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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
A New United Nations Entity for Women: Issues for Congress

A New United Nations Entity for Women: Issues for Congress

Date: May 25, 2010
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Description: In September 2009, U.N. member states, including the United States, adopted a General Assembly resolution expressing strong support for the consolidation of four U.N. bodies addressing women's issues into one composite entity. This report discusses possible policy issues that may arise as the composite gender entity is established, including its funding mechanisms, the creation of an effective governance structure, the entity's possible impact on U.N. system in-country operational capacity, and the relationships and coordination between the entity and other U.N. system bodies. The report also discusses the entity in the context of broader U.N. reform efforts and examines the involvement of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Finally, it analyzes U.S. policy toward the new entity, including its possible role in U.S. foreign policy and the level and extent of U.S. financial contributions to existing U.N. system gender entities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Equal Rights Amendments: State Provisions

Equal Rights Amendments: State Provisions

Date: August 23, 2004
Creator: Gladstone, Leslie W
Description: Twenty states adopted state equal rights amendments between 1879 and 1998. The texts of most of these amendments either are similar to the proposed federal amendment or restate the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. The timing of the enactment of these state amendments and the choice of wording reflect both the ebb and flow of the women's movement in the United States and the political culture of the particular states at the time of passage. A brief history of the women's rights movement as it relates to the passage of state equal rights amendments is included. The report ends with the text and the date of enactment of each amendment.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Violence Against Women Act: History, Federal Funding, and Reauthorizing Legislation

Violence Against Women Act: History, Federal Funding, and Reauthorizing Legislation

Date: January 14, 2002
Creator: Siskin, Alison
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Violence Against Women Act: History, Federal Funding, and Reauthorizing Legislation

Violence Against Women Act: History, Federal Funding, and Reauthorizing Legislation

Date: October 12, 2001
Creator: Siskin, Alison
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Violence Against Women Act: History and Federal Funding

Violence Against Women Act: History and Federal Funding

Date: March 18, 2005
Creator: Laney, Garrine P
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Violence Against Women Act: History, Federal Funding, and Reauthorizing Legislation

Violence Against Women Act: History, Federal Funding, and Reauthorizing Legislation

Date: March 19, 2003
Creator: Laney, Garrine P & Siskin, Alison
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Women in Combat: Issues for Congress

Women in Combat: Issues for Congress

Date: July 14, 2015
Creator: Kamarck, Kristy N.
Description: This report looks at the history of women in US military roles and combat since the 1990's. It also discusses critic's views of exclusionary policy as a civil rights issue.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Women in the Armed Forces

Women in the Armed Forces

Date: August 31, 1982
Creator: Collier, Ellen C
Description: Women have become an integral part of the armed forces, but several issues remain. One is whether to reduce, maintain, or expand the number of women in the services as the total forces are being reduced. A second question is to what extent women should continue to be excluded from some combat positions by policy. A third question is whether or not women should be included if the draft is reinstated? Would national security be jeopardized or enhanced by increasing reliance on women in the armed forces? Should women have equal opportunities and responsibilities in national defense? Or do role and physical differences between the sexes, the protection of future generations, and other social norms require limiting the assignments of women in the armed forces? Opinion in the United States is deeply divided on the fundamental issues involved.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Women in Combat: Issues for Congress

Women in Combat: Issues for Congress

Date: April 5, 2012
Creator: Burrelli, David F.
Description: This report looks at the history of women in US military roles and combat since the 1990's. It also discusses critic's views of exclusionary policy as a civil rights issue.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Women in the Armed Forces

Women in the Armed Forces

Date: September 29, 1998
Creator: Burrelli, David F
Description: Women have become an integral part of the armed forces, but they are excluded from most combat jobs. Several issues remain. One is whether to reduce, maintain, or expand the number of women in the services as the total forces are being reduced. A second question is to what extent women should continue to be excluded from some combat positions by policy. Would national security be jeopardized or enhanced by increasing reliance on women in the armed forces? Should women have equal opportunities and responsibilities in national defense? Or do role and physical differences between the sexes, the protection of future generations, and other social norms require limiting the assignments of women in the armed forces? Opinion in the United States is deeply divided on the fundamental issues involved.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Women in the Armed Forces

Women in the Armed Forces

Date: November 20, 1991
Creator: Collier, Ellen C
Description: Women have become an integral part of the armed forces, but they are excluded from most combat jobs. Several issues remain. One is whether to reduce, maintain, or expand the number of women in the services as the total forces are being reduced. A second question is to what extent women should continue to be excluded from some combat positions by policy. Would national security be jeopardized or enhanced by increasing reliance on women in the armed forces? Should women have equal opportunities and responsibilities in national defense? Or do role and physical differences between the sexes, the protection of future generations, and other social norms require limiting the assignments of women in the armed forces? Opinion in the United States is deeply divided on the fundamental issues involved.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Women in Combat: Issues for Congress

Women in Combat: Issues for Congress

Date: August 18, 2015
Creator: Kamarck, Kristy N.
Description: This report looks at the history of women in U.S. military roles and combat, and discusses key policy issues for Congress to consider including "gender-neutral" standards and selective service.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Violence Against Women Office: Background and Current Issues

Violence Against Women Office: Background and Current Issues

Date: April 2, 2003
Creator: Laney, Garrine P.
Description: This report discusses issues regarding the Violence Against Women Office (VAWO), which was created in 1995 to address legal and policy issues concerning violence against women.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Welfare, Work, and Poverty Status of Female- Headed Families with Children: 1987-2013

Welfare, Work, and Poverty Status of Female- Headed Families with Children: 1987-2013

Date: November 21, 2014
Creator: Gabe, Thomas
Description: The report focuses on welfare dependency and work engagement among single mothers, a major dynamic that welfare reform and accompanying policy changes have attempted to affect. It also examines the role of programs other than Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in providing support to single female-headed families with children.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
International Violence Against Women: U.S. Response and Policy Issues

International Violence Against Women: U.S. Response and Policy Issues

Date: August 10, 2009
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa; Ribando Seelke, Clare; Serafino, Nina M.; Margesson, Rhoda & Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji
Description: This report addresses causes, prevalence, and consequences of violence against women. It provides examples of completed and ongoing U.S. activities that address VAW directly or include anti-VAW components. It outlines possible policy considerations for the 111th Congress, including the scope and effectiveness of U.S. programs; further integrating anti-VAW programs into U.S. assistance and foreign policy mechanisms; and strengthening U.S. government coordination of anti-VAW activities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
International Violence Against Women: U.S. Response and Policy Issues

International Violence Against Women: U.S. Response and Policy Issues

Date: January 28, 2009
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa; Ribando Seelke, Clare; Serafino, Nina M.; Margesson, Rhoda & Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji
Description: This report addresses causes, prevalence, and consequences of violence against women. It provides examples of U.S. activities that address VAW directly or include anti-VAW components. It outlines possible policy considerations for the 111th Congress, including the scope and effectiveness of U.S. programs; further integrating anti-VAW programs into U.S. assistance and foreign policy mechanisms; and strengthening U.S. government coordination of anti-VAW activities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Efforts to Address Global Violence Against Women

U.S. Efforts to Address Global Violence Against Women

Date: July 30, 2015
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Description: This report briefly examines legislative issues regarding Violence against women, which includes random acts of violence as well as sustained abuse over time, can be physical, psychological, or sexual in nature.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The U.N. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW): Issues in the U.S. Ratification Debate

The U.N. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW): Issues in the U.S. Ratification Debate

Date: May 7, 2013
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Description: This report addresses CEDAW's background, objectives, and structure and provides an overview of U.S. policy toward the Convention. It examines issues that have been raised in the U.S. ratification debate, including the treaty's impact on U.S. sovereignty, the effectiveness of the Convention, and its possible use as an instrument of U.S. foreign policy. It also describes controversial provisions and CEDAW Committee recommendations addressing the role of women in society and women's equal access to education and healthcare.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW): Congressional Issues

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW): Congressional Issues

Date: August 5, 2008
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Description: This report provides an overview of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and describes its background, objectives, and structure, including the role of the Convention's monitoring body, the CEDAW Committee. It examines U.S. policy and issues in the U.S. ratification debate, including the Convention's possible impact on U.S. sovereignty, its effectiveness in combating discrimination, and its role as an instrument of U.S. foreign policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Female Genital Mutilation as Persecution: When Can It Constitute a Basis for Asylum and Withholding of Removal?

Female Genital Mutilation as Persecution: When Can It Constitute a Basis for Asylum and Withholding of Removal?

Date: October 10, 2008
Creator: Kim, Yule
Description: This report explores the basic statutory and regulatory framework that governs asylum law. This entails an outline of the requirements an applicant must meet in order to obtain relief under asylum law and a discussion about the differences between the two main forms of relief for aliens facing removal from the United States: asylum and withholding of removal. It will then examine several important issues and controversies concerning female genital mutilation (FGM) and its effect on asylum law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW): Congressional Issues

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW): Congressional Issues

Date: October 28, 2008
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Description: This report provides an overview of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and describes its background, objectives, and structure, including the role of the Convention's monitoring body, the CEDAW Committee. It examines U.S. policy and issues in the U.S. ratification debate, including the Convention's possible impact on U.S. sovereignty, its effectiveness in combating discrimination, and its role as an instrument of U.S. foreign policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The U.N. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW): Issues in the U.S. Ratification Debate

The U.N. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW): Issues in the U.S. Ratification Debate

Date: May 5, 2010
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Description: This report provides an overview of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and describes its background, objectives, and structure, including the role of the Convention's monitoring body, the CEDAW Committee. It examines U.S. policy and issues in the U.S. ratification debate, including the Convention's possible impact on U.S. sovereignty, its effectiveness in combating discrimination, and its role as an instrument of U.S. foreign policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The U.N. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW): Issues in the U.S. Ratification Debate

The U.N. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW): Issues in the U.S. Ratification Debate

Date: November 17, 2009
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Description: This report provides an overview of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and describes its background, objectives, and structure, including the role of the Convention's monitoring body, the CEDAW Committee. It examines U.S. policy and issues in the U.S. ratification debate, including the Convention's possible impact on U.S. sovereignty, its effectiveness in combating discrimination, and its role as an instrument of U.S. foreign policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Assistance to Afghan and Iraqi Women: Issues for Congress

Assistance to Afghan and Iraqi Women: Issues for Congress

Date: June 18, 2004
Creator: Armanios, Febe & Margesson, Rhoda
Description: This report reviews the U.S.-sponsored funding and programs directed toward women and children in Afghanistan and Iraq. The national and international response to the plight of Afghan and Iraqi women, even to their most recent experience under the Taliban in Afghanistan or Baathist regime in Iraq, will impact their future role and the long-term developments in each country, such as the implementation of a new constitution, the incorporation of women in local and national governance, the role of Islam and the state, the growth of the economy, the curbing of security concerns, and the role of U.S. and international assistance. This report will be updated as events warrant.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department