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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
U.S. Assistance to Women in Afghanistan and Iraq: Challenges and Issues for Congress

U.S. Assistance to Women in Afghanistan and Iraq: Challenges and Issues for Congress

Date: January 5, 2006
Creator: Margesson, Rhoda & Kronenfeld, Daniel
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Assistance to Women in Afghanistan and Iraq: Challenges and Issues for Congress

U.S. Assistance to Women in Afghanistan and Iraq: Challenges and Issues for Congress

Date: January 5, 2006
Creator: Margesson, Rhoda & Kronenfeld, Daniel
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pay Equity Legislation

Pay Equity Legislation

Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: Collins, Benjamin & Feder, Jody
Description: This report gives an overview of "pay equity," a term referring to the fact that women as a group are paid less than men. It includes the history of pay equity, legal and legislative background, and recent legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pay Equity Legislation

Pay Equity Legislation

Date: September 20, 2010
Creator: Feder, Jody & Levine, Linda
Description: This report begins by showing the trend in the male-female wage gap and by examining the explanations that have been offered for its enduring presence. It next discusses the major laws directed at eliminating sex-based wage discrimination as well as relevant federal court cases. The report closes with a description of pay equity legislation that has been considered by Congress in recent years, including bills introduced in the 111th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Sex Discrimination and the United States Supreme Court: Developments in the Law

Sex Discrimination and the United States Supreme Court: Developments in the Law

Date: December 30, 2015
Creator: Feder, Jody
Description: This report focuses on sex discrimination challenges based on: the equal protection guarantees of the Fourteenth and Fifth Amendments; the prohibition against employment discrimination contained in Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; and the prohibition against sex discrimination in education contained in Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. Although this report focuses on recent legal developments in each of these areas, it also provides historical context by discussing selected landmark sex discrimination cases.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Violence Against Women Act: History and Federal Funding

Violence Against Women Act: History and Federal Funding

Date: August 7, 2008
Creator: Laney, Garrine P.
Description: This report provides a brief legislative history of Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) and an overview of the crimes addressed through VAWA. The report concludes with a brief description of the most recent reauthorization of VAWA.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Violence Against Women Act: History and Federal Funding

Violence Against Women Act: History and Federal Funding

Date: February 26, 2010
Creator: Laney, Garrine P.
Description: This report provides a brief legislative history of Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) and an overview of the crimes addressed through VAWA. The report concludes with a brief description of the most recent reauthorization of VAWA.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Kuwait: Security, Reform, and U.S. Policy

Kuwait: Security, Reform, and U.S. Policy

Date: May 24, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: Kuwaiti leaders peacefully resolved a succession crisis that erupted following the January 15, 2006 death of its long-ruling Amir. However, a new crisis erupted in May 2006 over the structure of the next parliamentary elections, prompting a dissolution of the existing parliament and scheduling of new elections for June 29, 2006. Women will be able to run and to vote.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Sexual Harassment and Violence Against Women: Developments in Federal Law

Sexual Harassment and Violence Against Women: Developments in Federal Law

Date: May 25, 2000
Creator: Dale, Charles V
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pay Equity - The Comparable Worth Issue: Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value; By What Standards and By What Means?

Pay Equity - The Comparable Worth Issue: Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value; By What Standards and By What Means?

Date: April 20, 1983
Creator: Ahmuty, Alice L
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Title IX, Sex Discrimination, and Intercollegiate Athletics: A Legal Overview

Title IX, Sex Discrimination, and Intercollegiate Athletics: A Legal Overview

Date: December 7, 2012
Creator: Feder, Jody
Description: This report provides an overview of Title IX in general and the intercollegiate athletics regulations in particular, as well as a summary of the commission’s report and ED’s response and a discussion of legal challenges to the regulations and to the three-part test.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Women in the United States Congress, 1917-2013: Biographical and Committee Assignment Information, and Listings by State and Congress

Women in the United States Congress, 1917-2013: Biographical and Committee Assignment Information, and Listings by State and Congress

Date: December 16, 2013
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E. & Brudnick, Ida A.
Description: This report includes biographical information, including the names, committee assignments, dates of service, listings by Congress and state, and (for Representatives) congressional districts of the 297 women who have served in Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Women in the United States Congress: Historical Overview, Tables, and Discussion

Women in the United States Congress: Historical Overview, Tables, and Discussion

Date: December 16, 2013
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E.; Shogan, Colleen J. & Brudnick, Ida A.
Description: This report includes a discussion of the impact of women in Congress as well as historical information, including the number and percentage of women in Congress over time, means of entry to Congress, comparisons to international and state legislatures, records for tenure, firsts for women in Congress, women in leadership, and African American and Asian Pacific American women in Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Women in the United States Congress: Historical Overview, Tables, and Discussion

Women in the United States Congress: Historical Overview, Tables, and Discussion

Date: February 18, 2014
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E.; Shogan, Colleen J. & Brudnick, Ida A.
Description: This report discusses the impact of women in Congress and historical information, such as the number and percentage of women in Congress over time, means of entry to Congress, comparisons to international and state legislatures, records for tenure, firsts for women in Congress, women in leadership, and African-American and Asian-Pacific American women in Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Female Genital Mutilation as Persecution: When Can It Constitute a Basis for Asylum and Withholding of Removal?

Female Genital Mutilation as Persecution: When Can It Constitute a Basis for Asylum and Withholding of Removal?

Date: July 22, 2008
Creator: Kim, Yule
Description: This report first explores the basic statutory and regulatory framework that governs refugee law. This entails an outline of the requirements an applicant must meet in order to qualify as a refugee, a discussion about the differences between the two main forms of relief for aliens facing removal from the United States, asylum and withholding of removal, and an examination of several important issues and controversies concerning this particular area of refugee law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Women in Congress: Historical Overview, Tables, and Discussion

Women in Congress: Historical Overview, Tables, and Discussion

Date: April 29, 2015
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E.; Brudnick, Ida A. & Shogan, Colleen J.
Description: This report discusses the impact of women in Congress and historical information, such as the number and percentage of women in Congress over time, means of entry to Congress, comparisons to international and state legislatures, records for tenure, firsts for women in Congress, women in leadership, and African-American and Asian-Pacific American women in Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Women in the United States Congress: Historical Overview, Tables, and Discussion

Women in the United States Congress: Historical Overview, Tables, and Discussion

Date: September 26, 2013
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E.; Shogan, Colleen J. & Brudnick, Ida A.
Description: This report includes a discussion of the impact of women in Congress as well as historical information, including the number and percentage of women in Congress over time, means of entry to Congress, comparisons to international and state legislatures, records for tenure, firsts for women in Congress, women in leadership, and African American and Asian Pacific American women in Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Women in the United States Congress, 1917-2013: Biographical and Committee Assignment Information, and Listings by State and Congress

Women in the United States Congress, 1917-2013: Biographical and Committee Assignment Information, and Listings by State and Congress

Date: September 26, 2013
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E. & Brudnick, Ida A.
Description: This report includes biographical information, including the names, committee assignments, dates of service, listings by Congress and state, and (for Representatives) congressional districts of the 297 women who have served in Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Affirmative Action Revisited: A Legal History and Prospectus

Affirmative Action Revisited: A Legal History and Prospectus

Date: January 30, 2004
Creator: Dale, Charles V.
Description: Affirmative action remains a focal point of public debate as the result of legal and political developments at the federal, state, and local levels. This report discusses legislation related to affirmative action, as well as legal rulings on the topic and the federal government's role in first establishing and, later, attempting to curb affirmative action policies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Affirmative Action Revisited: A Legal History and Prospectus

Affirmative Action Revisited: A Legal History and Prospectus

Date: December 15, 2004
Creator: Dale, Charles V.
Description: Affirmative action remains a focal point of public debate as the result of legal and political developments at the federal, state, and local levels. This report discusses legislation related to affirmative action, as well as legal rulings on the topic and the federal government's role in first establishing and, later, attempting to curb affirmative action policies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Rothe Development Corporation v. Department of Defense: The Constitutionality of Federal Contracting Programs for Minority-Owned and Other Small Businesses

Rothe Development Corporation v. Department of Defense: The Constitutionality of Federal Contracting Programs for Minority-Owned and Other Small Businesses

Date: March 16, 2009
Creator: Feder, Jody & Manuel, Kate M.
Description: This report discusses Rothe Development Corporation v. Department of Defense, a case involving a constitutional challenge to a minority contracting program authorized under Section 1207 of the Department of Defense (DOD) Authorization Act of 1987. This program allowed DOD to take 10% off the price of bids or offers submitted by "small disadvantaged businesses" in determining which bid or offer had the lowest price or represented the best value for the government.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Reducing Teen Pregnancy: Adolescent Family Life and Abstinence Education Programs

Reducing Teen Pregnancy: Adolescent Family Life and Abstinence Education Programs

Date: October 4, 2004
Creator: Solomon-Fears, Carmen
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Judge Sonia Sotomayor: Analysis of Selected Opinions

Judge Sonia Sotomayor: Analysis of Selected Opinions

Date: June 19, 2009
Creator: Henning, Anna C. & Thomas, Kenneth R.
Description: This report provides an analysis of selected opinions authored by Judge Sotomayor during her tenure as a judge on the Second Circuit. Discussions of the selected opinions are grouped according to various topics of legal significance.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Women in Combat: Issues for Congress

Women in Combat: Issues for Congress

Date: September 1, 2015
Creator: Kamarck, Kristy N.
Description: This report looks at the history of women in US military roles and combat since the 1990s. It also discusses critic's views of exclusionary policy as a civil rights issue. Over the past two decades of conflict, women have served with valor and continue to serve on combat aircraft, naval vessels, and in support of ground combat operations. The expansion of roles for women in the armed forces has evolved since the early days of the military when women were restricted by law and policy from serving in certain occupations and units.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department