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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate: Marine Mammal Issues
After global warming became a concern in the mid-1950s, researchers proposed measuring deep ocean temperatures to reveal any significant trends in core ocean warming. Acoustic thermometry can detect changes in ocean temperature by receiving low-frequency sounds transmitted across an ocean basin because the speed of sound is proportional to water temperature. Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate, or ATOC, is an international program involving 11 institutions in seven nations. It is designed as a 30-month "proof-of-concept" project to provide data on possible global climate change, with funding provided by the U.S. Department of Defense. A debate has arisen over ATOC's impact on marine mammals versus the benefits of better global warming information derived from ATOC. This report dicusses the ATOC program and related concerns. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs176/
The Northern Right Whale
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs178/
Marine Mammal Protection Act Amendments of 1994
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs97/
Norwegian Commercial Whaling: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs291/
Dolphin Protection and Tuna Seining
From its inception in 1972, one of the goals of the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) was to reduce the incidental mortality of dolphins in the ETP tuna fishery. Regulations promulgated under MMPA authority set standards for tuna seining and motivated technological improvements that reduced dolphin mortalities in this fishery -- by 1977, annual dolphin mortality by U.S. tuna seiners had declined to about 25,450 animals. Despite the extensive mortalities, no ETP dolphin population has been listed as endangered or threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. However, two ETP dolphin stocks were listed as depleted under the MMPA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs389/
Marine Mammal Protection Act: Reauthorization Issues for the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1407/
National Estuary Program: A Collaborative Approach to Protecting Coastal Water Quality
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1411/
Outer Continental Shelf: Oil and Gas Leasing and Revenue
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1167/
Summaries of Major Laws Implemented by the National Marine Fisheries Service
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs198/
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: Living Resources Provisions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs135/
Law of the Sea: the International Seabed Authority - Its Status and U.S. Participation Therein
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs340/
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1838/
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3201/
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3202/
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3203/
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3204/
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5074/
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5075/
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5076/
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5077/
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5078/
U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea: Living Resources Provisions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5090/
The U.N. Law of the Sea Convention and the United States: Developments Since October 2003
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5998/
Deep Seabed Mining: U.S. Interests and the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea
On July 29, 1994, the United States signed the Agreement Relating to the Implementation of Part XI of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982. This agreement substantially reforms the seabed mining provisions of the 1982 Convention, which the United States found objectionable. In signing the Agreement, President Clinton accepted provisional application of it which enables the United States to participate in the International Seabed Authority (ISA) and its organs and bodies. On November 16, 1994, the U.N. Law of the Sea Convention entered into force without accession by the United States.The treaty document was referred to the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations late in the 103d Congress and awaits committee action in the 104th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs230/
Individual Transferable Quotas in Fishery Management
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs231/
Agreements to Promote Fishery Conservation and Management in International Waters
Declining fish populations threaten an important food source. Natural catastrophes, pollution, habitat destruction, and overfishing contribute to the depletion of fish stocks. Overexploitation of fishery resources often occurs when management allows expanding and increasingly efficient fishing fleets to continue harvesting dwindling supplies. Although prevalent, overexploitation is not universal and its extent varies among areas, species, and fisheries. This report discusses the issue of overfishing and its possible consequences, as well as domestic and international efforts to combat overfishing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs341/
Commercial Fishing: Economic Aid and Capacity Reduction
Both experience and economic models show that, in the absence of enforceable access or catch restrictions, competition among commercial fishermen results in an expansion of fishing capacity, and resultant fishing effort, beyond the sustainable limits of the fish population being pursued. The spiral of increasing effort and diminishing returns (i.e., rent dissipation) has helped to fuel increases in fish prices that reduce benefits to consumers and processors; has shifted many fish populations toward smaller, younger fish that typically command lower prices; and in many cases has reduced yields far below achievable levels. Congress has considered several approaches to address concerns about overcapitalization and excess capacity in the fishing industry. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs469/
Marine Dead Zones: Understanding the Problem
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs740/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1861/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 106th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1860/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3242/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3243/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3244/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3245/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3246/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3247/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3248/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5124/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5125/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5126/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5127/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5128/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5129/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5130/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5131/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5132/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5133/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5134/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5135/
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5136/
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