, whether federal or military courts, identifying possible means of prosecuting contractor personnel who are accused of violating the law overseas in the context of U.S. military operations, including a listing of known cases that have occurred or are pending. Finally, the report briefly discusses the possible implication of the roles of private security contractors with respect to inherently governmental functions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626948/
European Fighters in Syria and Iraq: Assessments, Responses, and Issues for the United States
This report discusses U.S. and European assessments of and responses to the foreign fighter phenomenon. It focuses on government policies primarily in Western European countries and analyzes EU measures to counter the foreign fighter threat given the EU's largely open internal borders and that 23 EU member states belong to the U.S. Visa Waiver Program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627136/
Iraq: Oil and Gas Legislation, Revenue Sharing, and U.S. Policy
This report reviews policy proposals and interim contracts, analyzes the positions of various Iraqi political actors, and discusses potential implications for U.S. foreign policy goals in Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627119/
Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks
This report provides an overview of Iraq's political transition from the dictatorship of Saddam Hussein to a plural polity that encompasses varying sects and ideological and political factions. This report also addresses ongoing governmental instabilities and their causes, as well as U.S. concerns about possible Iranian influence in Iraq as U.S. forces depart the country. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627204/
Private Security Contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan: Legal Issues
This report discusses the legal framework that applies to private security contractors (PSCs) in Iraq and Afghanistan. The report follows up with a discussion of jurisdiction over PSC personnel in U.S. courts, identifying possible means of prosecuting contractor personnel who are accused of violating the law overseas in the context of U.S. military operations. Finally, the report briefly discusses the possible implication of the roles of private security contractors with respect to inherently governmental functions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627137/
Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks
This report provides an overview of Iraq's political transition from the dictatorship of Saddam Hussein to a plural polity that encompasses varying sects and ideological and political factions. This report also addresses ongoing governmental instabilities and their causes, as well as U.S. concerns about possible Iranian influence in Iraq as U.S. forces depart the country. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626875/
Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks
This report provides an overview of Iraq's political transition from the dictatorship of Saddam Hussein to a plural polity that encompasses varying sects and ideological and political factions. This report also addresses ongoing governmental instabilities and their causes, as well as U.S. concerns about possible Iranian influence in Iraq as U.S. forces depart the country. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626874/
Islamic State Financing and U.S. Policy Approaches
This report discusses the U.S. policy approaches for countering the financial resources of the Islamic State, which has seized significant territory in Iraq and Syria and threatened to conduct attacks against the United States and its citizens. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505417/
Defense Logistical Support Contracts in Iraq and Afghanistan: Issues for Congress
This report examines logistical support contracts for troop support services in Iraq and Afghanistan (for Afghanistan, beginning with LOGCAP IV) administered through the U.S. Army's Logistics Civil Augmentation Program (LOGCAP). LOGCAP is an initiative designed to manage the use of civilian contractors that perform services during times of war and other military mobilizations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505429/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
This report gives a summary of the usage of the War Powers Resolution (WPR) and various issues related to proposals to modify or repeal the resolution. The report summarizes most recent developments and background, and gives an overview of United Nations actions, and WPR activities in former Yugoslavia/Bosnia, Kosovo, Iraq (post-1991), Haiti, and Somalia. It also includes commentary on the instances formally reported under the WPR, consultation with Congress, and the current issues which Congress is considering. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505358/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
This report gives a summary of the usage of the War Powers Resolution (WPR) and various issues related to proposals to modify or repeal the resolution. The report summarizes most recent developments and background, and gives an overview of United Nations actions, and WPR activities in former Yugoslavia/Bosnia, Kosovo, Iraq (post-1991), Haiti, and Somalia. It also includes commentary on the instances formally reported under the WPR, consultation with Congress, and the current issues which Congress is considering. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505601/
Executive Order 13438: Blocking Property of Certain Persons Who Threaten Stabilization Efforts in Iraq
This report provides a brief history of the development of presidential powers in peacetime. It discusses some of the issues that might be raised in light of the contrast between the executive order's broad language and its narrow aim. It examines the reach of the executive order and provides legal analyses of some of the constitutional questions raised in the courts by similar sanctions programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505572/
Iraq: Politics, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the current political and social climate of Iraq, specifically in regards to the influence of the U.S. military presence over recent years. This report addresses planned and possible future efforts under the Obama Administration, including the scheduled gradual troops withdrawal. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505550/
The "Islamic State" Crisis and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the current crisis involving the Islamic State, which is a transnational Sunni Islamist insurgent and terrorist group that has expanded its control over areas of parts of Iraq and Syria since 2013. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505505/
War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance
This report gives a summary of the usage of the War Powers Resolution (WPR) and various issues related to proposals to modify or repeal the resolution. The report summarizes most recent developments and background, and gives an overview of United Nations actions, and WPR activities in former Yugoslavia/Bosnia, Kosovo, Iraq (post-1991), Haiti, and Somalia. It also includes commentary on the instances formally reported under the WPR, consultation with Congress, and the current issues which Congress is considering. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505558/
Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks
This report provides an overview of Iraq's political transition from the dictatorship of Saddam Hussein to a plural polity that encompasses varying sects and ideological and political factions. This report also addresses ongoing governmental instabilities and their causes, as well as U.S. concerns about possible Iranian influence in Iraq as U.S. forces depart the country. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503325/
A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: Issues and Current Proposals in Brief
This report discusses the authorization for use of military force against the Islamic State (IS), the crisis caused by IS and the U.S. response. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503658/
Defense Logistical Support Contracts in Iraq and Afghanistan: Issues for Congress
This report examines logistical support contracts for troop support services (also known as service contracts) in Iraq and Afghanistan, primarily administered through a smaller program, the United States Air Force Contract Augmentation Program (AFCAP) and a larger program, the United States Army's Logistics Civil Augmentation Program (LOGCAP). It focuses on contracts involving Department of Defense (DOD) appropriated funds, although some projects involve a blending of funds from other agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503596/
Defense Logistical Support Contracts in Iraq and Afghanistan: Issues for Congress
This report examines logistical support contracts for troop support services in Iraq and Afghanistan administered through the U.S. Army's Logistics Civil Augmentation Program (LOGCAP). LOGCAP is an initiative designed to manage the use of civilian contractors that perform services during times of war and other military mobilizations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503327/
The "Islamic State" Crisis and U.S. Policy
This report examines the current crisis in Iraq regarding the Islamic State, a transnational Sunni Islamist insurgent and terrorist group that has expanded its control over areas of parts of Iraq and Syria since 2013. There is debate over the degree to which the Islamic State organization might represent a direct terrorist threat to the U.S. homeland or to U.S. facilities and personnel in the region. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503641/
Iraq: Politics, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the current political and social climate of Iraq, specifically in regards to the influence of the U.S. military presence over recent years. This report addresses planned and possible future efforts under the Obama Administration, including the scheduled gradual troops withdrawal. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503665/
Iraq: Oil and Gas Sector, Revenue Sharing, and U.S. Policy
This report reviews policy proposals and interim contracts, analyzes the positions of various Iraqi political actors, and discusses potential implications for U.S. foreign policy goals in Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503619/
Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks
This report provides an overview of Iraq's political transition from the dictatorship of Saddam Hussein to a plural polity that encompasses varying sects and ideological and political factions. This report also addresses ongoing governmental instabilities and their causes, as well as U.S. concerns about possible Iranian influence in Iraq as U.S. forces depart the country. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503465/
Islam: Sunnis and Shiites
This report includes a historical background of the Sunni-Shiite split and discusses the differences in religious beliefs and practices between and within each Islamic sect as well as their similarities. The report also relates Sunni and Shiite religious beliefs to discussions of terrorism and sectarian violence that may be of interest during the 111th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503487/
Iraqi Civilian, Police, and Security Forces Casualty Statistics
This report presents various governmental and nongovernmental estimates of Iraqi civilian, police, and security forces fatalities. The Iraq government is releasing increasingly regular data on these deaths. The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) releases the monthly pattern of Iraqi civilian, police, and security forces deaths, and it regularly updates total U.S. military deaths and wounded statistics from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), as reflected in CRS Report RS21578, Iraq: U.S. Casualties, by Susan G. Chesser. Because the estimates contained in this report are based on varying time periods and have been created using differing methodologies, readers should exercise caution when using them and should look to them as guideposts rather than as statements of fact. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501591/
Iraq Casualties: U.S. Military Forces and Iraqi Civilians, Police, and Security Forces
This report presents U.S. military casualties as well as governmental and nongovernmental estimates of Iraqi civilian, police, and security forces casualties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501576/
Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks
This report provides an overview of Iraq's political transition from the dictatorship of Saddam Hussein to a plural polity that encompasses varying sects and ideological and political factions. This report also addresses ongoing governmental instabilities and their causes, as well as U.S. concerns about possible Iranian influence in Iraq as U.S. forces depart the country. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501647/
Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks
This report discusses Iraq's political system, which has been restructured through a U.S.-supported election process. The Iraqi government is increasingly characterized by peaceful competition rather than violence, but sectarianism and ethnic and factional infighting still remain. This report discusses issues relating to opponents of the Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki and also discusses the atmosphere of nationwide provincial elections. The report also addresses the Obama Administration's plan to reduce the U.S. troop presence in Iraq by August 2010 and briefly addresses the Iranian influence in Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501637/
United States Military Casualty Statistics: Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom
This report presents statistics regarding U.S. military casualties in the active Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF, Afghanistan), as well as operations that have ended: Operation New Dawn (OND, Iraq) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF, Iraq). It includes statistics on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), traumatic brain injury (TBI), amputations, evacuations, and the demographics of casualties. Some of these statistics are publicly available at the Department of Defense's (DOD's) website; others have been obtained through contact with experts at the DOD. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501893/
A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: Comparison of Proposals in Brief
This report discusses executive authority to authorize force in the crisis involving the Islamic State (IS, also known as ISIL or ISIS), which raised significant concerns for the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501948/
Iran-Iraq Relations
This report provides background information on Iran's support to armed groups and Iranian political influence and specifically discusses the relationship between Iran and Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501917/
The "Islamic State" Crisis and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the current crisis involving the Islamic State, which is a transnational Sunni Islamist insurgent and terrorist group that has expanded its control over areas of parts of Iraq and Syria since 2013. In December 2014, the 113th Congress provided new authorities and funds for efforts to combat the Islamic State organization in Syria and Iraq in the FY2015 national defense authorization (P.L. 113-291) and consolidated appropriations acts (P.L. 113-235). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501492/
Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights
This report discusses the state of Iraqi politics, governance, and human rights, including the worsening relations between local Sunni and Shiite populations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501670/
The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11
Congress has approved appropriations for the past 13 years of war that total $1.6 trillion for military operations, base support, weapons maintenance, training of Afghan and Iraq security forces, reconstruction, foreign aid, embassy costs, and veterans' health care for the war operations initiated since the 9/11 attacks. This report discusses the Department of Defense's FY2015 war request and various issues for Congress regarding the funding of the war on terror. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501660/
Iraq Casualties: U.S. Military Forces and Iraqi Civilians, Police, and Security Forces
This report presents U.S. military casualties as well as governmental and nongovernmental estimates of Iraqi civilian, police, and security forces casualties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501674/
Mine-Resistant, Ambush-Protected (MRAP) Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the background and present status of Congress' involvement in the MRAP program. Topics include the deployment of MRAPs, their efficacy at reducing casualties, and possible issues of unused vehicles and redundancy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491284/
The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11
This report analyzes war funding for the Defense Department and tracks funding for USAID and VA Medical funding. Information on costs is useful to Congress to assess the FY2010 Supplemental for war costs for the Department of Defense (DOD) and State/USAID, FY2011 war requests, conduct oversight of past war costs, and consider the longer-term costs implications of the buildup of troops in Afghanistan and potential problems in the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491253/
Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights
This report discusses the state of Iraqi politics, governance, and human rights, including the worsening relations between local Sunni and Shiite populations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491133/
A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: Comparison of Current Proposals in Brief
This report discusses the armed offensive militants of the Islamic State (IS, also known as ISIL or ISIS) in northern and western Iraq and northeastern Syria that has raised significant concerns for the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491027/
The "Islamic State" Crisis and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the problems facing Iraq as the Islamic State (IS, aka the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, ISIL/ISIS) gains power in the region. IS is a transnational Sunni Islamist insurgent and terrorist group that has expanded its control over areas of northwestern Iraq and northeastern Syria since 2013, threatening the security of both countries and drawing increased attention from the international community. The Islamic State has thrived in the disaffected Sunni Muslim-inhabited areas of Iraq and in the remote provinces of Syria torn by the civil war. The Islamic State's tactics have drawn the ire of the international community, increasing U.S. attention on Iraq's political problems and on the civil war in Syria. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491190/
Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks
This report provides an overview of Iraq's political transition from the dictatorship of Saddam Hussein to a plural polity that encompasses varying sects and ideological and political factions. This report also addresses ongoing governmental instabilities and their causes, as well as U.S. concerns about possible Iranian influence in Iraq as U.S. forces depart the country. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491432/
Iran-Iraq Relations
This report provides background information on Iran's support to armed groups and Iranian political influence. The report discusses the relationship between Iran and Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491609/
Iraq: Map Sources
This report identifies online sources for maps of Iraq, including government, library, and organizational websites. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491623/
Mine-Resistant, Ambush-Protected (MRAP) Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress
This report covers the 2007 Department of Defense (DOD) major procurement initiative to replace most up-armored High Mobility, Multi-Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWVs) with Mine-Resistant, Ambush-Protected (MRAP) vehicles. It looks at the cost and subsequent budgets of this initiative. Among potential issues for congressional consideration are the status of older, unused MRAPS in Afghanistan that are reportedly not being used because of their size and weight; possible redundancies with the MRAP, M-ATV, and the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV) programs; and actual Marine M-ATV requirements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491051/
Considerations for Possible Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State
This report discusses the concerns for the Middle Eastern governments and the United States regarding the armed offensive of the Islamic State (IS, also known as ISIL or ISIS) in northern and western Iraq and northeastern Syria. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491098/
The "Islamic State" Crisis and U.S. Policy
This report provides background and current information on the Islamic State, a transnational Sunni Islamist insurgent and terrorist group that has expanded its control over areas of northwestern Iraq and northeastern Syria since 2013. The report also examines possible U.S. policy options in the wake of increasing international outrage at the Islamic States' brutality and apparent disregard for typical human rights conventions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463391/
Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights
This report discusses the state of Iraqi politics, governance, ethnic tension, and human rights in the wake of American withdrawal. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463006/
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq
This report discusses the relationship between Iraq and Iran in the post-Saddam Hussein era, with particular focus on what Iran's intentions and/or long-term goals may be for increasing its influence in Iraq. The report explores the various strategies that Iran has used to spread its influence throughout Iraq's military and political spheres. The report also addresses the United States' concern over the Iran-Iraq relationship, especially as it concerns armed Shiite factions and U.S. efforts to stabilize Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463076/
U.S. Citizens Kidnapped by the Islamic State
This report briefly discusses the Islamic State's (IS, or alternatively, Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant, ISIL, or Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, ISIS) kidnapping of American citizens and the implications for congressional response. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462606/
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