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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Manufacturing, Technology, and Competitiveness

Manufacturing, Technology, and Competitiveness

Date: January 12, 1999
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H
Description: This report discusses increases in the productivity of American firms to maintain competitiveness in the international marketplace.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet and E-Commerce Statistics: What They Mean and Where to Find Them on the Web

Internet and E-Commerce Statistics: What They Mean and Where to Find Them on the Web

Date: October 24, 2000
Creator: Tehan, Rita
Description: Statistics indicating Internet usage are imprecise. It is difficult to measure the scale of the Internet (or the World Wide Web), calculate the number and types of users (age, sex, race, gender, location, etc.), or forecast future growth. This report discusses the inherent complexities of estimating Internet and electronic commerce growth and describes various types of Internet statistics, discussing how to evaluate them and providing Web addresses for locating them. In addressing these topics, it is important to understand how the statistics are compiled, how they are used, and what their limitations are.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet Transactions and the Sales Tax

Internet Transactions and the Sales Tax

Date: December 12, 2000
Creator: Maguire, Steven
Description: This report is an introduction to the economics of electronic commerce and its potential impact on sales and use tax collections. Presently, 45 states (and the District of Columbia) require that retail outlets add a fixed percentage to the sales price of all taxable items (inclusive of federally imposed excise taxes).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Internet Commerce and State Sales and Use Taxes

Internet Commerce and State Sales and Use Taxes

Date: March 31, 2004
Creator: Maguire, Steven
Description: State governments rely on sales and use taxes for approximately one-third (33.6%) of their total tax revenue - or approximately $179 billion in FY2002 .' Local governments derived 12.4% of their tax revenue or $44 .1 billion from local sales and use taxes in FY20012 Both state and local sales taxes are collected by vendors at the time of transaction and are levied at a percentage of a product's retail price. Alternatively, use taxes are not collected by the vendor if the vendor does not have nexus (loosely defined as a physical presence) in the consumer's state . Consumers are required to remit use taxes to their taxing jurisdiction . However, compliance with this requirement is quite low. Because of the low compliance, many observers suggest that the expansion of the internet as a means of transacting business across state lines, both from business to consumer (B to C) and from business to business (B to B), threatens to diminish the ability of state and local governments to collect sales and use taxes . Congress has a role in this issue because commerce between parties in different states conducted over the Internet falls under the Commerce Clause of the Constitution.' ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
E-Commerce Statistics: Explanation and Sources

E-Commerce Statistics: Explanation and Sources

Date: February 22, 2002
Creator: Tehan, Rita
Description: Congress will play a vital role in many e-commerce policy issues, including Internet taxation, encryption and electronic authentication (i.e., digital signatures), intellectual property protection (i.e., patent or copyright infringement), computer network security, and privacy safeguards for individuals and organizations, as well as consideration of how European Union (EU) and World Trade Organization (WTO) policies may affect U.S. e-commerce activities. This report addresses the complexities of measuring e-commerce growth, and provides background information on government and private firms’ methods for estimating it.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
E-Commerce Statistics: Explanation and Sources

E-Commerce Statistics: Explanation and Sources

Date: June 4, 2003
Creator: Tehan, Rita
Description: Congress will play a vital role in many e-commerce policy issues, including Internet taxation, encryption and electronic authentication (i.e., digital signatures), intellectual property protection (i.e., patent or copyright infringement), computer network security, and privacy safeguards for individuals and organizations, as well as consideration of how European Union (EU) and World Trade Organization (WTO) policies may affect U.S. e-commerce activities. This report addresses the complexities of measuring e-commerce growth, and provides background information on government and private firms’ methods for estimating it.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Electronic Signatures: Technology Developments and Legislative Issues

Electronic Signatures: Technology Developments and Legislative Issues

Date: January 19, 2001
Creator: Nunno, Richard M
Description: Electronic signatures, a means of verifying the identity of the user of a computer system to control access or authorize a transaction, are increasingly being used in electronic commerce. Several technologies can be used to produce electronic signatures, the most prominent being digital signatures, which use cryptographic techniques to provide data integrity and nonrepudiation. Legislation enacted in the 106th Congress enables the legal recognition of electronic signatures in interstate commerce. Other legislation introduced but not enacted was intended to promote federal agency use of electronic signatures to enable electronic filing of information.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Electronic Commerce: An Introduction

Electronic Commerce: An Introduction

Date: June 27, 2000
Creator: McLoughlin, Glenn J
Description: Electronic commercial transactions over the Internet, or “e-commerce,” have grown so fast over the last five years that many experts continue to underestimate its growth and development. Whether retail business-to-customer or business-to-business transactions, e-commerce shows no signs of slowing down. In turn, policymakers both in the United States and abroad are likely to face increasingly complex issues of security, privacy, taxation, infrastructure development and other issues in 2000 and beyond. This report will be updated periodically.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
State Sales Taxation of Internet Transactions

State Sales Taxation of Internet Transactions

Date: March 1, 2004
Creator: Luckey, John R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Online Privacy Protection: Issues and Developments

Online Privacy Protection: Issues and Developments

Date: September 28, 1999
Creator: Stevens, Gina Marie
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Online Privacy Protection: Issues and Developments

Online Privacy Protection: Issues and Developments

Date: January 11, 2001
Creator: Stevens, Gina Marie
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Prescription Drug Importation and Internet Sales: A Legal Overview

Prescription Drug Importation and Internet Sales: A Legal Overview

Date: January 8, 2004
Creator: Feder, Jody
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legal Issues Related to Prescription Drug Sales on the Internet

Legal Issues Related to Prescription Drug Sales on the Internet

Date: March 5, 2004
Creator: Feder, Jody
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cyberwarfare

Cyberwarfare

Date: June 19, 2001
Creator: Hildreth, Steven A
Description: Cyberwarfare raises issues of growing national interest and concern. Cyberwarfare can be used to describe various aspects of defending and attacking information and computer networks in cyberspace, as well as denying an adversary’s ability to do the same. Some major problems encountered with cyber attacks, in particular, are the difficulty in determining the origin and nature of the attack and in assessing the damage incurred.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cybercrime: The Council of Europe Convention

Cybercrime: The Council of Europe Convention

Date: April 26, 2002
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Description: Forty-three countries, including the United States, have signed the Council of Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime of November 2001. The U.S. Senate ratified the Convention on August 3, 2006. The Convention seeks to better combat cybercrime by harmonizing national laws, improving investigative abilities, and boosting international cooperation. Supporters argue that the Convention will enhance deterrence, while critics counter it will have little effect without participation by countries in which cybercriminals operate freely. Others warn it will endanger privacy and civil liberties.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Defense Research: A Primer on the Department of Defense's Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT and E) Program

Defense Research: A Primer on the Department of Defense's Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT and E) Program

Date: May 5, 1998
Creator: Moteff, John D
Description: This report describes the basic elements and issues of the Department of Defense's (DOD) Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) Program. It defines basic activities supported by the program, presents budget trends, discusses the management of program, and describes the infrastructure in which the program is implemented. This report is for staff new to the area of defense research and for senior staff interested in historical trends.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Defense Research: A Primer on the Department of Defense's Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT and E) Program

Defense Research: A Primer on the Department of Defense's Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT and E) Program

Date: July 14, 1999
Creator: Moteff, John D
Description: This report describes the basic elements and issues of the Department of Defense's (DOD) Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) Program. It defines basic activities supported by the program, presents budget trends, discusses the management of program, and describes the infrastructure in which the program is implemented. This report is for staff new to the area of defense research and for senior staff interested in historical trends.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Defense Research: DOD's Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Program

Defense Research: DOD's Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Program

Date: August 13, 1999
Creator: Moteff, John D
Description: The Administration has requested $34.4 billion for the Department of Defense (DOD) Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) program for FY2000. This is almost $3 billion below what was available for RDT&E in FY1999. In addition, the 6-year budget would maintain RDT&E between $34 billion and $35 billion over the next 6 years. In constant dollars, RDT&E spending will decline.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Network-Centric Warfare Concept: Key Programs and Issues for Congress

Navy Network-Centric Warfare Concept: Key Programs and Issues for Congress

Date: June 6, 2001
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Network-Centric Warfare Concept: Key Programs and Issues for Congress

Navy Network-Centric Warfare Concept: Key Programs and Issues for Congress

Date: January 30, 2002
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Network-Centric Warfare Concept: Key Programs and Issues for Congress

Navy Network-Centric Warfare Concept: Key Programs and Issues for Congress

Date: June 3, 2002
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Network-Centric Warfare Concept: Key Programs and Issues for Congress

Navy Network-Centric Warfare Concept: Key Programs and Issues for Congress

Date: August 21, 2002
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Network-Centric Warfare Concept: Key Programs and Issues for Congress

Navy Network-Centric Warfare Concept: Key Programs and Issues for Congress

Date: November 25, 2002
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Navy Network-Centric Warfare Concept: Key Programs and Issues for Congress

Navy Network-Centric Warfare Concept: Key Programs and Issues for Congress

Date: March 3, 2003
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department