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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Congressional Action, FY1989-FY2001
From FY1989 through FY2001 (to date), nineteen appropriations or farm disaster acts have provided $38 billion in emergency funding for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs. Nearly $27 billion, or about 70 percent of the total amount, has been provided for FY1999-FY2001 alone. Since FY1989, the vast majority of the funds has been paid directly to farmers, primarily in the form of “market loss payments” (just under $17 billion, all since FY1999) to compensate for low farm commodity prices, and disaster payments($15.6 billion) paid to any producer who experienced a major crop loss caused by a natural disaster. The remaining $5.4 billion has funded a wide array of other USDA programs, including other forms of farm disaster assistance, farm loans, overseas food aid, food and nutrition programs, and rural development assistance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1063/
Farm Program Spending: What's Permitted Under the Uruguay Round Agreements
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Farm Commodity Programs: A Short Primer
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Farm Commodity Programs: A Short Primer
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Climate Change Technology Initiative (CCTI): Research, Technology, and Related Programs
The Climate Change Technology Initiative (CCTI) was the Clinton Administration's package of R&D (to develop renewable energy sources and more energy efficient technologies), targeted tax credits (to encourage purchase and deployment of more efficient technologies), and voluntary information programs (to help businesses and schools be better informed when making purchasing and operating decisions that involve energy use and emissions). This report describes the R&D, voluntary information programs, and funding aspects of the CCTI. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1398/
Climate Change: Federal Research, Technology, and Related Programs
A major focus of efforts to address possible global climate change has been on energy use, given that carbon dioxide, the major “greenhouse gas,” is added to the atmosphere when fossil fuels are burned. Federal programs to increase energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy resources have a history that goes back well over two decades. While many of these efforts were aimed at reducing U.S. dependence on oil imports and addressing electricity needs, they also are relevant to environmental concerns, including climate change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1399/
The Clean Coal Technology Program: Current Prospects
The Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program, started in the 1980's and funded generously in the early 1990's, has completed most of its surviving projects and has not funded any new ones since 1994. However, President Bush’s FY2002 budget outline proposed spending $2 billion over 10 years on a restructured CCT program. It is not clear what kind of projects would be included in the new program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1402/
Wildlife Restoration Projects Fund
Since 1937, a cooperative program between the federal and state governments has existed for wildlife restoration. This program provides federal grants-in-aid to state agencies for conservation through land and water management for wild birds and mammals. While up to 8% of the collected revenues from excise taxes dedicated to the program may be retained by the federal government for administration, all remaining funds are apportioned to the states and territories for use either in wildlife restoration or hunter safety and education programs. Wildlife restoration programs receive all funds generated from the excise tax on firearms other than pistols and revolvers and all funds collected from shells and cartridges. Additionally, one-half of the excise taxes collected from pistols, revolvers, and archery equipment goes for wildlife restoration purposes. Hunter safety and education programs are funded from the remaining half of excise taxes collected on pistols, revolvers, and archery equipment. The states have been authorized by law to use hunter safety and education funds for wildlife restoration projects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs386/
Excise Tax Financing of Federal Trust Funds
Dedicated excise taxes finance only a small number of the many activities undertaken by the Federal Government. The fourteen trust funds and special funds currently financed by excise taxes can be grouped under four programmatic purposes: nature conservation and recreation, transportation, environmental cleanup, and health damage compensation. In close parallel, the products currently subject to taxation on behalf of trust and special funds can be classified under the categories of hunting and fishing equipment; cargo transport and air passenger transportation; motor fuels; and materials potentially hazardous to the environment or human health. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs50/
The Federal Budget Process: A Brief Outline
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Water Infrastructure Financing: History of EPA Appropriations
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Water Infrastructure Financing: History of EPA Appropriations
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The Line Item Veto Act
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Water Infrastructure Financing: History of EPA Appropriations
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A Brief Introduction to the Federal Budget Process
This report provides a brief introduction to the federal budget process. Key budget concepts and terminology are defined and explained. The separate procedures that make up the federal budget process are identified and their salient features described. While a complete understanding of federal budgeting probably can be obtained only after much observation and study of the process in operation, broad exposure to its rudiments is a useful first step. Various resources "for additional reading" are identified at the end of this report, which the reader may find helpful in exploring the subject in greater depth. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs295/
A Brief Introduction to the Federal Budget Process
This report provides a brief introduction to the federal budget process. Key budget concepts and terminology are defined and explained. The separate procedures that make up the federal budget process are identified and their salient features described. While a complete understanding of federal budgeting probably can be obtained only after much observation and study of the process in operation, broad exposure to its rudiments is a useful first step. Various resources “for additional reading” are identified at the end of this report, which the reader may find helpful in exploring the subject in greater depth. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs390/
The Line Item Veto Act: Procedural Issues
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State Techniques to Blunt the Governor's Item-Veto Power
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Line Item Vetoes in the 105th Congress, First Session: A Finding Aid
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Child Nutrition Issues in the 105th Congress
This report covers proposed and enacted legislative initiatives to change child nutrition programs (including the WIC program) during 1997 and 1998. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs533/
Crime Control Assistance Through the Byrne Programs
The statute provides that states receive and distribute block grant funds and that the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) of the U.S. Department of Justice awards discretionary grants for specified activities. Allocated largely on the basis of population, block grant funds are used for personnel, equipment, training, technical assistance, and information systems to improve criminal justice systems. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs534/
A Balanced Budget Constitutional Amendment: Background and Congressional Options
One of the most persistent political issues facing Congress in recent years is whether to require that the budget of the United States be in balance. Although a balanced federal budget has long been held as a political ideal, the accumulation of large deficits in recent years has heightened concern that some action to require a balance between revenues and expenditures may be necessary. The debate over a balanced budget measure actually consists of several interrelated debates, which this report addresses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs392/
Line Item Veto Act of 1996: Lessons from the States
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The Entitlements Debate
Federal entitlement programs make payments directly to recipients who meet eligibility criteria set by law. There are about 400 of them with Social Security being the largest. Generally, entitlement spending is not subject to control through annual appropriations, and once an entitlement program is established, its scope can be altered only by amending the law that created it. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs535/
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Full Funding of State Formula
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Adult Education and Literacy: Current Programs and Legislative Proposals in the 105th Congress
This report summarizes current programs for adult education and literacy, provides a funding history, and analyzes major provisions of the legislative proposals being considered by the 105th Congress for amending adult education and literacy programs. Specifically, the report examines the provisions of H.R. 1385, the Employment, Training, and Literacy Enhancement Act of 1997, as passed by the House, and H.R. 1385, the Workforce Investment Partnership Act of 1998, as amended by the Senate (originally considered as S. 1186). Key issues include state and local administration issues, comprehensive state plan requirements, integration with other federal training and employment programs, and program performance standards. The report will be updated as legislative action occurs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs536/
Budget Reconciliation in the 105th Congress: Achieving a Balanced Budget by 2002
Achievement of a balanced federal budget by 2002 was a high priority for the 105th Congress and the President. After months of negotiations and debate, starting in February 1997 and ending in July 1997, congressional leaders and the White House forged a consensus on legislation to accomplish this goal. The legislation, signed into law by President Clinton on August 5, 1997, sets “caps” on discretionary spending, constrains entitlement programs, and on balance reduces federal taxes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs391/
National Estuary Program: A Collaborative Approach to Protecting Coastal Water Quality
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The Senate's Byrd Rule Against Extraneous Matter in Reconciliation Measures
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Continuing Appropriations Acts: Brief Overview of Recent Practices
This report provides information on the history of continuing resolutions; the nature, scope, and duration of CRs during the last 30 years; the various types of CRs that have been enacted; and an overview of those instances when budget authority has lapsed and a funding gap has resulted. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs393/
Fiscal Year 1998 Continuing Resolutions
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The Budget Enforcement Act of 1997
President Clinton signed two reconciliation acts into law in August 1997 as part of a plan to balance the budget by FY2002. To ensure compliance with this goal, enforcement procedures were included in one of the acts in a title referred to separately as the Budget Enforcement Act (BEA) of 1997. The BEA of 1997 extends procedures under the Budget Enforcement Act (BEA) of 1990 through FY2002 digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs395/
Supplemental Appropriations and Rescissions for FY1998
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Budget FY1999: A Chronology with Internet Access
This is a select chronology of, and a finding guide for information on, congressional and presidential actions and documents related to major budget events in calendar year 1998, covering the FY1999 budget. Brief information is provided for the President’s budget, congressional budget resolutions, appropriations measures (regular, continuing, supplementals, and rescissions), budget reconciliation, House and Senate votes, line-item vetoes, publications, testimony, charts, and tables. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs540/
Drug Control: Reauthorization of the Office of National Drug Control Policy
The Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) was scheduled to sunset on September 30, 1997, but Congress approved ONDCP funding under the Treasury, Postal Appropriations Act, FY1998 (P.L. 105-61). Several measures have been introduced in the 105th Congress to reauthorize ONDCP. On October 21, 1997, the House passed H.R. 2610, as amended, the National Narcotics Leadership Act. On November 6, 1997, the Senate Judiciary Committee reported H.R. 2610, replacing the language of the House-passed version with a new version, the Office of National Drug Control Policy Reauthorization Act. On July 29, 1998, the Senate approved an amendment (S. Amdt. 3367/Hatch and Biden) to the Treasury, Postal Appropriations Act, FY1999 (S. 2312/Campbell) that differs from the House-passed version of H.R. 2610. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs538/
Budget FY1999: A Chronology with Internet Access
This is a select chronology of, and a finding guide for information on, congressional and presidential actions and documents related to major budget events in calendar year 1998, covering the FY1999 budget. Brief information is provided for the President’s budget, congressional budget resolutions, appropriations measures (regular, continuing, supplementals, and rescissions), budget reconciliation, House and Senate votes, line-item vetoes, publications, testimony, charts, and tables. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs854/
Appropriations for FY1999: An Overview
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to CRS reports that provide analytical perspectives on the 13 annual appropriations bills, and other related appropriation measures. It does not include a detailed explanation or description of the budget or appropriations processes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs855/
Appropriations for FY1999: District of Columbia
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on the District of Columbia. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs542/
ISTEA Reauthorization: Highway and Transit Legislative Proposals in the 105th Congress, 2nd Session
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Functional Categories of the Federal Budget
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Functional Categories of the Federal Budget
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The Federal Fiscal Year
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The Spending Pipeline: Stages of Federal Spending
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The Spending Pipeline: Stages of Federal Spending
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Basic Federal Budgeting Terminology
In its most elemental form, the federal budget is a comprehensive accounting of the government’s spending, revenues, and borrowing. This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the basic terminology and concepts used in the federal budget process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs545/
Basic Federal Budgeting Terminology
In its most elemental form, the federal budget is a comprehensive accounting of the government’s spending, revenues, and borrowing. This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the basic terminology and concepts used in the federal budget process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs857/
Basic Federal Budgeting Terminology
In its most elemental form, the federal budget is a comprehensive accounting of the government’s spending, revenues, and borrowing. This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the basic terminology and concepts used in the federal budget process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1413/
Debt-Limit Legislation in the Congressional Budget Process
The gross federal debt consists of the debt held by the public plus the debt held by government accounts. Almost all of the gross federal debt is subject to a public debt limit, as set forth in statute (31 U.S.C. 3101).This report considers legislation needed to change the public debt limit. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs546/
Consideration of the Budget Resolution
Consideration of a concurrent budget resolution is governed by special procedures in the House and Senate. Although the procedures of each chamber differ, they serve generally to expedite consideration of the budget resolution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs547/
Debt-Limit Legislation in the Congressional Budget Process
The gross federal debt consists of the debt held by the public plus the debt held by government accounts. Almost all of the gross federal debt is subject to a public debt limit, as set forth in statute (31 U.S.C. 3101).This report considers legislation needed to change the public debt limit. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs858/