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 Resource Type: Report
 Country: Iran
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA)

The Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA)

Date: July 20, 2001
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA)

The Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA)

Date: July 31, 2003
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Iran Nonproliferation Act and the International Space Station:  Issues and Options

The Iran Nonproliferation Act and the International Space Station: Issues and Options

Date: March 2, 2005
Creator: Squassoni, Sharon & Smith, Marcia S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The International Space Station and the Iran Nonproliferation Act (INA): The Bush Administration's Proposed INA Amendment

The International Space Station and the Iran Nonproliferation Act (INA): The Bush Administration's Proposed INA Amendment

Date: November 14, 2005
Creator: Smith, Marcia S & Squassoni, Sharon
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA)

The Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA)

Date: April 19, 2005
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: In August 2001, the Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA, P.L. 104-172) was renewed for another five years (P.L. 107-24). No firms have been sanctioned under ILSA, and ILSA has terminated with respect to Libya. In the 109th Congress, H.R. 282 and S. 333 contain provisions that would modify ILSA. This report discusses various issues including the background and passages of the ILSA and its effectiveness.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The International Space Station and the Iran Nonproliferation Act (INA): The Bush Administration's Proposed INA Amendment

The International Space Station and the Iran Nonproliferation Act (INA): The Bush Administration's Proposed INA Amendment

Date: December 5, 2005
Creator: Smith, Marcia S. & Squassoni, Sharon
Description: The Iran Nonproliferation Act (P.L. 106-178), as originally enacted, prohibited the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from purchasing Russian goods and services for the U.S.-led International Space Station (ISS) unless the President certified that Russia was not proliferating certain technologies to Iran. On July 12, 2005, the Bush Administration submitted to Congress an amendment to allow NASA to purchase goods and services from Russia to support the ISS. That presented a classic policy dilemma. Without access to Russian spacecraft, the U.S. use of the ISS could be extremely limited. Yet Russian entities were continuing proliferation activities relating to missile proliferation according to the Department of State. This report explains the Bush Administration proposal and resulting congressional action.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA)

The Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA)

Date: April 26, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: No firms have been sanctioned under the Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA), and it has terminated with respect to Libya. In August 2001, the Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA, P.L. 104-172) was renewed for another five years (P.L. 107-24). No firms have been sanctioned under ILSA, and ILSA has terminated with respect to Libya. In the 109th Congress, H.R. 282 and S. 333 contain provisions that would modify ILSA. This report discusses various issues including the background and passages of the ILSA and its effectiveness.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arms Shipments to Iran

Arms Shipments to Iran

Date: April 3, 1987
Creator: Preece, Richard M
Description: This report provides background and examines key questions in regards to the shipments of arms to Iran and the subsequent diversion of funds to Nicaraguan guerrillas by the Reagan Administration.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA)

The Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA)

Date: September 28, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: No firms have been sanctioned under the Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA), and it has terminated with respect to Libya. In August 2001, the Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA, P.L. 104-172) was renewed for another five years (P.L. 107-24). No firms have been sanctioned under ILSA, and ILSA has terminated with respect to Libya. In the 109th Congress, H.R. 282 and S. 333 contain provisions that would modify ILSA. This report discusses various issues including the background and passages of the ILSA and its effectiveness.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA)

The Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA)

Date: October 11, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: No firms have been sanctioned under the Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA), and it has terminated with respect to Libya. In August 2001, the Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA, P.L. 104-172) was renewed for another five years (P.L. 107-24). No firms have been sanctioned under ILSA, and ILSA has terminated with respect to Libya. In the 109th Congress, H.R. 282 and S. 333 contain provisions that would modify ILSA. This report discusses various issues including the background and passages of the ILSA and its effectiveness.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Iran-Iraq War: Implications for U.S. Policy

The Iran-Iraq War: Implications for U.S. Policy

Date: October 14, 1987
Creator: Preece, Richard M.
Description: This report discusses the Iran-Iraq conflict at its present state, which has become a war of attrition with neither side capable of achieving a decisive military victory over the other in the short term. U.S. policy concerns currently are threefold: first, that Iraq, despite moves to sustain its economic and military capacities, ultimately might suffer a destabilizing defeat to the detriment of U.S. interests in the Persian Gulf region; second, that future instability in Iran could open opportunities for Soviet exploitation; and third, that the conflict might expand beyond its present confines to threaten friendly regional states and the availability of their vast petroleum resources.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Iran Nonproliferation Act and the International Space Station: Issues and Options

The Iran Nonproliferation Act and the International Space Station: Issues and Options

Date: March 2, 2005
Creator: Squassoni, Sharon & Smith, Marcia S.
Description: The Iran Nonproliferation Act of 2000 (INA) was enacted to help stop foreign transfers to Iran of weapons of mass destruction, missile technology, and advanced conventional weapons technology, particularly from Russia. Section 6 of the INA bans U.S. payments to Russia in connection with the International Space Station (ISS) unless the U.S. President determines that Russia is taking steps to prevent such proliferation. The ISS is currently under construction in orbit. According to current plans, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will become dependent on Russia for certain ISS crew-related services beginning in April 2006 for which NASA must pay. Thus, the INA could significantly affect U.S. utilization of ISS. This report outlines the history of INA, its effect on Russian and Iranian proliferation, its impact on the ISS program, and options for resolving associated issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)

The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)

Date: July 23, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: No firms have been sanctioned under the Iran Sanctions Act (ISA), and a GAO study in December 2007 said that the effects of ISA and other U.S. sanctions on Iran's economy are "difficult to determine." However, with Iran under increasing U.N. and other diplomatic pressure, many foreign firms now seem hesitant to finalize investment deals with Iran. In the 110th Congress, several bills, including the House-passed H.R. 1400 would add ISA provisions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

Date: August 5, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: The Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq is relatively peaceful and prospering economically, but the Iraqi Kurds' political autonomy and political strength in post- Saddam Iraq is causing friction with Arab leaders in Iraq, Turkey, and Iran. However, an overall reduction in violence in Iraq, coupled with continued U.S. political influence over the Kurds, is likely to prevent a destabilizing escalation of the Iraqi Kurd-Arab disputes. Also see CRS Report RL31339, Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security, by Kenneth Katzman.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

Date: October 23, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: The Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq is relatively peaceful and prospering economically, but the Iraqi Kurds' political autonomy and political strength in post- Saddam Iraq is causing friction with Arab leaders in Iraq, Turkey, and Iran. However, an overall reduction in violence in Iraq, coupled with continued U.S. political influence over the Kurds, is likely to prevent a destabilizing escalation of the Iraqi Kurd-Arab disputes. Also see CRS Report RL31339, Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security, by Kenneth Katzman.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

Date: September 25, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: The Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq is relatively peaceful and prospering economically, but the Iraqi Kurds' political autonomy and political strength in post- Saddam Iraq is causing friction with Arab leaders in Iraq, Turkey, and Iran. However, an overall reduction in violence in Iraq, coupled with continued U.S. political influence over the Kurds, is likely to prevent a destabilizing escalation of the Iraqi Kurd-Arab disputes. Also see CRS Report RL31339, Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security, by Kenneth Katzman.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Lawsuits Against State Supporters of Terrorism: An Overview

Lawsuits Against State Supporters of Terrorism: An Overview

Date: August 7, 2008
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K.
Description: A 1996 amendment to the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (FSIA) enables American victims of international terrorist acts supported by certain States designated by the State Department as supporters of terrorism - Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, Syria, and previously Iraq and Libya - to bring suit in U.S. courts to seek monetary damages. This report, which will be updated, provides an overview of these issues and relevant legislation (H.R. 5167).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Lawsuits Against State Supporters of Terrorism: An Overview

Lawsuits Against State Supporters of Terrorism: An Overview

Date: July 15, 2008
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K.
Description: A 1996 amendment to the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (FSIA) enables American victims of international terrorist acts supported by certain States designated by the State Department as supporters of terrorism - Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, Syria, and previously Iraq and Libya - to bring suit in U.S. courts to seek monetary damages. This report, which will be updated, provides an overview of these issues and relevant legislation (H.R. 5167).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Date: August 22, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Iran is materially assisting and influencing major Shiite Muslim factions in Iraq, most of which have ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran. Among these factions is that of hardline anti-U.S. cleric Moqtada Al Sadr, whose Mahdi Army militia, according to some observers, serves as a proxy force for Tehran against the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Date: June 16, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Iran is materially assisting and attempting to influence, in most cases against the United States, major Shiite Muslim factions in Iraq, most of which have ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran. The Administration asserts that Tehran is actively directing, training, and arming Shiite militiamen linked, to varying degrees, to hardline anti-U.S. cleric Moqtada Al Sadr. Some analysts see a virtual "proxy war" between the United States and Iran inside Iraq.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Date: July 25, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Iran is materially assisting and influencing major Shiite Muslim factions in Iraq, most of which have ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran. Among these factions is that of hardline anti-U.S. cleric Moqtada Al Sadr, whose Mahdi Army militia, according to some observers, serves as a proxy force for Tehran against the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Date: May 14, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Iran is materially assisting all major Shiite Muslim political factions in Iraq, most of which have longstanding ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran, and their armed militias. The Administration notes growing involvement by Tehran in actively directing training, and arming Shiite militiamen linked, to varying degrees, to hardline cleric Moqtada Al Sadr. Some analysis goes so far as to see a virtual "proxy war" between the United States and Iran inside Iraq.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Date: October 21, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: With a conventional military and weapons of mass destruction (WMD) threat from Saddam Hussein's regime removed, Iran seeks to ensure that Iraq can never again become a threat to Iran, either with or without U.S. forces present in Iraq. By supporting armed Shiite factions, Iran's influence in Iraq has at times hindered U.S. efforts to stabilize Iraq, and has heightened the U.S. threat perception of Iran generally. However, Iran faces difficult choices in Iraq now that its protege Shiite factions, formerly united, are competing and often fighting each other.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Date: September 17, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Iran is materially assisting and influencing major Shiite Muslim factions in Iraq, most of which have ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran. The Shiite faction of paramount concern to the Administration is that of Moqtada Al Sadr, whose Mahdi Army militia has periodically battled U.S. and Iraqi government forces, although it is currently relatively quiescent.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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