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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Medicaid Issues for the 109th Congress
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How Medicaid Works - Program Basics
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A Concise History of the Food Stamp Program
The Food Stamp Program has undergone a number of major changes since its modern version was established in 1961. It is now one of the largest "welfare" programs and provides an income supplement to the food-purchasing power of more than 18 million persons each month, at a cost of nearly $7 billion annually. This report traces the history of the program from 1961 through 1979, with an emphasis on how program rules, philosophy, participation, and costs have changed over the years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8143/
A Concise History of the Food Stamp Program
The Food Stamp Program has undergone a number of major changes since its modern version was established in 1961. It is now one of the largest "welfare" programs and provides an income supplement to the food-purchasing power of more than 18 million persons each month, at a cost of nearly $7 billion annually. This report traces the history of the program from 1961 through 1979, with an emphasis on how program rules, philosophy, participation, and costs have changed over the years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8857/
Medicaid: A Fact Sheet
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Alien Eligibility for Public Assistance
This report discusses the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, which affected alien eligibility for federal, state, and local government assistance programs, both imposing and broadening restrictions on a number of immigration benefits and programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs460/
Alien Eligibility for Public Assistance
This report discusses the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, which affected alien eligibility for federal, state, and local government assistance programs, both imposing and broadening restrictions on a number of immigration benefits and programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs716/
The Homeless Management Information System
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How Medicaid Works: Program Basics
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Medicaid: 105th Congress
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Progress Against Poverty (1959-1983): The Recent Poverty Debate
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Child Welfare: Profiles of Current and Former Older Foster Youth Based on the National Youth in Transition Database (NYTD)
This report provides summary and detailed data about current and former foster youth, as reported by states to U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) via the National Youth in Transition Database (NYTD). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462970/
Charitable Choice, Faith-Based Initiatives, and TANF
This report is one in the series of reports that discusses the Charitable Choice Act of 2001 (Title II of the House bill) and its rules, as well as the charitable choice laws, and other areas of this program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10198/
Child Welfare and TANF Implementation: Recent Findings
This report examines recent research findings about Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) implementation as it has affected the nation’s child welfare system. The nation’s program of cash aid for needy families with children (TANF) and its program to protect and care for children who are abused or neglected (child welfare services) are linked by history and share some of the same clients who have similar service needs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8181/
Child Welfare Financing: An Issue Overview
The purpose of this report is to describe the federal interest in child welfare (as expressed by Congress); describe the current level and structure of federal dedicated child welfare financing and examine trends in the appropriation and spending of this money; and to review the extent to which states rely on non-dedicated federal funds for child welfare purposes. Finally, the report discusses the future federal commitment to child welfare financing, along with the concepts of flexibility and accountability, as these relate both to current law and to recent proposals to alter federal child welfare financing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7687/
Child Welfare: Foster Care and Adoption Assistance Provisions in the Budget Reconciliation Bills
This report provides background information on provisions relevant to federal funding for child welfare purposes and other child welfare related provisions included in S. 1932 and H.R. 4241, and will be updated as necessary. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7935/
The Work Opportunity Tax Credit (WOTC) and the Welfare-to-Work (WtW) Tax Credit
The Work Opportunity Tax Credit and Welfare-to-Work Tax Credit are temporary provisions of the Internal Revenue Code. Since their initiation in the mid-1990s, the Congress has allowed the credits to lapse four of the five times they were up for reauthorization. In each instance, they were reinstated retroactive to their expiration dates as part of large tax-related measures. The employment tax credits never have been addressed independently of broader legislation. This report describes the WOTC and WtW Tax Credit and outlines issues for members of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7417/
Child Welfare: State Performance on Child and Family Services Reviews
This report begins with a short history of the legislation and other factors that led to the creation of the current CFSR and then briefly describes how a CFSR is conducted and what “substantial conformity” with federal child welfare policy means in the context of this review. Much has been made of the fact that no state was found to be in substantial conformity with all aspects of federal policy reviewed during the initial (FY2001-FY2004) round of the CFSRs. This report seeks to better understand that fact by looking closely at state performance on each of the performance indicators that determined compliance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7688/
Charitable Choice, Faith-Based Initiatives, and TANF
This report is one in the series of reports that discusses the Charitable Choice Act of 2001 (Title II of the House bill) and its rules, as well as the charitable choice laws, and other areas of this program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9645/
Food Stamp Benefits for Legal Immigrants in P.L. 105-185
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Charitable Choice, Faith-Based Initiatives, and TANF
This report is one in the series of reports that discusses the Charitable Choice Act of 2001 (Title II of the House bill) and its rules, as well as the charitable choice laws, and other areas of this program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3450/
Charitable Choice, Faith-Based Initiatives, and TANF
The Senate Finance Committee version of H.R. 7, approved on July 16, 2002, does not contain the “charitable choice” title of the House-passed H.R. 7; nor does it include a compromise “faith-based” provision (from S. 1924 as introduced) that sought to assure equal treatment for nongovernmental providers of almost all federally-funded social services. Remaining in the Senate Finance bill are tax incentives to promote private giving. The Charitable Choice Act of 2001 (Title II of the House bill) would apply its rules, which are significantly different from those in four existing charitable choice laws, to nine new program areas. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3451/
Charitable Choice, Faith-Based Initiatives, and TANF
This report is one in the series of reports that discusses the Charitable Choice Act of 2001 (Title II of the House bill) and its rules, as well as the charitable choice laws, and other areas of this program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3452/
Charitable Choice, Faith-Based Initiatives, and TANF
The 107th Congress did not pass tax incentives for private giving or legislation intended to assure equal treatment of religious organizations as providers of social services (provisions in S. 1924, the original CARE bill). The House voted to extend charitable choice rules to numerous new programs (H.R. 7), as the President urged, but the Senate refused. However, in an Executive Order, President Bush on December 12, 2002, directed six cabinet-level departments and the Agency for International Development (AID) to bring policies concerning social service programs into line with charitable choice principles set forth in the Order. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5456/
Charitable Choice, Faith-Based Initiatives, and TANF
The 108th Congress has resumed efforts to pass tax incentives for private giving (S. 476, passed by the Senate on April 9, and H.R. 7, introduced May 7, 2003). However, these bills do not contain provisions intended to promote religious organizations as providers of federally funded social services – charitable choice provisions.. The House voted in 2001 to extend charitable choice rules, which now apply to a limited set of programs, to numerous new programs (H.R. 7 in the 107th Congress), as the President urged, but the Senate refused. However, in an Executive Order, President Bush on December 12, 2002, directed six cabinet-level departments and the Agency for International Development (AID) to bring policies concerning social service programs into line with charitable choice principles set forth in the Order. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5457/
Charitable Choice, Faith-Based Initiatives, and TANF
The 108th Congress has resumed efforts to pass tax incentives for private giving (S. 476, passed by the Senate on April 9, and H.R. 7, introduced May 7, 2003). However, these bills do not contain provisions intended to promote religious organizations as providers of federally funded social services – charitable choice provisions.. The House voted in 2001 to extend charitable choice rules, which now apply to a limited set of programs, to numerous new programs (H.R. 7 in the 107th Congress), as the President urged, but the Senate refused. However, in an Executive Order, President Bush on December 12, 2002, directed six cabinet-level departments and the Agency for International Development (AID) to bring policies concerning social service programs into line with charitable choice principles set forth in the Order. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5458/
The Work Opportunity Tax Credit and the 105th Congress
The Work Opportunity Tax Credit (WOTC) was initiated in the Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-188). It is a temporary measure intended to encourage for-profit employers to hire members of specifically designated groups thought to experience recurring problems in the labor market. This document describes the WOTC and identifies issues for members of the 105th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs734/
The New Welfare Law: Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
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Welfare Reform: TANF Trends and Data
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Welfare Reform: TANF Trends and Data
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Welfare Reform: TANF Trends and Data
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Welfare Law and Domestic Violence
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Welfare Law and Domestic Violence
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Welfare Law and Domestic Violence
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TANF Sanctions - Brief Summary
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State Policies on Immigrant Eligibility for Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)
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Spectrum Policy: Provisions in the 2012 Spectrum Act
This report discusses the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012. The act established a process for television broadcasters to release spectrum licensed to them for auction as commercial licenses. The act also included provisions to apply future spectrum license auction revenues toward deficit reduction; to establish a planning and governance structure to deploy public safety broadband networks, using some auction proceeds for that purpose; and to assign additional spectrum resources for public safety communications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272057/
Spectrum Policy: Provisions in the 2012 Spectrum Act
This report discusses the Spectrum Act, a provision of the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012. It includes an overview of the Spectrum Act, the specific policy revisions (deficit reduction, directed auctions, incentive auctions, federal spectrum use and reallocation, and unlicensed spectrum) and a conclusion discussing geographic coverage of spectrum licenses, spectrum caps, and planning for future needs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306554/
Welfare, Work, and Poverty Status of Female- Headed Families with Children: 1987-2013
The report focuses on welfare dependency and work engagement among single mothers, a major dynamic that welfare reform and accompanying policy changes have attempted to affect. It also examines the role of programs other than Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in providing support to single female-headed families with children. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491193/
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP): A Primer on Eligibility and Benefits
This report focuses on Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) eligibility and the form and function of benefits. SNAP, formerly called the Food Stamp Program, is designed primarily to increase the food purchasing power of eligible low-income households to help them buy a nutritionally adequate low-cost diet. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491506/
Spectrum Policy: Provisions in the 2012 Spectrum Act
This report discusses the Spectrum Act, a provision of the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012. It includes an overview of the Spectrum Act, the specific policy revisions (deficit reduction, directed auctions, incentive auctions, federal spectrum use and reallocation, and unlicensed spectrum) and a conclusion discussing geographic coverage of spectrum licenses, spectrum caps, and planning for future needs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463470/
Spectrum Policy: Provisions in the 2012 Spectrum Act
This report discusses the Spectrum Act, a provision of the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012. It includes an overview of the Spectrum Act, the specific policy revisions (deficit reduction, directed auctions, incentive auctions, federal spectrum use and reallocation, and unlicensed spectrum) and a conclusion discussing geographic coverage of spectrum licenses, spectrum caps, and planning for future needs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463324/
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP): A Primer on Eligibility and Benefits
This report focuses on Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) eligibility and the form and function of benefits. SNAP, formerly called the Food Stamp Program, is designed primarily to increase the food purchasing power of eligible low-income households to help them buy a nutritionally adequate low-cost diet. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501950/
Spectrum Policy: Provisions in the 2012 Spectrum Act
This report discusses the Spectrum Act, a provision of the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012. It includes an overview of the Spectrum Act, the specific policy revisions (deficit reduction, directed auctions, incentive auctions, federal spectrum use and reallocation, and unlicensed spectrum) and a conclusion discussing geographic coverage of spectrum licenses, spectrum caps, and planning for future needs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501507/
Child Support Enforcement
During the first session of the 98th Congress, the House passed H.R. 4325, 422-0. This measure requires States to adopt several methods of enforcing overdue child support obligations, including mandatory wage withholding; requires States to permit establishment of paternity until a child's 18th birthday; alters the incentive payment formula for child support collections; and extends the formula to collections made on behalf of non-AFDC children. The report includes background and policy analysis. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8713/
The Child Support Enforcement Program
This report provides summary information on the child support enforcement program, established under title IV-D of the Social Security Act. It includes basic program statistics and a description of the administrative structure and major characteristics of the program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8411/
The Child Support Enforcement Program: A Fact Sheet
This report discusses the Child Support Enforcement (CSE) program, Part D of Title IV of the Social Security Act, was enacted in January 1975 (P.L. 93-647). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs679/
Child Support Enforcement: Program Basics
In FY2004, the CSE program collected $21.9 billion in child support payments and served 15.9 million child support cases. However, the program still collects only 18% of child support obligations for which it has responsibility and collects payments for only 51% of its caseload. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8485/
Child Welfare Issues in the 108th Congress
The purpose of this report is to present a number of generally less broad legislative proposals related to child welfare financing have been introduced in the 108th Congress. Additional child welfare-related proposals designed to improve services, promote timely placement of children across state lines, and for other purposes, are described in this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5750/
Child Welfare Issues in the 108th Congress
The purpose of this report is to present a number of generally less broad legislative proposals related to child welfare financing have been introduced in the 108th Congress. Additional child welfare-related proposals designed to improve services, promote timely placement of children across state lines, and for other purposes, are described in this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3905/