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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Affirmative Action: Justice O'Connor's Opinions
An examination of Justice O’Connor’s opinions reveals a gradual shift in perspective regarding the legal and constitutional standards to be applied in evaluating governmental affirmative action efforts, and the manner of their application in various legal and factual settings. This report briefly surveys decisions of retiring Justice Sandra Day O’Connor in affirmative action cases, an area where her opinions have frequently determined the outcome. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7762/
Affirmative Action Revisited: A Legal History and Prospectus
Affirmative action remains a focal point of public debate as the result of legal and political developments at the federal, state, and local levels. This report discusses legislation related to affirmative action, as well as legal rulings on the topic and the federal government's role in first establishing and, later, attempting to curb affirmative action policies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6845/
Affirmative Action Revisited: A Legal History and Prospectus
Affirmative action remains a focal point of public debate as the result of legal and political developments at the federal, state, and local levels. This report discusses legislation related to affirmative action, as well as legal rulings on the topic and the federal government's role in first establishing and, later, attempting to curb affirmative action policies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6844/
Agency Enforcement of the Prohibition Against Sex Discrimination Mandated by Title IX and EO 13160
This report provides a summary of the federal agencies’ enforcement of and compliance with the prohibition against sex discrimination mandated by Title IX and Executive Order 13160. Specifically, this report discusses the implementation of regulations and procedures for enforcing the Title IX compliance of grant recipients and for enforcing the compliance of the federal agencies themselves with President Clinton’s Executive Order. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820860/
Assistance to Afghan and Iraqi Women: Issues for Congress
This report reviews the U.S.-sponsored funding and programs directed toward women and children in Afghanistan and Iraq. The national and international response to the plight of Afghan and Iraqi women, even to their most recent experience under the Taliban in Afghanistan or Baathist regime in Iraq, will impact their future role and the long-term developments in each country, such as the implementation of a new constitution, the incorporation of women in local and national governance, the role of Islam and the state, the growth of the economy, the curbing of security concerns, and the role of U.S. and international assistance. This report will be updated as events warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7722/
Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding
This report discusses the inception of the Assistance to Firefighters Grant (AFG) program in the FY2001 National Defense Authorization Act, as well as current supplemental legislation and proposed funding. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462569/
Civil Rights Legislation: Responses to Grove City College v. Bell
This report discusses how broad should the coverage of Federal civil rights laws be? This was the central issue in the debate over legislation introduced in response to the February 1984 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Grove City College v. Bell. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9068/
The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW): Congressional Issues
This report provides an overview of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and describes its background, objectives, and structure, including the role of the Convention's monitoring body, the CEDAW Committee. It examines U.S. policy and issues in the U.S. ratification debate, including the Convention's possible impact on U.S. sovereignty, its effectiveness in combating discrimination, and its role as an instrument of U.S. foreign policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463483/
The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW): Congressional Issues
This report provides an overview of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and describes its background, objectives, and structure, including the role of the Convention's monitoring body, the CEDAW Committee. It examines U.S. policy and issues in the U.S. ratification debate, including the Convention's possible impact on U.S. sovereignty, its effectiveness in combating discrimination, and its role as an instrument of U.S. foreign policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462103/
Diversity, Inclusion, and Equal Opportunity in the Armed Services: Background and Issues for Congress
This report starts by giving an overview of recent research on diversity and organizational management. The next sections outline DOD's military personnel policies, processes and organizational structure for managing diversity, inclusion, and equal opportunity. Finally, the report examines how the concept of diversity and inclusion has evolved over the history of the Armed Forces and addresses some of the current legislative and policy issues related to diversity in the Armed Forces. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795881/
Equal Rights Amendment (Proposed)
The proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was first introduced in 1923, and was passed by the Congress in 1972. In 1978, Congress extended the original deadline for ratification of the ERA. Thus, if it receives approval in the form of ratification by 38 States before June 30, 1982, the measure will become the 27th Amendment to the Constitution, and will require equal treatment under Federal and State laws and practices for all persons, regardless of sex. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8412/
Equal Rights Amendment (Proposed)
The proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was first introduced in 1923, and was passed by the Congress in 1972. In 1978, Congress extended the original deadline for ratification of the ERA. Thus, if it receives approval in the form of ratification by 38 States before June 30, 1982, the measure will become the 27th Amendment to the Constitution, and will require equal treatment under Federal and State laws and practices for all persons, regardless of sex. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7701/
Equal Rights Amendments: State Provisions
Twenty states adopted state equal rights amendments between 1879 and 1998. The texts of most of these amendments either are similar to the proposed federal amendment or restate the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. The timing of the enactment of these state amendments and the choice of wording reflect both the ebb and flow of the women's movement in the United States and the political culture of the particular states at the time of passage. A brief history of the women's rights movement as it relates to the passage of state equal rights amendments is included. The report ends with the text and the date of enactment of each amendment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7397/
Equal Rights for Women
Amendments to the Constitution to provide equality of rights for women have been reintroduced in every Congress from the 67th i n 1923 to the 100th in 1987. Also proposed in recent years, although not to date in the 100th Congress, has been legislation to improve women's rights without amending the Constitution: a statue to forbid enforcement of a classification based on sex -- except where necessary to achieve a “compelling state interest, " and a measure providing for selective revision of existing Federal laws that discriminate on the basis of sex. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7362/
Federal Affirmative Action Law: A Brief History
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Federal Elementary and Secondary Education Programs: Reauthorization Issues
This report discusses the reauthorization of most Federal elementary and secondary education programs, which the 100th Congress is currently considering, as well as the creation of several new programs. Issues have included: (1) Federal versus ~tate/local priorities in the use of funds; (2) use of formula grants or competitive grants to allocate funds; (3) services for eligible nonpublic school children; (4) relationship between Federal programs and State-level school reform activities; and (5) information about programs and participants for the Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9075/
Federally Supported Water Supply and Wastewater Treatment Programs
This report provides background information on the types of water supply and wastewater treatment projects traditionally funded by the federal government and the several existing programs to assist communities with water supply and wastewater recycling and treatment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795863/
Female Genital Mutilation as Persecution: When Can It Constitute a Basis for Asylum and Withholding of Removal?
This report first explores the basic statutory and regulatory framework that governs refugee law. This entails an outline of the requirements an applicant must meet in order to qualify as a refugee, a discussion about the differences between the two main forms of relief for aliens facing removal from the United States, asylum and withholding of removal, and an examination of several important issues and controversies concerning this particular area of refugee law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462561/
Female Genital Mutilation as Persecution: When Can It Constitute a Basis for Asylum and Withholding of Removal?
This report explores the basic statutory and regulatory framework that governs asylum law. This entails an outline of the requirements an applicant must meet in order to obtain relief under asylum law and a discussion about the differences between the two main forms of relief for aliens facing removal from the United States: asylum and withholding of removal. It will then examine several important issues and controversies concerning female genital mutilation (FGM) and its effect on asylum law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463197/
The Gender Wage Gap and Pay Equity: Is Comparable Worth the Next Step?
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The Gender Wage Gap and Pay Equity: Is Comparable Worth the Next Step?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5101/
The Gender Wage Gap and Pay Equity: Is Comparable Worth the Next Step?
This report examines the trend in the male-female wage gap and the explanations offered for its existence. Remedies proposed for the gender wage gap's amelioration are addressed, with an in-depth focus on the comparable worth approach to achieving "pay equity" or "fair pay" between women and men. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824687/
Immigration Provisions of the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA)
This report discusses the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA, P.L. 103-322) that congress passed in 1994. This legislation created new programs within the Departments of Justice and Health and Human Services that aimed to both reduce domestic violence and improve response to and recovery from domestic violence incidents. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85403/
Immigration Provisions of the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA)
This report describes how the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) provisions work in practice. It discusses improvements suggested by immigration attorneys and law enforcement observers to increase the utilization of VAWA provisions by abused foreign nationals as well as ways to reduce immigration fraud. The report closes with possible immigration-related issues that Congress may choose to consider should it reauthorize VAWA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86627/
International Violence Against Women: U.S. Response and Policy Issues
This report addresses causes, prevalence, and consequences of violence against women. It provides examples of U.S. activities that address violence against women (VAW) directly or include anti-VAW components. It also outlines possible policy considerations for the 110th Congress, including the scope and effectiveness of U.S. programs; further integrating anti-VAW programs into U.S. assistance and foreign policy mechanisms; and strengthening U.S. government coordination of anti-VAW activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462779/
International Violence Against Women: U.S. Response and Policy Issues
This report addresses causes, prevalence, and consequences of violence against women. It provides examples of completed and ongoing U.S. activities that address VAW directly or include anti-VAW components. It outlines possible policy issues for the 112th Congress, including the scope and effectiveness of U.S. programs in addressing international VAW; further integrating anti-VAW programs into U.S. assistance and foreign policy mechanisms; U.S. funding for anti-VAW activities worldwide, particularly in light of the global financial crisis, economic recession, and subsequent calls to reduce the U.S. budget deficit; and strengthening U.S. government coordination of anti-VAW activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40232/
International Violence Against Women: U.S. Response and Policy Issues
This report addresses causes, prevalence, and consequences of violence against women. It provides examples of completed and ongoing U.S. activities that address VAW directly or include anti-VAW components. It outlines possible policy considerations for the 111th Congress, including the scope and effectiveness of U.S. programs; further integrating anti-VAW programs into U.S. assistance and foreign policy mechanisms; and strengthening U.S. government coordination of anti-VAW activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689218/
International Violence Against Women: U.S. Response and Policy Issues
This report addresses causes, prevalence, and consequences of violence against women (VAW). It provides examples of U.S. activities that address VAW directly or include anti-VAW components. It also outlines possible policy considerations for the 111th Congress, including the scope and effectiveness of U.S. programs; further integrating anti-VAW programs into U.S. assistance and foreign policy mechanisms; and strengthening U.S. government coordination of anti-VAW activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743360/
International Violence Against Women: U.S. Response and Policy Issues
This report addresses causes, prevalence, and consequences of violence against women. It provides examples of U.S. activities that address VAW directly or include anti-VAW components. It outlines possible policy considerations for the 111th Congress, including the scope and effectiveness of U.S. programs; further integrating anti-VAW programs into U.S. assistance and foreign policy mechanisms; and strengthening U.S. government coordination of anti-VAW activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821399/
Judge Sonia Sotomayor: Analysis of Selected Opinions
This report provides an analysis of selected opinions authored by Judge Sotomayor during her tenure as a judge on the Second Circuit. Discussions of the selected opinions are grouped according to various topics of legal significance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700797/
Katrina Relief: U.S. Labor Department Exemption of Contractors from Written Affirmative Action Requirements
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Kuwait: Security, Reform, and U.S. Policy
Kuwaiti leaders peacefully resolved a succession crisis that erupted following the January 15, 2006 death of its long-ruling Amir. However, a new crisis erupted in May 2006 over the structure of the next parliamentary elections, prompting a dissolution of the existing parliament and scheduling of new elections for June 29, 2006. Women will be able to run and to vote. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10248/
The Male-Female Wage Gap: A Fact Sheet
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Membership of the 108th Congress: A Profile
This report presents a profile of the membership of the 108th Congress. Included is information on numbers of Members, party affiliation, average age and length of service, occupations, religious affiliation, military service, female and minority Members, and foreign-born Members. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821432/
Membership of the 113th Congress: A Profile
This report presents a profile of the membership of the 113th Congress (2013-2014). Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age, occupation, education, length of congressional service, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272039/
Membership of the 113th Congress: A Profile
This report presents a profile of the membership of the 113th Congress (2013-2014). Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age, occupation, education, length of congressional service, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332887/
Membership of the 113th Congress: A Profile
This report presents a profile of the membership of the 113th Congress (2013-2014). Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age, occupation, education, length of congressional service, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491368/
Membership of the 113th Congress: A Profile
This report presents a profile of the membership of the 113th Congress (2013-2014). Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age, occupation, education, length of congressional service, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462296/
Membership of the 113th Congress: A Profile
This report presents a profile of the membership of the 113th Congress (2013-2014). Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age, occupation, education, length of congressional service, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462158/
Membership of the 113th Congress: A Profile
This report presents a profile of the membership of the 113th Congress (2013-2014). Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age, occupation, education, length of congressional service, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463231/
Membership of the 113th Congress: A Profile
This report presents a profile of the membership of the 113th Congress (2013-2014). Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age, occupation, education, length of congressional service, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227848/
Military Sexual Assault: Chronology of Activity in Congress and Related Resources
Report that focuses on activity in Congress regarding recent high profile incidents of sexual assault in the military. Included are separate sections on the official responses related to these incidents by the Department of Defense (DOD), the Administration, and Congress including legislation in the 113th Congress. The last section is a resource guide for sources in this report and related materials on sexual assault and prevention. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227898/
The Millennium Development Goals: The September 2010 U.N. High-level Meeting
This report discusses overarching trends in Millennium Development Goals (MDG) progress and lessons learned from previous and ongoing efforts to achieve them. The MDGs are a group of measurable development targets agreed to by 189 U.N. member states - including the United States - as part of the 2000 Millennium Declaration. The MDGs cover a number of issues, such as eradicating extreme hunger and poverty, combating HIV/AIDS, and promoting gender equality and women's empowerment. This report examines U.S. policy toward the MDGs and how, if at all, the Goals fit into U.S. development and foreign assistance policy. It also examines different schools of thought regarding the effectiveness of the Goals, their role in international development, and their long-term sustainability. This report addresses the MDGs as a whole; it does not assess or analyze issues pertaining to the individual Goals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29607/
Minority Contracting and Affirmative Action for Disadvantaged Small Businesses: Legal Issues
This report discusses the minority participation “goals” that have been an integral part of federal policies to promote racial and gender equality in contracting on federally financed construction projects and in connection with other large federal contracts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10846/
A New United Nations Entity for Women: Issues for Congress
In September 2009, U.N. member states, including the United States, adopted a General Assembly resolution expressing strong support for the consolidation of four U.N. bodies addressing women's issues into one composite entity. This report discusses possible policy issues that may arise as the composite gender entity is established, including its funding mechanisms, the creation of an effective governance structure, the entity's possible impact on U.N. system in-country operational capacity, and the relationships and coordination between the entity and other U.N. system bodies. The report also discusses the entity in the context of broader U.N. reform efforts and examines the involvement of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Finally, it analyzes U.S. policy toward the new entity, including its possible role in U.S. foreign policy and the level and extent of U.S. financial contributions to existing U.N. system gender entities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501807/
Nonmarital Childbearing: Trends, Reasons, and Public Policy Interventions
This report analyzes the trends in nonmarital childbearing, discusses some of the characteristics of unwed mothers, addresses some issues involving the fathers of children born outside of marriage, covers many of the reasons for nonmarital childbearing, examines the impact of nonmarital births on families and on the nation, and presents the public policy interventions that have been used to prevent nonmarital births or ameliorate some of the negative financial consequences that are sometimes associated with nonmarital childbearing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26294/
Parental Leave: Legislation in the 100th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9195/
Pay Compatibility for Federal White-Collar Workers
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9192/
Pay Equity Legislation
This report gives an overview of "pay equity," a term referring to the fact that women as a group are paid less than men. It includes the history of pay equity, legal and legislative background, and recent legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87264/
Pay Equity Legislation
This report begins by showing the trend in the male-female wage gap and by examining the explanations that have been offered for its enduring presence. It next discusses the major laws directed at eliminating sex-based wage discrimination as well as relevant federal court cases. The report closes with a description of pay equity legislation that has been considered by Congress in recent years, including bills introduced in the 111th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29645/
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