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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2000
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Conservation Reserve Program: Status and Current Issues

Conservation Reserve Program: Status and Current Issues

Date: May 23, 2000
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A
Description: The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), enacted in 1985, enables producers to retire highly erodible or environmentally sensitive cropland, usually for 10 years. Congress reauthorized and amended the CRP in the 1996 Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act (P.L. 104-127; 16 U.S.C. 3811, et seq.). The law caps enrollment at 36.4 million acres and makes funding mandatory through the commodity Credit Corporation.
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U.S. Agricultural Trade: Trends, Composition, Direction, and Policy

U.S. Agricultural Trade: Trends, Composition, Direction, and Policy

Date: October 24, 2000
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E & Dunkley, Mary L
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agricultural Trade Issues in the 106th Congress

Agricultural Trade Issues in the 106th Congress

Date: November 27, 2000
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.; Hanrahan, Charles E. & Jurenas, Remy
Description: Agricultural interests have been following trade policy developments against a backdrop of weak foreign demand and large world supplies of agricultural products. The U.S. Department of Agriculture reports that the value of U.S. agricultural exports fell between FY1996 (a record year) and FY1999 by almost $11 billion. USDA forecasts agricultural exports at $50.5 billion in FY2000 and $51.5 billion in FY2001. However, the projected agricultural trade surpluses for those years, of $11.5 billion and $12 billion, would be less than half the FY1996 surplus of $27.2 billion. Many agricultural groups and their supporters in Congress believe that the sector's future prosperity depends upon such U.S. trade policies as: 1) encouraging China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO), with its binding rules and responsibilities; 2) exempting agriculture from U.S. unilateral economic sanctions; 3) fully using export and food aid programs; and 4) aggressively battling foreign-imposed barriers to the movement of U.S. farm products. A few U.S. farm groups are wary of such approaches.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Farm Economic Relief: Issues and Options for Congress

Farm Economic Relief: Issues and Options for Congress

Date: December 6, 2000
Creator: Womach, Jasper & Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: This report discusses issues regarding Agriculture funding, specifically the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform (FAIR) Act (P.L. 104-127), which prescribed farm commodity support policy through 2002.
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Farm Economic Relief: Issues and Options for Congress

Farm Economic Relief: Issues and Options for Congress

Date: August 22, 2000
Creator: Womach, Jasper & Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: This report discusses issues regarding Agriculture funding and subsidies. In response to low prices, natural disasters, and other farm-related problems, Congress has, over 3 successive years, provided a total of about $23 billion in supplemental aid – in addition to funds already programmed through the 1996 farm bill (P.L. 104-127). The most recent aid was attached to a crop insurance reform bill signed into law on June 22, 2000 (P.L. 106-224). This Agriculture Risk Protection Act of 2000 includes $7.113 billion for additional farm income and related assistance, of which $5.5 billion is to be spent in FY2000.
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Soil and Water Conservation Issues

Soil and Water Conservation Issues

Date: August 28, 2000
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A
Description: None
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Dairy Policy Issues

Dairy Policy Issues

Date: August 1, 2000
Creator: Chite, Ralph M
Description: Three major dairy policy issues captured the attention of the 106th Congress, and are expected to remain issues of concern to the 107th Congress-- federal financial assistance for dairy farmers; implementation by USDA of changes to federal farm milk pricing regulations; and regional debates over the market effects of dairy compacts.
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Agriculture: A List of Websites

Agriculture: A List of Websites

Date: January 18, 2000
Creator: Canada, Carol
Description: This list provides a sampling of the rapidly proliferating number of agricultural resources available on the Internet. It is not intended to be exhaustive. It is divided into 27 categories.
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Precision Agriculture and Site-Specific Management: Current Status and Emerging Policy Issues

Precision Agriculture and Site-Specific Management: Current Status and Emerging Policy Issues

Date: August 7, 2000
Creator: Cowan, Tadlock
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agricultural Trade in the 106th Congress: A Review of Issues

Agricultural Trade in the 106th Congress: A Review of Issues

Date: December 29, 2000
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.; Hanrahan, Charles E. & Jurenas, Remy
Description: The 106th Congress considered a number of trade policy developments against a backdrop of weak foreign demand and large world supplies of agricultural commodities. The U.S. Department of Agriculture reports that the value of U.S. agricultural exports fell between FY1996 (a record year) and FY1999 by almost $11 billion, to $49.2 billion. Agricultural exports did climb back to $50.9 billion in FY2000, and are now projected at $53 billion in FY2001. However, the pace of recovery concerned many agricultural groups and their supporters in Congress. Although they recognize that many world economic, farm production, political, and weather factors influence exports, many of these groups believe that the agricultural sector's future prosperity also depends upon such U.S. trade policies as: 1) encouraging China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO), with its binding rules and responsibilities; 2) exempting agricultural exports from U.S. unilateral economic sanctions; 3) fully using export and food aid programs; and 4) aggressively battling foreign-imposed barriers to the movement of U.S. farm products. A few U.S. farm groups are wary of such approaches.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Congressional Action, FY1989-FY2001

Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Congressional Action, FY1989-FY2001

Date: December 11, 2000
Creator: Chite, Ralph M
Description: From FY1989 through FY2001 (to date), nineteen appropriations or farm disaster acts have provided $38 billion in emergency funding for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs. Nearly $27 billion, or about 70 percent of the total amount, has been provided for FY1999-FY2001 alone. Since FY1989, the vast majority of the funds has been paid directly to farmers, primarily in the form of “market loss payments” (just under $17 billion, all since FY1999) to compensate for low farm commodity prices, and disaster payments($15.6 billion) paid to any producer who experienced a major crop loss caused by a natural disaster. The remaining $5.4 billion has funded a wide array of other USDA programs, including other forms of farm disaster assistance, farm loans, overseas food aid, food and nutrition programs, and rural development assistance.
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Agriculture and the 106th Congress: A Summary of Major Issues

Agriculture and the 106th Congress: A Summary of Major Issues

Date: December 15, 2000
Creator: Jones, Jean Yavis
Description: Most congressional interest in agriculture in the 106th Congress was focused on persistent low prices for major commodities and proposals to redress declining farm income. Six emergency farm aid bills were approved, increasing agricultural spending by nearly $27 billion for fiscal years 1999-2001. These bills provided disaster relief along with short term “market loss payments”to farmers to shore up farm income. Some longer term changes also were enacted as part of emergency farm legislation, which this report discusses in brief.
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Federal Grazing Regulations: Public Lands Council v. Babbitt

Federal Grazing Regulations: Public Lands Council v. Babbitt

Date: February 1, 2000
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report discusses new regulations on livestock grazing on lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management became effective August 21, 1995. Many aspects of the new regulations were challenged in Public Lands Council v. Babbitt. A federal district court upheld many of the regulations, but struck down four of them and enjoined their implementation. At the appellate level, only the new regulation allowing conservation use to the exclusion of livestock grazing for the full term of a permit was held invalid. The Supreme Court has agreed to hear the case and argument has been set for March 1, 2000.
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Conservation Reserve Payments and Self-Employment Taxes

Conservation Reserve Payments and Self-Employment Taxes

Date: May 1, 2000
Creator: Morris, Marie B
Description: Farmers enrolling their land in the Department of Agriculture's Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) receive payments for refraining from farming their property and for engaging in certain conservation practices mandated by the Department of Agriculture. These payments are described in the contract with the Department of Agriculture as "rental payments." Farmers would like to treat the income as "rental income" because it would not be subject to self-employment taxes, but the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) insists that under certain conditions, the payments are income from the trade or business of farming and thus subject to self-employment taxes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Appropriations for FY2001: U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies

Appropriations for FY2001: U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies

Date: August 31, 2000
Creator: Chite, Ralph M
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Agriculture Appropriations.
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Appropriations for FY2001: U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies

Appropriations for FY2001: U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies

Date: November 9, 2000
Creator: Chite, Ralph M
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Agriculture Appropriations.
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Fruits and Vegetables: Ongoing Issues for Congress

Fruits and Vegetables: Ongoing Issues for Congress

Date: November 13, 2000
Creator: Branaman, Brenda
Description: None
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Economic Sanctions and U.S. Agricultural Exports

Economic Sanctions and U.S. Agricultural Exports

Date: March 20, 2000
Creator: Jurenas, Remy
Description: Various statutes and regulations authorize the President to restrict or prohibit trade with targeted countries for national security or foreign policy reasons. The exercise of these authorities has resulted in restrictions or prohibitions at times being placed on the export of U.S. agricultural commodities and products. The U.S. government currently restricts exports of agricultural products as part of across-the-board economic sanctions imposed on Cuba and Iraq. Exceptions are made for humanitarian reasons, allowing food to be sold or donated to these two countries.
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Water Quality Initiatives and Agriculture

Water Quality Initiatives and Agriculture

Date: February 16, 2000
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: None
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Water Quality Initiatives and Agriculture

Water Quality Initiatives and Agriculture

Date: December 20, 2000
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department