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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Women in the United States Congress
This report identifies women who have served as U.S. Senators or Representatives. It notes their party affiliation, the States they have represented, the dates of their appointment or election, the length of their service, their committee assignments, and their service in committee chairmanships. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8092/
Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2003
This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) districts of the 219 women Members of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5725/
Women in the United States Congress
This report identifies women who have served as Senators or as Members of the House of Representatives. It notes their party affiliation, the States they have represented, the dates of their appointment or election, the length of their service, their committee assignments, and their service in committee chairmanships. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8860/
Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2001
This report identifies the committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) districts of the 209 women Members of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2074/
Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2005
This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) districts of the 228 women Members of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7141/
Equal Rights for Women
Amendments to the Constitution to provide equality of rights for women have been reintroduced in every Congress from the 67th i n 1923 to the 100th in 1987. Also proposed in recent years, although not to date in the 100th Congress, has been legislation to improve women's rights without amending the Constitution: a statue to forbid enforcement of a classification based on sex -- except where necessary to achieve a “compelling state interest, " and a measure providing for selective revision of existing Federal laws that discriminate on the basis of sex. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7362/
Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2011
This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) congressional districts of the 274 women who have served in Congress. It will be updated when there are relevant changes in the makeup of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84028/
Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2011
This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) congressional districts of the 274 women who have served in Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103151/
Equal Rights Amendment (Proposed)
The proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was first introduced in 1923, and was passed by the Congress in 1972. In 1978, Congress extended the original deadline for ratification of the ERA. Thus, if it receives approval in the form of ratification by 38 States before June 30, 1982, the measure will become the 27th Amendment to the Constitution, and will require equal treatment under Federal and State laws and practices for all persons, regardless of sex. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8412/
The Proposed Equal Rights Amendment
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Equal Rights Amendment (Proposed)
The proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was first introduced in 1923, and was passed by the Congress in 1972. In 1978, Congress extended the original deadline for ratification of the ERA. Thus, if it receives approval in the form of ratification by 38 States before June 30, 1982, the measure will become the 27th Amendment to the Constitution, and will require equal treatment under Federal and State laws and practices for all persons, regardless of sex. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7701/
The Gender Wage Gap and Pay Equity: Is Comparable Worth the Next Step?
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The Gender Wage Gap and Pay Equity: Is Comparable Worth the Next Step?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5101/
Immigration Provisions of the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA)
This report describes how the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) provisions work in practice. It discusses improvements suggested by immigration attorneys and law enforcement observers to increase the utilization of VAWA provisions by abused foreign nationals as well as ways to reduce immigration fraud. The report closes with possible immigration-related issues that Congress may choose to consider should it reauthorize VAWA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86627/
United Nations System Efforts to Address Violence Against Women
This report provides an overview of recent U.N. efforts to address violence against women (VAW) and highlights key U.N. interagency efforts. It also discusses selected U.N. funds, programs, and agencies that address international violence against women. It does not assess the extent to which VAW is directly addressed or is part of a larger initiative or program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96806/
The Male-Female Wage Gap: A Fact Sheet
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United Nations System Efforts to Address Violence Against Women
This report provides an overview of recent U.N. efforts to address VAW and highlights key U.N. interagency efforts. It also discusses selected U.N. funds, programs, and agencies that address international violence against women. It does not assess the extent to which VAW is directly addressed or is part of a larger initiative or program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40235/
International Violence Against Women: U.S. Response and Policy Issues
This report addresses causes, prevalence, and consequences of violence against women. It provides examples of completed and ongoing U.S. activities that address VAW directly or include anti-VAW components. It outlines possible policy issues for the 112th Congress, including the scope and effectiveness of U.S. programs in addressing international VAW; further integrating anti-VAW programs into U.S. assistance and foreign policy mechanisms; U.S. funding for anti-VAW activities worldwide, particularly in light of the global financial crisis, economic recession, and subsequent calls to reduce the U.S. budget deficit; and strengthening U.S. government coordination of anti-VAW activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40232/
Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2011
This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) congressional districts of the 274 women who have served in Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33033/
Women in the Armed Forces
Women have become an integral part of the armed forces, but they are excluded from most combat jobs. Several issues remain. One is whether to reduce, maintain, or expand the number of women in the services as the total forces are being reduced. A second question is to what extent women should continue to be excluded from some combat positions by policy. Would national security be jeopardized or enhanced by increasing reliance on women in the armed forces? Should women have equal opportunities and responsibilities in national defense? Or do role and physical differences between the sexes, the protection of future generations, and other social norms require limiting the assignments of women in the armed forces? Opinion in the United States is deeply divided on the fundamental issues involved. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8522/
Women in the Armed Forces
Women have become an integral part of the armed forces, but they are excluded from most combat jobs. Several issues remain. One is whether to reduce, maintain, or expand the number of women in the services as the total forces are being reduced. A second question is to what extent women should continue to be excluded from some combat positions by policy. Would national security be jeopardized or enhanced by increasing reliance on women in the armed forces? Should women have equal opportunities and responsibilities in national defense? Or do role and physical differences between the sexes, the protection of future generations, and other social norms require limiting the assignments of women in the armed forces? Opinion in the United States is deeply divided on the fundamental issues involved. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8521/
Women in the Armed Forces
Women have become an integral part of the armed forces, but several issues remain. One is whether to reduce, maintain, or expand the number of women in the services as the total forces are being reduced. A second question is to what extent women should continue to be excluded from some combat positions by policy. A third question is whether or not women should be included if the draft is reinstated? Would national security be jeopardized or enhanced by increasing reliance on women in the armed forces? Should women have equal opportunities and responsibilities in national defense? Or do role and physical differences between the sexes, the protection of future generations, and other social norms require limiting the assignments of women in the armed forces? Opinion in the United States is deeply divided on the fundamental issues involved. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8513/
Violence Against Women Act: History and Federal Funding
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Violence Against Women Act: History, Federal Funding, and Reauthorizing Legislation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6840/
Violence Against Women Act: History, Federal Funding, and Reauthorizing Legislation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6837/
Violence Against Women Act: History, Federal Funding, and Reauthorizing Legislation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4130/
Equal Rights Amendments: State Provisions
Twenty states adopted state equal rights amendments between 1879 and 1998. The texts of most of these amendments either are similar to the proposed federal amendment or restate the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. The timing of the enactment of these state amendments and the choice of wording reflect both the ebb and flow of the women's movement in the United States and the political culture of the particular states at the time of passage. A brief history of the women's rights movement as it relates to the passage of state equal rights amendments is included. The report ends with the text and the date of enactment of each amendment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7397/
Women in Combat: Issues for Congress
This report looks at the history of women in US military roles and combat since the 1990's. It also discusses critic's views of exclusionary policy as a civil rights issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83997/
The U.N. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW): Issues in the U.S. Ratification Debate
The Senate may consider providing its advice and consent to U.S. ratification of the United Nations (U.N.) Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW, or the Convention) during the 112th Congress. CEDAW is the only international human rights treaty that specifically addresses the rights of women. This report provides an overview of CEDAW's background, objectives, and structure, including the role of the Convention's monitoring body, the CEDAW Committee. It examines U.S. policy and issues in the U.S. ratification debate, including the Convention's possible impact on U.S. sovereignty, its effectiveness in combating discrimination, and its role as an instrument of U.S. foreign policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29572/
Assistance to Afghan and Iraqi Women: Issues for Congress
This report reviews the U.S.-sponsored funding and programs directed toward women and children in Afghanistan and Iraq. The national and international response to the plight of Afghan and Iraqi women, even to their most recent experience under the Taliban in Afghanistan or Baathist regime in Iraq, will impact their future role and the long-term developments in each country, such as the implementation of a new constitution, the incorporation of women in local and national governance, the role of Islam and the state, the growth of the economy, the curbing of security concerns, and the role of U.S. and international assistance. This report will be updated as events warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7722/
The U.N. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW): Issues in the U.S. Ratification Debate
This report provides an overview of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and describes its background, objectives, and structure, including the role of the Convention's monitoring body, the CEDAW Committee. It examines U.S. policy and issues in the U.S. ratification debate, including the Convention's possible impact on U.S. sovereignty, its effectiveness in combating discrimination, and its role as an instrument of U.S. foreign policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc97977/
Pay Equity Legislation
This report gives an overview of "pay equity," a term referring to the fact that women as a group are paid less than men. It includes the history of pay equity, legal and legislative background, and recent legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87264/
Pay Equity: Legislative and Legal Developments
This report discusses pay equity litigation, including Wal-Mart Stores v. Dukes, a case in which the Supreme Court rejected class action status for current and former female Wal-Mart employees who allege that the company has engaged in pay discrimination. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272086/
Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2012
This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) congressional districts of the 276 women who have served in Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87247/
Pay Equity Legislation in the 107th Congress
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Pay Equity Legislation in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1854/
Pay Equity Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5105/
Pay Equity Legislation in the 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8900/
U.S. Assistance to Women in Afghanistan and Iraq: Challenges and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9998/
Trends in Welfare, Work and the Economic Well-Being of Female-Headed Families with Children: 1987-2000
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2067/
Welfare Reform: TANF Activities to Reduce Nonmarital Pregnancy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2071/
Pay Equity Legislation in the 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6001/
U.S. Assistance to Women in Afghanistan and Iraq: Challenges and Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9974/
Social Security Benefit Enhancements for Women Act of 2002 (H.R. 4069)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3385/
Social Security Benefit Enhancements for Women Act of 2002 (H.R. 4069)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3384/
Military Sexual Assault: Chronology of Activity in Congress and Related Resources
Report that focuses on activity in Congress regarding recent high profile incidents of sexual assault in the military. Included are separate sections on the official responses related to these incidents by the Department of Defense (DOD), the Administration, and Congress including legislation in the 113th Congress. The last section is a resource guide for sources in this report and related materials on sexual assault and prevention. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227898/
Federal Affirmative Action Law: A Brief History
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Pay Equity Legislation
This report begins by showing the trend in the male-female wage gap and by examining the explanations that have been offered for its enduring presence. It next discusses the major laws directed at eliminating sex-based wage discrimination as well as relevant federal court cases. The report closes with a description of pay equity legislation that has been considered by Congress in recent years, including bills introduced in the 111th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29645/
Sexual Harassment and Violence Against Women: Developments in Federal Law
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Kuwait: Security, Reform, and U.S. Policy
Kuwaiti leaders peacefully resolved a succession crisis that erupted following the January 15, 2006 death of its long-ruling Amir. However, a new crisis erupted in May 2006 over the structure of the next parliamentary elections, prompting a dissolution of the existing parliament and scheduling of new elections for June 29, 2006. Women will be able to run and to vote. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10248/
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