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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Results 12271 - 12294 of 38,922
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European Union Enlargement

European Union Enlargement

Date: April 4, 2012
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Description: The European Union (EU) has long viewed the enlargement process as an extraordinary opportunity to promote political stability and economic prosperity in Europe. U.S. Administrations and many Members of Congress have long backed EU enlargement, believing that it serves U.S. interests by advancing democracy and economic prosperity throughout the European continent. Some U.S. officials are concerned that "enlargement fatigue" as well as the EU's ongoing financial crisis could hinder EU expansion. The status of EU enlargement and its implications for both the EU itself and U.S.-EU relations may be of interest to the second session of the 112th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: May 1, 2012
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: This report offers background information and recent more development in Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia political and economic situation. It also discusses U.S. policy, U.S. aid, U.S. trade and investments to these countries, congressional response and other legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Belarus: Background and U.S. Policy Concerns

Belarus: Background and U.S. Policy Concerns

Date: May 1, 2012
Creator: Woehrel, Steven
Description: An overview of the history of U.S.A - Belarus relations. Current issues include U.S.A. and international attempts to influence Aleksandr Lukashenko, the Belarusian President, towards making the Belarusian government more democratic and open.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arms Control and Nonproliferation: A Catalog of Treaties and Agreements

Arms Control and Nonproliferation: A Catalog of Treaties and Agreements

Date: March 7, 2012
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.; Nikitin, Mary Beth & Kerr, Paul K.
Description: This report provides an overview of many of the key arms control and nonproliferation agreements and endeavors of the past 40 years. It is divided into three sections. The first describes arms control efforts between the United States and the states of the former Soviet Union, covering both formal, bilateral treaties, and the cooperative threat reduction process. The second section describes multilateral nuclear nonproliferation efforts, covering both formal treaties and less formal accommodations that have been initiated in recent years. The final section reviews treaties and agreements that address chemical, biological, and conventional weapons.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Army Drawdown and Restructuring: Background and Issues for Congress

Army Drawdown and Restructuring: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: April 20, 2012
Creator: Feickert, Andrew & Henning, Charles A.
Description: On January 26, 2012, senior DOD leadership unveiled a new defense strategy based on a review of potential future security challenges, current defense strategy, and budgetary constraints. This new strategy envisions a smaller, leaner Army that is agile, flexible, rapidly deployable, and technologically advanced. This strategy will rebalance the Army's global posture and presence, emphasizing where potential problems are likely to arise, such as the Asia-Pacific region and the Middle East. Potential issues for Congress include the strategic risk posed by a smaller and restructured Army; the "health" of the Army given the impending downsizing; where the force will be based; the role of the National Guard and Reserves; and should the enrollment at the service academies (West Point) be reduced to pre-9/11 levels. This report will be updated as circumstances warrant.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Budget "Sequestration" and Selected Program Exemptions and Special Rules

Budget "Sequestration" and Selected Program Exemptions and Special Rules

Date: April 27, 2012
Creator: Spar, Karen
Description: "Sequestration" is a process of automatic, largely across-the-board spending reductions under which budgetary resources are permanently canceled to enforce certain budget policy goals. This report looks at the history and current status of sequestration at it relates to Congress. This includes how it is enacted and special rules that can apply.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues

China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues

Date: March 30, 2012
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Description: Congress has long been concerned about whether U.S. policy advances the national interest in reducing the role of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missiles that could deliver them. China has taken some steps to mollify U.S. concerns about its role in weapons proliferation. Skeptics question whether China's cooperation in weapons nonproliferation has warranted President Bush's pursuit of stronger bilateral ties. This report discusses the national security problem of China's role in weapons proliferation and issues related to the U.S. policy response, including legislation, since the mid-1990s.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues

China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues

Date: April 25, 2012
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Description: Congress has long been concerned about whether U.S. policy advances the national interest in reducing the role of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missiles that could deliver them. Recipients of China's technology reportedly include Pakistan and countries said by the State Department to have supported terrorism, such as Iran. This CRS Report, updated as warranted, discusses the security problem of China's role in weapons proliferation and issues related to the U.S. policy response since the mid-1990s.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China's Rare Earth Industry and Export Regime: Economic and Trade Implications for the United States

China's Rare Earth Industry and Export Regime: Economic and Trade Implications for the United States

Date: April 30, 2012
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M. & Tang, Rachel
Description: Over the past few years, the Chinese government has implemented a number of policies to tighten its control over the production and export of "rare earths"-a unique group of 17 metal elements on the periodic table that exhibit a range of special properties, such as magnetism, luminescence, and strength. Rare earths are important to a number of high technology industries, including renewable energy and various defense systems. This report examines the economic and trade implications of China's rare earth policies for the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air Act Issues in the 109th Congress

Clean Air Act Issues in the 109th Congress

Date: September 22, 2005
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Description: In the Summer of 2005, Congress focused on several Clean Air Act Issues before the August recess. Although the Congressional agenda stated that attention would be given to the needed amendments of the Clear Skies/Multi-Pollutant Legislation, this progress was stalled, and the committee failed to approve the bill due to a tied vote. This otherwise stagnated debate was given some attention due to the discussions over mercury regulations as they apply to power plants. The outcome of the decision concerning these regulations has stirred controversy in at least fifteen states. Perhaps the most debated issue that Congress covered concerned MTBE and Ethanol, which have been used to meet the Clean Air Act requirements that reformulated gasoline (RFG), sold in the nation’s worst ozone nonattainment areas, contain at least 2% oxygen, to improve combustion. Air quality standard deadlines and provisions, specifically in the most severe ozone nonattainment areas, were discussed by Congress. Discussions over the Clean Air Act also sparked discussions over environmental regulations concerning related issues, including the Conformity of Transportation Plans and SIPs, and Hurricane Katrina.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air Act Issues in the 109th Congress

Clean Air Act Issues in the 109th Congress

Date: November 25, 2005
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Description: The courts and the executive branch face major decisions on clean air issues in 2006, with Congress more likely playing an oversight role. One focus is EPA's Jan. 17 2006 proposal to strengthen air quality standards for fine particles, which are estimated to cause tens of thousands of premature deaths annually. Whether the proposal is supported by the available science and what impact its implementation would have likely issues of concern. Other issues of continuing interest are EPA's 2005 decisions limiting interstate transport of air pollution and establishing cap-and-trade systems for emissions from coal-fired power plants, and the agency's proposed changes to New Source Review.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

Date: June 1, 2011
Creator: Meyer, Peter J.
Description: This report provides a brief historical background of Chile, examines recent political and economic developments, and considers current issues in U.S.-Chilean relations. The 112th Congress could take up issues such as the U.S.-Chile bilateral income tax treaty that was signed in 2010 and is awaiting submission to the U.S. Senate for ratification.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congressional Budget Resolutions: Historical Information

Congressional Budget Resolutions: Historical Information

Date: March 13, 2012
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr. & Murray, Justin
Description: A look at the history and processes of budget resolution in Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Depository Library Program: Issues for Congress

Federal Depository Library Program: Issues for Congress

Date: March 29, 2012
Creator: Petersen, Eric R.; Manning, Jennifer E. & Bailey, Christina M.
Description: A history and overview of current issues regarding the Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Civil Rights Statutes: A Primer

Federal Civil Rights Statutes: A Primer

Date: March 26, 2012
Creator: Feder, Jody
Description: Under federal law, an array of civil rights statutes are available to protect individuals from discrimination. This report provides a brief summary of selected federal civil rights statutes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fact Sheet: The FY2013 State and Foreign Operations Budget Request

Fact Sheet: The FY2013 State and Foreign Operations Budget Request

Date: April 26, 2012
Creator: Epstein, Susan B.; Lawson, Marian Leonardo & Tiersky, Alex L.
Description: On February 13, 2012, the Obama Administration submitted its FY2013 budget request, including $54.7 billion in new budget authority for State Department, Foreign Operations, and Related Appropriations. Of the total request, $18.6 billion is for programs funded through the State operations and related agencies, and $36.1 billion is for foreign operations. This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the request. A full CRS report on FY2013 State and Foreign Operations budget and appropriations issues is planned to follow initial congressional consideration of appropriations legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Export-Import Bank: Background and Legislative Issues

Export-Import Bank: Background and Legislative Issues

Date: April 3, 2012
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Description: The Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank, EXIM Bank, or the Bank), an independent federal government agency, is the official export credit agency (ECA) of the United States. It helps finance U.S. exports of manufactured goods and services, with the objective of contributing to the employment of U.S. workers, primarily in circumstances when alternative financing is not available. Members of the 112th Congress may examine issues related to the Ex-Im Bank that center on the economic rationale for the Bank; the impact of the Bank on the federal budget and U.S. taxpayers; the Bank's support for specific types of business or industries; the current balance between the Bank's advancement of U.S. commercial interests and other U.S. policy goals; the competitive position of the Bank compared to foreign ECAs; and the Bank's organizational structure.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy Policy: Comprehensive Energy Legislation (H.R. 6, S. 10) in the 109th Congress

Energy Policy: Comprehensive Energy Legislation (H.R. 6, S. 10) in the 109th Congress

Date: June 24, 2005
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L. & Behrens, Carl E.
Description: Conferees on H.R. 6, the Energy Policy Act of 2005, began meeting July 14, 2005, and are predicting that the conference will be completed July 25. The Senate passed its version of the bill June 28, and the House passed its version April 21. The Senate and House bills are similar, but major differences exist, including the following areas: ethanol and methyl tertiary-butyl ether, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, electricity restructuring, renewable energy, climate change, tax provisions, outer continental shelf, and the siting of LNG terminals
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy Policy: Comprehensive Energy Legislation (H.R. 6, S. 10) in the 109th Congress

Energy Policy: Comprehensive Energy Legislation (H.R. 6, S. 10) in the 109th Congress

Date: July 22, 2005
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L. & Behrens, Carl E.
Description: Conferees on H.R. 6, the Energy Policy Act of 2005, began meeting July 14, 2005, and are predicting that the conference will be completed July 25. The Senate passed its version of the bill June 28, and the House passed its version April 21. The Senate and House bills are similar, but major differences exist, including the following areas: ethanol and methyl tertiary-butyl ether, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, electricity restructuring, renewable energy, climate change, tax provisions, outer continental shelf, and the siting of LNG terminals
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA): A Summary

The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA): A Summary

Date: April 5, 2012
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: This report summarizes the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and the major regulatory programs that mandate reporting by industrial facilities of releases of potentially hazardous chemicals to the environment, as well as local planning to respond in the event of significant, accidental releases.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Statutes: What They Are and Where to Find Them

Federal Statutes: What They Are and Where to Find Them

Date: March 21, 2012
Creator: Foley, Cassandra L.
Description: After providing an overview on the basics of federal statutes, this report gives guidance on where federal statutes, in their various forms, may be located in print and on the Internet.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Labor Relations Statutes: An Overview

Federal Labor Relations Statutes: An Overview

Date: May 11, 2012
Creator: Hegji, Alexandra
Description: This report provides a brief history and overview of the aims of these statutes: the Railway Labor Act (RLA) enacted in 1926, the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA), and the Federal Service Labor-Management Relations Statute (FSLMRS). It also discusses key statutory provisions for each statute.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
EPA Regulations: Too Much, Too Little, or On Track?

EPA Regulations: Too Much, Too Little, or On Track?

Date: April 25, 2012
Creator: McCarthy, James E. & Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report examines 40 major or controversial regulatory actions taken by or under development at EPA since January 2009, providing details on the regulatory action itself, presenting an estimated timeline for completion of the rule and provides the EPA's estimates of costs and benefits where available. It provides background information on recent EPA regulatory activity to help address issues raised by this activity, as well as factors that will affect the timeframe in which these regulations will take place.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The European Union: Questions and Answers

The European Union: Questions and Answers

Date: April 5, 2012
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the European Union (EU), an economic and political partnership between 27 sovereign member states. The report describes the formation of the EU, the three main institutions of the EU, and the EU's relationship with the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department