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 Country: United States
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Military Technicians: The Issue of Mandatory Retirement for Non-Dual-Status Technicians

Military Technicians: The Issue of Mandatory Retirement for Non-Dual-Status Technicians

Date: March 28, 2000
Creator: Kapp, Lawrence
Description: This report describes the mandatory retirement provisions for certain “non-dual-status” military technicians contained in the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000 (P.L. 106-65), discusses the stated rationale behind the policy, and quantifies the impact it will likely have on individual technicians.
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Farm Labor Shortages and Immigration Policy

Farm Labor Shortages and Immigration Policy

Date: September 6, 2001
Creator: Levine, Linda
Description: This report first explains why the nexus between farm labor shortages and immigration policy has again arisen. It next examines the composition of the seasonal agricultural labor force and presents the arguments of grower and farmworker advocates concerning its adequacy relative to employer demand. The report closes with an analysis of the trends in (un)employment, time worked and wages of legal and illegal farmworkers to determine if they are consistent with the existence of a nationwide shortage of domestically available farmworkers.
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Farm Labor Shortages and Immigration Policy

Farm Labor Shortages and Immigration Policy

Date: February 9, 2004
Creator: Levine, Linda
Description: This report first explains the connection made over the past several years between farm labor and immigration policies. It next examines the composition of the seasonal agricultural labor force and presents the arguments of grower and farmworker advocates concerning its adequacy relative to employer demand. The report closes with an analysis of the trends in employment, unemployment, time worked and wages of authorized and unauthorized farmworkers to determine whether they are consistent with the existence of a nationwide shortage of domestically available farmworkers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Immigration of Agricultural Guest Workers: Policy, Trends, and Legislative Issues

Immigration of Agricultural Guest Workers: Policy, Trends, and Legislative Issues

Date: February 15, 2001
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen & Collver, Geoffrey K
Description: This report discusses the revision of U.S. immigration policy on agricultural guest workers that are coming from various perspectives, and several major bills have already been introduced in the 107th Congress
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Immigration of Agricultural Guest Workers: Policy, Trends, and Legislative Issues

Immigration of Agricultural Guest Workers: Policy, Trends, and Legislative Issues

Date: August 23, 2001
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen & Collver, Geoffrey K
Description: This report discusses the revision of U.S. immigration policy on agricultural guest workers that are coming from various perspectives, and several major bills have already been introduced in the 107th Congress
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Immigration of Agricultural Guest Workers: Policy, Trends, and Legislative Issues

Immigration of Agricultural Guest Workers: Policy, Trends, and Legislative Issues

Date: January 24, 2003
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen & Collver, Geoffrey K
Description: This report discusses the revision of U.S. immigration policy on agricultural guest workers that are coming from various perspectives, and several major bills have already been introduced in the 107th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Unemployment Related to Terrorist Attacks: Proposals to Assist Affected Workers in the Airlines and Related Industries

Unemployment Related to Terrorist Attacks: Proposals to Assist Affected Workers in the Airlines and Related Industries

Date: October 12, 2001
Creator: Graney, Paul J
Description: This report discusses the proposal to assist affected workers in the airlines and related industries in the aftermath of the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon that shut down the nation’s air transport system temporarily.
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Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education: FY2006 Appropriations

Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education: FY2006 Appropriations

Date: August 8, 2005
Creator: Irwin, Paul M
Description: This report is a guide to one of the regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies. It summarizes the status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity, and is updated as events warrant.
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Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education: FY2006 Appropriations

Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education: FY2006 Appropriations

Date: December 1, 2005
Creator: Irwin, Paul M
Description: This report is a guide to one of the regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies. It summarizes the status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity, and is updated as events warrant.
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Legislative, Executive, and Judicial Officials: Process for Adjusting Pay and Current Salaries

Legislative, Executive, and Judicial Officials: Process for Adjusting Pay and Current Salaries

Date: January 23, 2006
Creator: Schwemle, Barbara L
Description: This report includes four tables which provide the January 2004, January 2005, and January 2006 salaries for federal officials and members of the SES, and for employees in SL, ST, and GS-15 positions in the Washington, DC, and the “Rest of the United States” locality pay areas.
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Federal Employees: Pay and Pension Increases Since 1969

Federal Employees: Pay and Pension Increases Since 1969

Date: January 21, 2005
Creator: Purcell, Patrick J
Description: Pay increases for current federal employees and cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs) for retired federal employees often differ because they are based on changes in different economic variables. Increases in pay for civilian federal workers are indexed to wage and salary increases in the private-sector, as measured by the Employment Cost Index (ECI), while federal retirement and disability benefits are indexed to price increases as measured by the Consumer Price Index (CPI). This report discusses the procedures for determining such increases.
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Federal Employees: Pay and Pension Increases Since 1969

Federal Employees: Pay and Pension Increases Since 1969

Date: February 9, 2006
Creator: Purcell, Patrick J
Description: Pay increases for current federal employees and cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs) for retired federal employees often differ because they are based on changes in different economic variables. Increases in pay for civilian federal workers are indexed to wage and salary increases in the private-sector, as measured by the Employment Cost Index (ECI), while federal retirement and disability benefits are indexed to price increases as measured by the Consumer Price Index (CPI). This report discusses the procedures for determining such increases.
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Federal Hiring Flexibilities for Emergency Situations: Fact Sheet

Federal Hiring Flexibilities for Emergency Situations: Fact Sheet

Date: October 11, 2001
Creator: Schwemle, Barbara L
Description: n the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, the Office of Personnel Management (OPM), in a September 13, 2001 memorandum to executive branch agencies, identified various hiring flexibilities that can be used to meet staffing needs in emergency situations. This report provides information on each of the flexibilities.
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Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force

Date: January 3, 2006
Creator: Matthews, Christine M.
Description: The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. In addition to the number of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs, a significant number of university faculty in the scientific disciplines are foreign, and foreign doctorates are employed in large numbers by industry. This report examines these issues and discusses their policy implications.
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Farm Labor Shortages and Immigration Policy

Farm Labor Shortages and Immigration Policy

Date: January 25, 2006
Creator: Levine, Linda
Description: This report first explains the connection made over the past several years between farm labor and immigration policies. It next examines the composition of the seasonal agricultural labor force and presents the arguments of grower and farmworker advocates concerning its adequacy relative to employer demand. The report closes with an analysis of the trends in employment, unemployment, time worked and wages of authorized and unauthorized farmworkers to determine whether they are consistent with the existence of a nationwide shortage of domestically available farmworkers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Farm Labor Shortages and Immigration Policy

Farm Labor Shortages and Immigration Policy

Date: March 29, 2006
Creator: Levine, Linda
Description: This report first explains the connection made over the past several years between farm labor and immigration policies. It next examines the composition of the seasonal agricultural labor force and presents the arguments of grower and farmworker advocates concerning its adequacy relative to employer demand. The report closes with an analysis of the trends in employment, unemployment, time worked and wages of authorized and unauthorized farmworkers to determine whether they are consistent with the existence of a nationwide shortage of domestically available farmworkers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Immigration: Policy Considerations Related to Guest Worker Programs

Immigration: Policy Considerations Related to Guest Worker Programs

Date: April 6, 2006
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Description: This report discusses of guest worker programs that takes place against a backdrop of historically high levels of unauthorized migration to the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Independent Truckers: The Effects of Recent Legislation on Earnings (Effects of the Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1982 and the Department of Transportation and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1983, as they affect highway-related taxes, two trailers, length and width of vehicles, and weights and loads)

Independent Truckers: The Effects of Recent Legislation on Earnings (Effects of the Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1982 and the Department of Transportation and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1983, as they affect highway-related taxes, two trailers, length and width of vehicles, and weights and loads)

Date: March 1, 1983
Creator: Thompson, Stephen J
Description: Congress passed legislation late in 1982 that is expected to have a significant effect on the annual net earnings of independent truckers. About 90 percent of fresh produce, most used household goods, and from one-third to one-half of all fabricated steel and other commodities transported by truck are hauled by independent truckers. The legislation raised the Federal fuel tax by 5 cents per gallon and significantly raised a highway use tax that is based on the weight of the vehicle. The legislation also allowed truckers to use two trailers, longer and wider vehicles, and carry heavier loads. This CRS report discusses these 1982 changes in Federal legislation. It also contains an estimate of the upper and lower bound of the impact that these changes could have on the annual net earnings of independent truckers.
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Job Training Programs: Reauthorization and Funding Issues

Job Training Programs: Reauthorization and Funding Issues

Date: January 3, 1983
Creator: Spar, Karen
Description: This paper is divided into the following sections: (1) History of Federal Employment and Training Programs; (2) Reauthorization Issues; (3) Administration Legislative and Budget Proposals; and (4) Congressional Action.
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Farm Labor: The Adverse Effect Wage Rate (AEWR)

Farm Labor: The Adverse Effect Wage Rate (AEWR)

Date: April 14, 2005
Creator: Whittaker, William G
Description: American agricultural employers have long utilized foreign workers on a temporary basis, regarding them as an important labor resource. At the same time, the relatively low wages and adverse working conditions of such workers have caused them to be viewed as a threat to domestic American workers. Some have argued that foreign guest workers compete unfairly with U.S. workers — both in terms of compensation that they are willing to accept and by making it somewhat more difficult for domestic workers to organize and to bargain with management. To mitigate any “adverse effect”for the domestic workforce, a system of wage floors was developed that applies, variously, both to alien and citizen workers: i.e., the adverse effect wage rate (AEWR). This report deals with one element of immigration (i.e., namely the H-2A workers). It introduces the adverse effect wage rate, it examines the concerns out of which it grew, and it explains at least some of the problems that have been encountered in giving it effect.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fruits, Vegetables, and Other Specialty Crops: A Primer on Government Programs

Fruits, Vegetables, and Other Specialty Crops: A Primer on Government Programs

Date: January 26, 2005
Creator: Rawson, Jean M.
Description: U.S. farmers grow more than 250 types of fruit, vegetable, tree nut, flower, ornamental nursery, and turfgrass crops in addition to the major bulk commodity crops. Although specialty crops are ineligible for the federal commodity price and income support programs, they are eligible for other types of U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) support, such as crop insurance, disaster assistance, and, under certain conditions, ad hoc market loss assistance payments. This report describes the federal programs of importance to the specialty crop sector, and provides the most recent funding information available for them.
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Gramm-Rudman-Hollings: Potential Economic Effects of Meeting Deficit Targets

Gramm-Rudman-Hollings: Potential Economic Effects of Meeting Deficit Targets

Date: September 16, 1987
Creator: Cashell, Brian W
Description: This report discusses the reduction of federal budget deficit and the effect on the rise of interest rates.
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Immigration Enforcement within the United States

Immigration Enforcement within the United States

Date: April 6, 2006
Creator: Siskin, Alison; Bruno, Andorra; Nuñez-Neto, Blas; Seghetti, Lisa M & Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Description: This report provides an analysis of immigration enforcement within the United States. The report opens with a definition of immigration enforcement, a discussion of the statutory authority to conduct immigration enforcement, and an overview of immigration enforcement related legislation since 1986. It follows with an exposition on the dichotomy of interior and border enforcement. The report then details different aspects of immigration enforcement in the United States including detention and removal, alien smuggling and trafficking, document and benefit fraud, worksite enforcement, inspections at ports of entry, and patrolling the border between ports of entry. The report continues with a discussion of the role of state and local law enforcement in the enforcement of immigration laws. The report then presents a comparative analysis of the resources devoted to divergent immigration enforcement activities. It concludes with a discussion of crosscutting immigration enforcement issues related to the structure of the Department of Homeland Security.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Minority Contracting and Affirmative Action for Disadvantaged Small Businesses: Legal Issues

Minority Contracting and Affirmative Action for Disadvantaged Small Businesses: Legal Issues

Date: February 24, 2006
Creator: Dale, Charles V
Description: This report discusses the minority participation “goals” that have been an integral part of federal policies to promote racial and gender equality in contracting on federally financed construction projects and in connection with other large federal contracts.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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